Posted at 12.14.2018
The romance between Surrealism and psychoanalysis cannot be debated because they discuss similarities that are obvious. The following literature review will show that both psychoanalysis and Surrealism are based on the unconscious brain. While psychoanalysis attempts to describe that the human behavior is influenced by the emotions from days gone by that contain been stored in the unconscious head, Surrealism makes an attempt to impact the thinking of the human brain by causing the thoughts of the unconscious head through visual arts. It had been also found out that the psychoanalytical theory by Sigmund Freud will come in handy in describing the relationship between the works of any surrealist with psychoanalysis. Moreover, some of the surrealists' artwork will be utilized to show that they effect the unconscious brain.
Sigmund Freud is known to be the father of psychoanalysis and through his work, the relationship between psychoanalysis and surrealism can be seen. "Surrealism is a method of fine art and books developed principally in the 20th century, stressing the subconscious or non-rational significance of imagery arrived at by automatism or unpredicted juxtapositions" (Cherry par. 1). People who engage in surrealism are known as surrealists and the main activity they are employed in is fine art, such as painting and writing of books.
The movements of Surrealists which involved writings and visual art work was most widespread in Europe and later on get spread around to other locations such as New York eventually having an impact on music, literature, visual arts, political thought, communal theory and school of thought. "Surrealism grew principally from the earlier Dada activitywhich produced works of anti-art that deliberately defied reason" (Cherry par. 2). In her publication, Bradley expresses that "Dada predated Surrealism, and Surrealism survived Dada, but for a while, the two actions co-existed in a continuum of distributed energy and excitement" (12). The Dada movements shared a whole lot of similarities with Surrealism. For example, just like Surrealism, it ridiculed how the way the complexities that existed in modern life were made to look secure through categorization and department. "Dada artists declared everything to maintain a constant and creative express of flux. They were interested more in a mental attitude than an imaginative activity" (Bradley 12). Quite simply, the enthusiasts of the Dada motion dwelled usually on activity believing that it could eventually bring about creativity.
A closer look at the Dada fine art and creativity implies that they had the purpose of provoking and arousing anger in the audience. However, Surrealism was associated with positive expressions as opposed to Dada movement that was generally negative towards artwork. The associates of the Surrealism activity were reacting from the destruction that was caused by a rational way of thinking especially in the Western european politics and culture. The spokesman of the motion, Andre Breton, explained that Surrealism was meant to be utilized to reunite the unconscious and conscious experiences completely so the dream and dream world would unite.
Through this unity, the rational world would be provided in the intellects of people in such a way that there would are present not only "a complete simple fact -but also- surrealism" (Bradley 14). Andre Breton first signed up with the Dada activity and engaged in the experimentation of computerized writing. This kind of literature engaged spontaneous writing minus the censoring of your respective thoughts. As Breton continuing writing, he were able to influence other writers to join him and as time passes they were able to make a team. It then dawned about them that computerized writing seemed to be an effective way of changing the contemporary society rather than the Dada way of attacking ideals, which seemed to be negative.
Breton kept on referring to the works of Freud and found that the source of creativity was the unconscious head. "He identified genius in conditions of accessibility to this normally untapped world, which, he thought, could be achieved by poets and painters likewise" (Lusty 4). For the reason that regard, great artwork and paintings have been produced today scheduled to continuous thought processes and insights of your brain. Moreover, Breton provides that the aim of Surrealism is "to unite the inner reality and the exterior realityand refusing to allow the preeminence of 1 on the other" (par. 5). In order to achieve this, both realities need to be treated in a manner that is systematic in order for their reciprocal results to be experienced by individuals in an efficient way.
The coming collectively of different automatic writers formed a group that possessed the desire to revolutionize the activities of humans including its political, social, personal and ethnic aspects. They intended to do this by influencing visitors to get rid what they perceived as restrictive customs, phony rationality and constructions. Breton also added that the Surrealism is "long live sociable trend, and it only!" (Breton par. 6) A few years later, the group of writers, led by Breton made the Surrealist Manifesto. On this manifesto, Breton defined Surrealism as "Pure psychic automatism, by which it is intended expressing, verbally, on paper, or by other means, the real procedure for thought" (par. 13).
