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Brand association Brand uniqueness and Brand experience


Business environment has developed fast and fundamental amendments. Globalization has made the competition fierce and extends it beyond the country edges, socio-demographic data and therefore consumers behaviours also have changed. Person are well linked to each others sharing their feeling, experience among through digital mass media and hence having strong influences on each other behaviours. Add to this the fact that the world is converging into one global market, where brands from across the world compete for the hearts of consumers, and it is no wonder that new literature on branding keep showing up on the shelves of bookstores - all saying to solve today's branding problems.

Organizations because of this undifferentiated and saturated market are pressure to think diversely in marketing the merchandise and turned them into brands or big brands. The target before was on the original 4P marketing where marketers promote products' tangible benefits, and the target now is at promoting something that touches consumers' inner emotions. Emotional branding is a reasonably new model of brand building. The strategic objective of psychological branding is to forge strong and meaningful affective bonds with consumers and through these bonds become part of their life stories, and thoughts and an important link in their internet sites.

The idea of emotional branding is at a increase and playing a essential role in product differentiation and ensuring connection of brand with the heart and soul of the consumers and customers. Business environment is getting challenging and having a deep understanding of the concept of branding from mental perspective would help organizations and marketers to effectively make use of the concept to get competitive and sustainable advantages over their rivals and hence can hold their customers for long-term generation to technology. This research work would help researcher to get into the understanding of choice credited to thorough knowledge in competitive market place because psychological branding is now a far more popular branding strategy, it is therefore important to comprehend how to drive consumers to act in a manner that is mutually good for both themselves and the businesses promoting the brand.


During last decades, business environment is rolling out fast and important amendments. Globalization has made your competition fierce and stretches it beyond the united states edges, socio-demographic data and hence consumers' behaviours have also changed. Individual are well linked to each others writing their feeling, activities amongst through digital mass media and therefore having strong affects on one another behaviours. The mergence of the internet as a place of building neighborhoods, writing information and conducting business has shaped the way we live our lives and the way we connect to brands - and effortlessly how brands should be built. Increase this the fact that the world is converging into one global market place, where brands from all over the world compete for the hearts of consumers, which is no marvel that new books on branding keep showing up on the cabinets of bookstores - all claiming to resolve today's branding problems.

The technology in industries derive from incremental improvement alternatively than radical changes and hence brought the merchandise series at the verge that it has become difficult for consumers and customers to differentiate them based on rationale or functional attributes. Therefore leads to the bigger demand of product types. Organizations because of this undifferentiated and saturated market are pressure to think in another way in marketing the product and modified them into brands or big brands. The concentrate before was on the traditional 4P marketing where marketers promote products' tangible benefits, and the concentrate now could be at promoting a product that touches consumers' inner feelings. The consumer-brand relationship evolved from real monetary transfer to emotional exchange. The value of something isn't just determined by its objective value, but also by the way consumers perceive the product (Dolan and Gourville, 2006).

Branding is an essential element in today's highly competitive business environment in virtually any given industry for company it's very important to purchase building strong brands alternatively than marketing products. Products is whatever can be wanted to market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might meet a need or want (Keller 1998). Branding helps organizations' to differentiate one product from another in a manner that is relevant to the buyer (Farquah 1994).

Branding is still a subject of major interest for academics and companies likewise. For companies, building a strong brand could possibly be the way to obtain major competitive edge in the current market situation, but also something to leverage when the business expands to new market segments. For academics, branding offers a subject that is constantly in motion - specially when it is rooted in the ever-changing consumer marketplace (Keller & Lehmann 2005). Emotional branding and rationale (functional) branding are important aspects in branding, when an organization builds a brand, firm considers about emotional branding and efficient branding, from the brand manager's excellent job to choose which branding approach should be given main concern for detergent products after the recession time.

Emotional branding is a fairly new model of brand building. The strategic objective of psychological branding is to forge strong and important affective bonds with consumers and through these bonds become part of the life reviews, and thoughts and an "important hyperlink in their social networks" (Atkin 2004 via Thompson et al. 2006). Emotional branding urges brand professionals to create psychological ties with the consumers, offering the brand as a desirable relationship partner for the consumer, and discover or even create new touch items and design features to convey this emotiveness, especially through the senses (Gobe, 2001 & Lindstrom 2005). To Roberts (2004) mental branding is a consumer centric, relational and story-driven method of forging profound and enduring affective bonds between consumers and brands. Thompson et al. (2006) point out that this storytelling aspect is the main element concentrate for brand strategists in mental branding. Morrison & Crane (2007) define mental branding as "engaging consumers on the level of senses and emotions and forging a profound, lasting, intimate mental link with the brand that transcends materials satisfaction. "


preliminary books review is thought as collection of available documents (both published and unpublished) which contain information, idea, data, and facts from a particular stand indicate fulfil certain seeks or point out views on the type of topic and exactly how it is looked into by other writers or theorist (Hart C, 1998).

