Posted at 11.15.2018
The Latin name " Britannia" was found around 320 BC in the travel diaries of the ancient greek language Pytheas, and was used to make reference to the name of some numerous islands in the North Atlantic, while the inhabitants of those places were called "Priteni or Pretani". The adjustment of the name came around with the reign of Julius Cesar and by 1st century BC, Britannia was being used to refer to THE UK specifically. However the name that this nation supports today, has its roots in the Serves of Union 1707 signed on 1 May 1707 under the reign of Queen Anne. For the reason that time occurred the politics union between the kingdoms of England and Scotland, and down the road between 1801 and 1921 the complete Ireland was added. And the nation received the subject of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland.
Furthermore, there might not seem to be to be much that links France with Britishness. After all, France is a state in the Western European countries, while UK is an island situated to the northwest of the Continental European countries. Indeed, but if we add a surprise element, like the battle between UK and France, the sense of Britishness becomes stronger and dominant in the attention of the opponent. In contrast in an interviw with Matthew Reisz about her paper entitled "Britishness", the key United kingdom historian Linda Colley argues that Britain is "an invented land, heavily dependent because of its raison d'etre on the brutally Protestant culture, on the threat and tonic of repeated war, particularly battle with France, and on the triumphs, earnings and Oherness represented by a massive overseas empire, Britain is bound now to be under immense pressure. . . The Other in the condition of militant Catholicism, or a hostile European ability, or an exotic international empire is no longer open to make Britons feel that - in comparison - they have an identity in common". ( Reisz)
1. Debates on Britishness and Country wide Identity
1. 1 The implications of National Identity
A. Brah's favorite definitions of id were written by Erikson in 1968 and Berger and Luckman in 1971: for Erikson, the process of identity creation is for the most part unconscious except where interior conditions and exterior circumstances combine to aggravate an agonizing or elated' identity-consciousness'. He insists that identity is never 'founded' as an 'accomplishment' in the sense of an personality armour, or of anything static and unchangeable (20).
These themes or templates are echoed in the formulations of Berger and Luckman. The key premise underlying their thesis is the fact reality is socially made. They argue that, during the course of everyday life, a person is conscious of the planet as consisting of 'multiple realities', but among them 'there is the one that presents itself as the reality par excellence. This is the reality of each day life' (20).
This approaches claim that the national id can be experienced different with respect to the social characteristics that every individual has. Unquestionably, one has a past, which means that he/she comes with an ethnic personal information, but is also surviving in today's, concluding that his/her national identity is put to a test by the causes of modernity, relating to Anthony D. Smith.
Fallowing the studies of the same publisher, the national personal information is divided in: civic, discussing residence, shared politics prices, common civic corporations and language, as the other division, called ethnic handles ancestry, national customs and traditions. The result of this division is that the sense of nationwide quality of an individual is related with the wealth of the modern culture, inducing the idea of "regime of truth", concept used by Michel Foucault. And Foucault further explains " Each culture has its regime of truth, 'its basic politics' of truth- that is the types of discourse which it allows and makes work as true " (Higgins, Smith and Storey 20).
In his resignation conversation Tony Blair announced that Britain is a society that prospers: "I have already been very lucky and incredibly blessed. This country is a blessed land. The English are special. The planet knows it. In our innermost thoughts, we know it. This is actually the greatest nation on the planet". But today the "regime of truth" of the nation is based on the sight of the Scottish, the English or Welsh, who have this separate identification and declare that the English id comes second.
1. 2 A Phenomenal called Britishness
" In 'A Union of Multiple Identities: The English Isles c. 1750-c. 1850', Lawrence Brockliss et al. argued that Britishness was a perceptive and 'composite' national personality that reached a spot of development after 1800 and which made limited requirements upon its content"
As I said in the first paragraph of the newspaper and adding the testimony of Linda Colley I can declare that Britishness was first of all an historical phenomenal. But as a social, social, politics phenomenal this national identification has eight guidelines: geography, nationwide symbols, people, principles and attitudes, cultural habits and action, citizenship, terminology and accomplishments.
1. 2. 1 Geography
Britain is an island nation, having only 1 land boundary and four normal water boders: the Atlantic Sea, the North Sea, the English Channel, and the Irish Sea. Being cut off from all of those other continent by the British Channel, this unitary state developed different ideas, wits now plays a respected role on earth. . And we find another component, the topography. This component is divers and unique: rugged coastline, moors (Scottish moor lands), mountains (Cambrian Mountains, Mourne Mountains, Pennine Range, Support Snowdon), lakes (Loch Lomond, Lough Neagh), bays, hillsides (Cheviot Hills) and waterways (The Severn and Thames, while Tay, Clyde, and Forth are river valleys).