Surrealists attended to believe cultures from the non-Western parts of the world include continuous creativity for the activities of surrealists since they affect a balance between thoughts and instrumental reason than the culture of the western. In addition, Surrealism has also had an impact on ground-breaking and radical politics both indirectly and directly. The direct influence can be discussed in the sense that surrealists may join or form allies with politics groups, people or movements. Alternatively, an indirect effect occurs when surrealist put an emphasis on "the intimate hyperlink between freeing creativity of your brain, and liberation from repressive and archaic communal set ups" (Lusty 3).
Surrealists work, as mentioned earlier, was generally about computerized writing which down the road dwelled on visual arts. In fact, it seemed as though the Surrealism motion was about a visual movements because of the many visible styles which were created by various designers in the movements. However, the activity came to determine that this can connect their aesthetic images with one's individuality and at the same time use the images to draw out psychological truth. The artists have this by, for example, painting original items that seemed to have a totally a function that is completely not the same as their intended use. This is done to be able to evoke empathy from individuals who viewed it. A good example of this process of the Surrealist's work is "the image of wrist watches that sag as though they are simply melting" (Bond 5). Such a work of art intends to attain deeply into the psychology of people and is also "made whole entire with one's individuality" (Relationship 5)
Psychoanalysis explores the interconnection between your mindful and the unconscious brain. "The psychoanalysis view contains that we now have inner forces outside of your consciousness that are directing your action" (Cherry par. 3) Sometimes individuals might act with techniques that they may not be in a position to describe why they act that way yet their actions may be described predicated on unresolved emotions about the past triggered by specific activities or significant people in their lives. Such feelings can be explored or brought on by using psychologists and help the individual gain insight into his / her tendencies or problems.
In the field of psychoanalysis, it is widely known that Sigmund Freud was the individual who first learned psychoanalysis and he then came up with psychoanalytical theory. The majority of his ideas were regarded as surprising since he dwelt on the intimate desires of human beings and attemptedto explain the individuals behavior predicated on these desires, which explains why his theories elevated a lot of controversies and debates. Actually, his work possessed a major effect on many disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, fine art, literature and almost all of all, psychology. "Psychoanalysis is utilized to make reference to many aspects of Freud's work and research; including Freudian therapy and the study technique he used to develop his ideas" (Cherry par. 4) A lot of the theories that Freud created were mainly predicated on observations he made on his patients. Cherry agrees with this observation when she says that "Freud relied greatly upon his observations and case studies of his patients when he produced his theory of personality development" (par. 5)
When people are faced with thoughts that are immoral they take part in self applied reproach or some individuals may have paranoia towards certain images or certain people scheduled to past activities that remain etched in the subconscious mind. "The goal of paranoia is thus to fight an idea that is incompatible with the ego, by projecting its chemical to the external world" (Bell 13) Lots of the behaviors of human beings can be linked to their past experience as Bell puts it, many people face a "difficulty in controlling intolerable ideas that eventuate in self-reproach" (14). Some individuals manage to erase these ideas through the procedure of repression but also for others, "self-reproach becomes self-distrust and so the obsession person continues to check and recheck his own activities" (Bell 14).
In addition compared to that, the idea will always remain in your brain of the paranoia but the view that concerns the theory is altered as reproach towards the average person that bears the idea. In this way, the average person will live considering that folks are judging him due to bad ideas that are in his mind, yet in the real sense, he is becoming paranoid. When an individual projects such inner objects to the environment that surrounds her or him, then it psychologists refer to it as projection and one is said to be experiencing paranoia.
This example is given so the strong effect of the unconscious head is demonstrated plainly. According to mindset, many people are unaware that the unconscious head is very alive and the thoughts that are inscribed in this area of the brain play a substantial role in shaping the general behavior of people. In order to clearly illustrate psychoanalysis, it's important to be in a position to differentiate this is of the mindful mind and the unconscious head. Both of these are sections of the brain that store recollection at long term or short term depending on section.