Given a great deal of literature has been written on branding, some institutions of thought have began to emerge as well. Brand researcher Douglas Holt argues in his publication "How Brands Become Icons" (2004) that we now have four dominating branding models that account for nearly all the existing branding strategies or disciplines: mind-share branding, psychological branding, viral branding and social branding (Holt, 2004). Mind-share remains the most prominent of the models, still trained in business institutions worldwide and employed by nearly all companies around the world (Holt, 2004). However the other three models have also managed to gain a following and have had their share of success stories as well.

Given that these different branding models all try to solve problems in a software industry which faces continuous changes, it is interesting to evaluate how they vary in their key concepts and why is these models what they are. For example, the idea of "consumer" may not be even remotely similar in viral and mind-share branding. Mental branding and social branding may not see eye-to-eye on just what a brand is and exactly how it should be managed.

Holt (2004) also declares that lots of companies turn to incorporate cross branding strategies depending on product category the brand is in. Especially in situations like these, it is paramount that professionals really know what kind of restrictions and similarities the several branding strategies might offer in relation to one another. Also, this type of analysis shouldn't be just conducted as an over-all comparison. Rather the models should be analyzed in more depth, dissecting how they change in places where these are discussing the same things - using the same conditions.

A brand is a symbol, logo, name that symbolizes the consumer's experience with group, product or services. That evokes thoughts of owed, love and passion of customers (CIM UK), when making strong brands its essential consider the brand characteristics which consist of two major types of traits which can be:

Functional branding (intrinsic traits)

Emotional branding (extrinsic features)

Functional branding relates to the tangible, rationally assessed product performance and benefits that satisfies consumer's functional needs (Mowle & merrilees, 2005). Emotional branding is encaging the consumers on the level of senses and thoughts; forging a profound, lasting, intimate mental link with the brand that transcends materials satisfaction; it involves a setting up a alternative (emotional) experience that drives an emotional fulfilment so that customer advances a special connection and unique trust in the brand (Kotler & Keller et al 2009).

Emotional branding can be known has extrinsic branding, intangible branding, sensory branding and holistic branding.

Importance of branding

From customer perspective;

Identification of way to obtain product - for consumers it's easy and convenient to recognize a brandname.

Risk reducer - brand can reduces the functional risk, physical risk, financial risk, cultural risk, subconscious risk and time risk to consumers.

Search cost reducer - consumer can save time by choosing a brandname.

Promise, bond, or pact with machine of product - brand offers a promises on product performance, creates a trust, creates relationship emotionally and rationally to customers which makes life easy and convince.

Symbolic device - brands allow consumers to job there own self applied images by associating with specific brands (Keller 1998).

From manufacturer's perspective;

Means of lawfully guarding unique features - brand supplies the firm legal security for unique features or areas of the merchandise.

Source of competitive gain - when organizations have strong brand name it's easy to differentiate brand from products which offers competitive edge.

Source of financial comes back - strong brand give high financial comes back to the business.

Attract shelf space- strong brands get best location in excellent stores across UK (Keller, 1998).

Branding equity models

There are two leading brand equity models

David Aaker brand equity model

Keller consumer based mostly brand collateral model

Aaker identifies brand collateral as set of five categories of brand assets and liabilities linked to the brand, brand name, symbol, which will add or decrease the value provided by the merchandise to the company or its customers.

These types of brand belongings are;

Brand loyalty

Brand awareness

Perceived quality

Brand associations

Other property property (trade symbol, patents and route relationships)

Sensory branding

More sense the communication appeals more strong the meaning will be Regarding to Lindstorm 2005) our whole understanding of the earth is experience through our sense, our sense are connected memory and tap the thoughts, humans five sense are; touch, see, feel, smell, flavour and sixth sense is religious beliefs. In to day's framework 99 percent of brand communication centered on that which you see and hear, 75 percent of human emotions are made by what we smell.