1. 2. 2 National symbols
" British instances might include Trooping the Colours, Changing the Guards, the Grand Country wide, the FA Cup Final, certain streams and mountains, particular monuments, the Union Jack, the BBC, the home of Parliament, seafood and cheaps, the Highland Game titles, the Notting Hill Happening, the Edinburgh Happening, the Eisteddfod, consuming warm beer. These are just some of the countless rituals and symbols that seems to articulate Britishness" (Higgins, Smith and Storey 21).
1. 2. 3 People
"Folks are products with their biology and environment ( Natura and Nurture)" (Storry and Childs 29). The writers explain this issue of pride, to be different, for example the fact that a person is moving into a certain region. For instance Lancashire and Yorkshire have a known rivality, even though the red rose symbolises the end of this warfare and is now the national rose of England. Furthermore the people from the country part do not feel they may have much in common with the monetary heart of the country, as the Londoners think as themself as traditional Englishmen. But let's not forget that Britain is a multinational region. The Sept 11 terrorist attack and the 7/7 in London, are situations that put a dark vale on the minorities and people have a brutal response towards emigrants, because some are of Islam religious beliefs and in the understanding of several Britons this links them with the tragic occasions.
1. 2. 4 Worth and attitudes
1. Positive values and attitudes
In general, it could be said that the best values and attitudes of any person are involved along with his success in the modern world, in which the individual can be an important component. This affirmation can be possible based on his previous knowledge of the world with the help of culture. The folks of Britain have a significant culture, that with the advantages of democracy, principles like liberty, the understanding of law, and also fairness, tolerance were delivered. This group of values also brought a sense of difference, in comparison to the European group of worth. The Britons frame of mind of being reserved and polite in a way that it does not affect other's feelings, has both sides. Is positive and illustrates the courteous and knowledgeable side of any British and the other is negative which is more developed in the sub-part of the section heading.
Another group of values are take great pride in and work ethic. There is something ever sold which makes the white British proud, and they're entitled to do this. Every nation gets the right to be proud of their ancestors and their successes. The second value is approximately the word "hard-working" that is identified by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development in britain, as they announced on their standard site on August 2010 that the " full-time personnel average around 37. 0 hours per week, part-time staff average around 15. 5 time per week and just over the fifth of people in employment work more than 45 hours weekly". But today Brits do not work the longest hours in Europe, however the Czech. They do not even come in the most notable three; Britain is used by Greece and Bulgaria. So inside our modern times, this idea of "hard-working" can be considered a legend; and today seems a misconception.
But I end this section with some important worth and attitudes like community spirit, shared help, stoicism and compassion. Ideals that are planted solidly in today's society.
2. Negative values and attitudes
The negative side of reservation is identified by other people that are not in direct contact with the British culture, like other Europeans. But as a shock, an unacceptable frame of mind about this subject originates from the Scottish and Welsh, and also from the immigrants. They see this reservation just like a mask, that helps the real identification to be disguise, and the true thoughts to be buried. Discussing more about this negative values, delight is another key element. This prices is negative, because it becomes another issue in the life span of the Scottish, Welsh and immigrants.
The last negative viewpoint, is not about the groups mentioned previously, but was percepted by the entire world. Probably because they're huge followers of sports and they spread more outside their borders beliefs like drunkenness, hooliganism and yobbishness. The soccer hooliganism goes back in 1880s, the drunkenness issue is established by the BBC : "Drunkenness in the UK is the best among 24 OECD countries, measured in conditions of the proportion of 13 and 15-year-olds having been drunk at least twice. "( UK teenage females 'most detrimental drunks'), and all these behaviour are called a yobbish behaviour.
1. 2. 5 Ethnic behaviors and behaviour
The perspective provided here, however, is quite different. It has not fluctuations, but only a progressive position of the English identity. When the United kingdom stand in queues (as they are doing at least since 1837) is an indicator of civilization. Sports activities like soccer, cricket and rugby are symbols of the Brits and their traditional food and drink is a ritual for the users of this nation.
1. 2. 6 Citizenship
Nick Stevenson explains citizenship being area of the public system, more precisly "it participate in the a specifically differentiated sub-system of culture ( the administrative-political sub-system) " (35). And another sociable article writer Paul Whiteley identifies it as "a place of
norms, beliefs and routines which bind modern culture alongside one another, makes democratic government
possible and helps individuals to resolve collective action problems" (Cruse). But citizenship isn't only about a social role, but also can be identified in terms of legislation. The British
Nationality Act 1981 introduced the UK citizen, meaning that a child that exists in the UK would be awarded British citizenship and passport if either its mom or its dad are British resident or are settled in the united kingdom.
1. 2. 7 Language
When you are a UK resident, it is apparent that you speak British. It does not matter if you are Scottish, Welsh, as long you have a British passport. Even immigrants can take one with time, but the essential thing for the kids is to learn the language. Therefore the second part of common beside a passport is the words. From the physical perspective they may be regions where they use different accents, but it doesn't matter so long as this element gets the sense of Britishness and makes the puzzle complete.