A precise description says that "the conscious brain includes everything we are aware of" (Cherry par. 1) When one can certainly talk and take into account the mental control in his or her mind, then it is said that the average person is functioning in the mindful mind. Health professionals normally test the storage of their patients, especially those that contain suffered a brain accident, by asking them if indeed they can remember their titles or if they can recall what happened soon before the accident. If these patients are able to recall the happenings, then their ram is still intact since a section of the conscious brain includes the ram. "Freud called this recollection ordinary storage area the preconscious" (Bell 12).
On the other side, "the unconscious mind is a tank of emotions, thoughts, urges, and thoughts that are beyond our conscious recognition" (Bell13) generally, psychologists say that the material of this area of the mind are upsetting or unacceptable, for instance, feelings of turmoil, pain or stress. In addition to that, the unconscious brain will always affect our experience and habit "even though we are unaware of these underlying influences" (Bradley 4) Psychoanalysis of the real human head will therefore help individuals realize why they react in a particular way and they'll also find out if the unconscious mind is influencing their patterns.
Breton was always equivalent with Freud in his works and in leading the activity of Surrealism. He especially demonstrated a profound interest and a continuing research on the theories that were presented by Freud. A closer look at surrealists' paintings will show you that there is an interconnection between Surrealism and psychoanalysis. As mentioned previously, it can be mentioned that Surrealism was an imaginative movements which "was worried about the nature of the unconscious and its reference to creation" (Relationship par. 1) As the surrealists targeted to break the way of convinced that was normal, their works attemptedto emphasize the "the role of the unconscious in creativeness to be able to break new floor" (Relationship par. 1)
In addition to that, since the surrealists had an interest in the expressions and the performing of the unconscious, and where the position of desire was at psychoanalytical theory, it was clear that there would be makes an attempt to connect a surrealists' utilize a theme that spelled out desire. In that respect, desire is cured in psychoanalytical terms. In support of this view, Bond states that "The bond between surrealism and psychoanalysis cannot be understated" (par. 20) since psychoanalysis was seen as the means to the freedom of the mind of human beings. Because the unconscious mind is correlated with issue, pain or anxiousness, the task of surrealists, especially visible arts, attempts to evoke feelings that are associated with these three thoughts. In fact, the majority of the task of surrealists aims to make its audience psychological and instill feelings of empathy.
The main themes or templates of Surrealism are psychoanalytic as depicted in the task of a surrealist. Lusty helps this view when she says that "some psychoanalytic Surrealist designs, including narcissism, dream, masquerade, perversion" (1) From these topics, it could be said that many surrealists' work depict perversion especially those that show the nudity of females. In the same light, psychoanalysis, which mainly dwells on the unconscious brain, demonstrates that part of the brain stores up annoying memories a few of which, regarding to Freud, are sexual in character. Therefore, just how a surrealist work uses the unconscious head for creativity to be able to demonstrate perversion through nude paintings, may evoke associated feelings of the unconscious brain. In this manner, the surrealists been successful in influencing the real human head by use of creative aesthetic arts. Also the use of dream can be described just as.
In addition to that, the movie theater of Surrealists "depicts the unconscious experience, moody build and disjointed structure, sometimes imposing a unifying idea" (Lusty 6) These surrealists wish to generate a theatrical form that is direct and immediate, by "linking the unconscious imagination of performers and spectators" (Bell 12) which appears to be ritualistic. In some of these theaters, feelings, feelings and metaphysical were portrayed physically thus setting up a vision that appears to share similarities with the world of dreams. Thus it can be deduced that psychoanalysis has a deep interconnection with surrealists' work since Surrealism depended generally on creativeness and associated it to psychoanalysis to be able to produce great and creative works of art.
It can therefore be observed that the partnership between psychoanalysis and surrealism is real and it impacts human beings given that they both offer with the subconscious mind. The literature review shows that Breton depended on the work of Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, as he led the followers of Surrealism. In addition to that, Breton revealed that he totally depended on psychoanalysis as he was doing computerized writing and painting. In that regard, this is of surrealism is linked with skill and the unconscious brain as they work hand in hand with the purpose of expressing interior thoughts and impact the way of thinking of other humans. Therefore, it is sufficient to convey that surrealists will be the individuals who are coloring and do automated writing, also referred to as literature. Furthermore, the surrealists were known to be influential plus they were very competitive with their work of art since it was a means of expressing anger and ridicule to the people's way of thinking.