The more amount of sense and sensory touch details the business appeals more strong the meaning will be identified, Singapore airlines Kellogg's and ford have created a totally sensory experience through touch, see, feel, taste and smell to there customers. Since there are no tests done on laundry detergent brands on sensory branding, how ever P&G and Unilever attractive color packaging will get customers, oval form handy bottle will give good feeling when they touch the bottle and will draw in customers, Ariel and Persil brands have good perfume it'll give good smell to users, by touching more sensory touch points P&G and Unilever can have more emotional bonding with customers.

Aesthetic and design

When consumer making the purchase decision visual and design will impact the customer favorably to make the brand purchase regarding to Nanda et al (2008) argues that cosmetic design, different shades and overlay habits of dark berry smart cell phones impact the psychological result of male customers. Consumers rate smart telephones procedures 22 percent, physical design 24 percent and features 20 percent regarding to study conducted by J. D ability and associates, research reveals that better appearance (Design & forms) lead to increased usability,

Aesthetically satisfying design will create a strong brand sense by influencing the main sensory organ sight and consequently improve the emotional connection to the brand. Cellular phone different colors provide users with personal options to devises which have transformed from practical tool to a fashion accessory. How ever there is no studies done on laundry detergent brands visual and design but P&G and Unilever oval formed 30c bottle will increase brand usability because bottle is well design and easy to squash the liquid to measurable cup and use, Ariel & Persil container is aesthetically satisfying design will increase the emotional connection with customers.

Emotional branding offers ecological advantage.

When companies branding products it'll consider mental & practical branding characteristics but if companies give top priority to emotional branding it provides ecological differentiation than functional branding values regarding to Mowel and merrilees (2005), have proved that brands need a blend of useful and emotional (symbolic) beliefs in branding. Since wine beverage is life style product it's more beneficial to embrace the concept of symbolic value that pertains to consumers self expression needs. Symbolic prices (emotional branding) are more sustainable in the form of differentiation than efficient values, harder for competitors to replicate and will be offering brand steadiness to customers. Health care must be studied to ensure that both practical values and psychological values communicate the similar concept to customers.

Marketers therefore promote their products by focusing on consumers' emotional impulse and desire. This kind of branding strategy is called emotional branding. That is a customer-centric, empathetic, and ethnic story influenced strategy that captures customers' deep emotions, and it can therefore be greatly put on different product and service contexts (Fenichell, 2002). From the mental appeals, consumers tend to give their brands personalities (Aaker, 1997). Consumers also form communities around their brands. This enables the brands to attain a distinctive market position, and the merchandise no longer remain competitive through their basic product attributes (Muniz and Schau, 2005; Algesheimer et al. 2005; Fournier, 1998). Pawle and Cooper (2006) display that most of the individuals are influenced more by an mental marketing strategy when compared to a rational online marketing strategy.

Over the last decade, emotional branding has become a popular branding strategy one of the marketers for the reason why of brand positioning. The strategy has shown successful for brands such as Coca Cola, Marlboro, Harley Davidson etc (Thompson et al. , 2006). This sort of branding strategy creates bonds between your brand and its own consumers. The bonds are emotionally based mostly and are more durable in the long term, because consumers are encouraged intrinsically to spend themselves in this consumer-brand romantic relationship.

One of the reason why that consumers want to bond with the brand is because they find the brands traditional and appealing. In other words, they believe that their brands help them to fulfil their dreams and desires (Fournier, 1998). This then leads consumers to react favourably towards the brand, plus they even are more willing to purchase or recommend the brand to others (Bitner, 1995).

The cause-and-effect associations between an emotional brand and its own impacts on individuals are well explored by marketing academics such as Aaker (1995), Fournier (1998), and Holt (2004). They describe a brand can have its personality, embed symbolic messages, or take iconic misconceptions that are personal and appealing to consumers. These intangible qualities subsequently lead to the forming of affective consumer-brand relationship. Foundation on these ideas, this thesis extends the concept by identifying the precise dimensions associated with an psychological branding strategy, and looking into empirically how each of these dimensions influences consumers' psychological responses towards a brandname.


Concept examination of mental branding and the adoption of its Dimension, "Brand association, Brand uniqueness and Brand experience


To explore the sizes of psychological branding and what results do these dimensions have on consumers?