1. 2. 8 Achievements
Britishness is area of the past and present. There is a nucleus of totally achieved politics and historical accomplishments, where Britishness is balanced and which ultimately shows a strong land. The technological achievements like Fleming and penicillin, Bell and the telephone, Dypson and the new vacuum, are the best means of preserving a ethnical and social history. In this value, sport is a source of innovativity that was been exported in other Europe. Another successful export was the British music, that positioned high in the charts and made the Mother Country proud. Bands just like the Beatles, singers like Robbie Williams now celebrities given birth to within the "X factor" tv-show, are symbols of Britishness and make the "cool Britannia".
2. The Decrease of Britishness is accessible?
The levels of British personal information and the actual fact that the structure of the empire is made out of separated nation-states which have their own culture, helps it be harder for the idea of Britishness to be around.
2. 1 The causes
The multicultural Britain made possible the rising number of ethnic minorities and then for the Britons to refuse the bounding with the minorities. Inside our modern times, we can find out about the cultural distinctions and the features of the non-existent shared values. This bout of immigration continues to be a issue of today for the residents of the United Kingdom, adding some hard words for the immigrants and their culture, words like " islamophobia". This fight is taken at higher periods, like the immigrants are accused of unfair boasts on the welfare condition. In many information reports, we can see that people don't have the same rights and the same chances to live a life a normal life, and their real human demands are regarded as a violation of the Britons privileges. Because institution try to make a possible integration of the ethnic minorities, the individuals strike was called "political correctness". They still think that because establishments don't take into account their perception, there's a lack of freedom of speech. However the biggest intrusion toward Britishness, was the implication of European countries in the English politics. Their privileges aren't negociable in the Western european court and the arrival of asylum seekers in the UK proposed by European countries, was a reverse.
2. 2 The consequences
The complications of establishing effective shared communication and harmony between white Britons and ethnic minorities was already being recognized as a drop of Britishness. The establishments try to solve the problems, develop a deeper gap in this matter. The victimization was not only among British isles Muslim, but as a boomerang had become problems for the white Britons. The delight elements of this modern culture was the tolerance of other cultural minorities that are seen as "Ok" or "like us", in contrast with the United kingdom Muslim, that will be the "others". This impact on the UK is named "social unrest" and it is a serious problem, that emerges aggravation and anger towards cultural minorities organizations.
3. Britishness in the future
In the question of House of Lords on 19th June 2006, the near future point of view of the historian, Linda Colley was took in bank account, regarding the common styles that can make Britishness available in the future :
There has to be a way of linking former, present and future. And one of the ways
we could do this is surely with a record. We don't actually want a
codification of United kingdom values, but there is a case for a new bill of privileges, or a charge of
rights and tasks, which would include beliefs. One of the things we
need to do too is enhance the record curriculum in schools. It is right that
Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland should have their distinctive
histories educated. But there could be common record lessons too, which would
recognize all types of diversity but which would also hammer out something of a
common story. This would be partly an technology; all histories are. But it might be
a useful invention. (Cruse).
In the same article Gordon Brown feels a new United kingdom patriotism should allow people to have shared beliefs: "a common view of challenges and what needs to be achieved forge a unified and distributed sense of purpose about the long-term sacrifices they are prepared to make and the priorities they think very important to national success" (Cruse). He argues that new Britishness should be shaped of "a abundant agenda for change" with "a fresh constitutional arrangement, an explicit explanation of citizenship, a renewal of civic society, a rebuilding of our own local government and an improved balance between diversity and integration" (Cruse).
Nonetheless, the financial crisis attacked also Britain, and althought it includes some strong industries like pharmaceuticals, aerospace, security, autos, high technology, research and design, pointed out by David Cameron, the prime-minister in his first cost-effective speech, it needs at least 10 years to renaissance over. Which means this is only the start of a fresh delicated process of reinforcing the country and the society, that will always devote some time.
4. Concluding statement
One major bottom line that can be drawn out of this paper is the old behaviour towards Britishness has not yet provoked a seismic influx in the new mentality of some people and Britain has to make sacrifices and introduce new terminology of citizenship and civic world in the educational system. However the multicultural Britain has created new varieties for the manifestation of some sub-state identities, it has not helped Britishness being successful over civic loyalties and administration. In some cases about minorities the 'so this means of citizenship will be lost under the laws and regulations of the united states that the average person originates from '(Cruse). A report "TEENAGERS and English" 'found that between teenagers, Britishness "didn't feature on the set of attributes which helps define personal individuality" and was seen "as an unchanging static feature" '(Cruse). Furthermore, present debates about the future of Britishness highlight doubt on all factors in regards to what constitutes this idea and how it'll be preserved in the foreseeable future by the generation of "cool Britannia". Or it'll be only about the drop of Britishness?