In other words, surrealism will not use the words for appearance but moves so many communications by the use of visible arts that seems so unique and creative. This kind of skill helps surrealists expressing emotions such as desire, love, hatred, despair, dissatisfaction and so many more. It was also seen that they use abstract images in their work of art; images that certain cannot expect can be utilized in a particular manner. A good example of this was the utilization of a slipping wall clock together with a desk. Such are the type of creative art which were used but with the goal of influencing the unconscious, just as psychoanalysis attempts to understand the emotions that are stored up in the subconscious.
In addition, it was learnt that Surrealism grew from the Dada movement and the two movements shared some similarities. The only problem that Dada movement had is that it used its literature to attack the people of the society. This is what displeased Breton, who was then a member of the Dada movement and he'd later turn out to be the spokesman of the Surrealism activity. Thus, the books review has shown that Breton, as well as a team of other computerized freelance writers rebelled form the Dada motion since they were not pleased with the idea of leadership plus they made a Surrealist network that might be positive in its activities and actions instead of negative like Dada. Quite simply, Breton and his team selected art, a far more understated way of passing text messages, as the theme of movement. This movements would later move from Paris to other areas of the world like New York.
The marriage between Surrealism and Psychoanalysis was brought out plainly in the paper by displaying that they both use the unconscious mind. Above all, the conscious brain is that area of the brain where one can certainly speak about when asked what they are considering. On the other hand, the unconscious mind is the part of the brain that stores up emotions and emotions associated with it which is the area of the mind that affects behavior. Furthermore, psychoanalysts who try to understand why an individual is behaving in a specific manner will always explore your brain of a patient with the purpose of uncovering the stored feelings in the unconscious. Psychoanalytical theory that was invented by Sigmund Freud dwells after the unconscious mind.
Sigmund Freud has explained that the feelings that derive from the experiences everyone go through are occasionally stored in the unconscious mind. Such emotions may, in many events, influence the way people interpret other situations that they go through in life without being aware that the subconscious mind is the main one leading them to act and think in that manner. The types of thoughts that are stored in this area of the mind are normally annoying and Freud says that most of enough time, the feelings are erotic. Freud further expresses that a lot of people engage in self-reproach whenever they experience such thoughts because they believe that they are unacceptable and wrong. This is exactly what ends in paranoia where a person is self-obsessed with fear over issues and experiences due the influence of the emotions in the unconscious brain.
The paintings of Surrealists experienced a reference to the unconscious. This is where the partnership between Surrealism and Psychoanalysis starts. The works of surrealist was colored so that they would influence the way of thinking about human beings, that was regarded as regular. Thus their work designed to bring out the role the unconscious head played in creative imagination and thinking so that this way of manifestation by skill, would break new ground. In addition, it was seen that Breton held discussing the psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud in his work so that he would use the theme in the paintings. Thus this also was a sign that there is a relationship between Surrealism and Psychoanalysis.
Furthermore, it was shown that the primary styles of the Surrealists work are psychoanalytic. The varieties of designs that seemed widespread and shared a detailed romantic relationship with psychoanalysis are narcissism, perversion, fantasy and masquerade. It really is especially true to note that perversion seemed to be the central theme of their work in particular when they do the paintings of women, this kind of paintings has raised a whole lot of controversy in the world today as the Surrealists were accused of being feminists. Moreover, the utilization of perversion may evoke associated feelings with the unconscious mind that folks see as annoying, such as paintings of nudity. In addition, theaters that shown surrealists work intend to make a reference to the mind of the audience which is also an idea of psychoanalysis. This is one way the surrealists used aesthetic art to effect the human brain. Actually, it had not been only the theme of perversion that was used to affect their thought process, but also themes that could ridicule politicians and other leaders in society to change their way of command and lead the modern culture and its members in the correct path.