Research Questions:

In order to answer the problem statement, the next four research questions need to be addressed,

1. What's Branding?

2. What is mental branding?

3. What are the main sizes of psychological branding?

4. How do consumers react to each one of the dimensions of psychological branding?

5. What are the differential effects when these proportions are added over a rationale


Rationale of Research:

My research drive for this theme is personal reason since branding can be an important element of marketing and is playing vital role in changing products into an identification as a personality of the product. The idea of emotional branding is at a raise and participating in a essential role in product differentiation and ensuring attachment of brand with the heart of the consumers and customers. Business environment gets challenging and developing a deep understanding of the idea of branding from mental perspective would help organizations and marketers to effectively make use of the concept to get competitive and lasting advantages over their rivals and hence can take their customers for long-term generation to generation. This research work would help researcher to find yourself in the understanding of choice credited to comprehensive knowledge in competitive market because mental branding is becoming a far more popular branding strategy, it is therefore important to understand how to drive consumers to act in a way that is mutually beneficial to both themselves and the firms promoting the brand.


Most of the study and theoretical frameworks on mental branding have been aimed at promoting the advantages of the adoption of such a branding strategy over the original branding strategy. However, the majority of the studies have been missing with discovering the sizes of emotional branding. Hence it is not yet known what attributes brought on consumers to behave positively towards a brand when psychological branding strategies are used.

This study will add academically by giving answers to this research distance. The sensible contribution of the research proposal would be to help managers to get an understanding of the actual effects of mental branding strategy on consumers' psychological responses on the brand. Therefore professionals can craft a branding strategy that will preferably identify their brands from others, and achieve a competitive advantages.


Initially, academic books on branding will be analyzed and reviewed to have an opening understanding about this name. This shall offer an impression regarding why it is significant for products to be converted into brands. Subsequently the title psychological branding will be discussed and introduced. This chapter shall attempt to conceptualize emotional branding, by arguing the related cons and advantages, and the sizes of psychological branding.

In the next chapter 2, extensive books review on the topic and pertaining to the potential measurements and hence getting the answers of research questions.

Chapter 3 would present the methodological perspectives of this research. The strategies used in this research are mentioned in more detail. The issues of how to develop the research questionnaire, how to conduct the questionnaire study.

Chapter 4 presents the results of the study based on tools used for obtaining information from books review, quantitative research.

Chapter 5 presents a brief summary of the research and the primary conclusions with regards to the new knowledge derived from this research. The restrictions of the research and issues

Research Methodology

The function of research design is to add the questions to data. Design to be seated amongst both; firstly, presentation how the research questions are to be connected to the data, secondly, the various tools and procedures to are used in getting them answered. Research design is usually to be used from the questions and match them with data. The study design is the fundamental plan for a bit of observational research, and includes key thoughts like as strategy, sample, tools and options to be used for collecting and studying experimental data (Punch, 2000).

Exploratory approach to research would be use to carry out the conceive job because exploratory research offer an opportunity to utilised both qualitative and quantitative methods including a record review, structured telephone survey, and emphasis groups to gather data. The use of multiple methodologies would enable researcher in triangulation of the data to increase the validity of the studies, and enabled increased inferences from the results.

The research method that has been used is the mixed-model which combines quantitative and qualitative that collection techniques and examination procedures. On top of that, qualitative and quantitative methods will be utilized for the era of questions for questionnaires. Especially, for this research, the qualitative data collected will be quantified switching it into numerical rules that may be analyzed statistically. Within this study analytic surveys specifically acknowledge their intermediate position and their connection with the reasoning of deductive inquiry by their focus on dependability in data collection and statistical control of variable achieved with the use of statistical techniques (Robson, 2002). On the other hand, interviews would help to obtain responses from respondents to enhance the pilot survey for the final questionnaire. It is very important to say how triangulation or multimethods where different data recollection methods will be utilized to be able to validate data collected through cross verification from two or more sources, because of this research, interviews, survey, and research study will raise the research credibility of this project research validating the results and conclusions obtained.

Data collection methods in this research fall under 2 teams; quantitative that would cover the organised studies from companies and customers and qualitative research from emphasis person from pharmaceutical companies and prescribing doctors. Qualitative and quantitative general market trends methods each provide different insights in to the issue. Research results would be more useful when both methods would be put together, although they are often conducted individually.

Qualitative research aim is gain an understanding of how or why things are because they are. This dialogue shall cover the way the individual think and visualize the circumstance of the topic and what is their understanding. This method would help researcher in increasing:

Systematically runs on the predefined set of techniques to answer the question

Collects evidence

Produces studies that were not determined in advance

Produces conclusions that are applicable beyond the immediate limitations of the study

In qualitative research the talk between your researcher and the respondent would generally be dependant on the respondent's own thoughts and emotions. The interview tends to be longer and comprehensive when compared to a quantitative interview and fewer interviews is conducted.

Qualitative research would be done by face to face meetings or doing focus group talk. It is as a result of durability of qualitative research, it could provide intricate textural explanations of how specific experience a given research issue.

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