Posted at 10.05.2018
Diane is a twenty-seven-year-old college college student with suicidal ideations pursuing an unsuccessful long-term love affair. In the last six months had a series of medication and medication overdoses as well as self-harm conducts (e. g. lowering legs and arms). She possessed a history to be sexually molested as a minor and was fostered at age eight through her adolescent years. Diane has been able to function well at university but lately has already established difficulties focusing and feels stressed.
She experienced made several unwise selections in her romantic romantic relationships which made her believe she actually is not attractive or smart enough to keep carefully the relationships alive. Diane believes is not good at anything as she has "experimented" with both men and women and ended having the same results. Her intimate relationship continued to be manifested by psychological turmoil and instability. Just lately at her friend's house she made a significant suicide look at by wanting to overdose with cocaine.
Diane has started out therapy but has found it difficult as she feel the therapist will not help her and present her what she needs; she leaves her therapy sessions unsure if she'd survive and can make it to another appointment. Her friends find it hard to help her as Diane is usually angry at herself and life. Her friends also indicated that she's episodes of depressions in which she isolate from others and does not eat. Matching to Maddux and Winstead (2008), most folks with Borderline Personality Disorder will show habits of impulsivity, social romantic relationship and self-image problems as well concerning experience Axis I mental disorders including ambiance and stress disorders (p. 235).
The above medical case was offered in project seven and is a proper representation of what personality characteristics are. The psychopathology of personality qualities are enduring patterns of perceiving, relating, and taking into consideration the surroundings and oneself. When these qualities are substantially maladaptive and cause practical problems and subjective distress, they form a personality disorder. According to Maddux and Winstead (2008), most people who have psychological problems have an average manner of sense, pondering, behaving and attaching to others that are present prior the starting point of a clinical disorder (p. 223).
As presented in Diane's circumstance borderline personality disorder has been seen as something between your border among psychosis and neurosis. It is noticeable by a definite insecurity in functioning, mood, affect, social relationships and in a few times distortion the truth is. Based on the American Psychiatric Relationship (2000), borderline personality disorder is a continual design of instability of self-image, social relationships, and influences as well as distinct impulsivity that starts by early on adulthood. They make hysterical work to avoid real or imagined abandonment (p. 706).
The origins and effects of borderline personality disorder include the idea of biologic predisposition along with mental health and environmental factors. During psychological arousal, self applied images are affected and the individual begins to work with primal defense methods. Relating to Mayo Medical clinic. com (2010), factors that seem likely to play a role in borderline personality disorder are: a) Genetics; some studies (twins and family members) proposes that personality disorder may be inherited. b) Environmental factors; many of them have a history of childhood overlook and/or maltreatment and separation form caregivers. c) Brain abnormalities; research shows changes using areas of the brain concerned in sentiment legislation, impulsivity and hostility as well as that certain chemicals that help control spirits, such a serotonin, may not function properly. To be expected a combination of the problems results in borderline personality disorder (Borderline personality disorder/causes, 2010).
There is also sizeable empirical support for a childhood background of physical or sexual maltreatment as well as disregard and parental variance. Most circumstances of folks with borderline personality disorder experienced post distressing stress and dissociative disorders. As referred to in the aforementioned case study, borderline personality disorder can be an interaction of your emotionally unstable personality with cumulative and evolving series of extremely pathogenic marriage (Maddux, & Winstead, 2008).
Typically, associations with others are strong, turbulent and unpredictable with dramatic shifts of complexities in preserving romantic and close connections. The individual may try or manipulate people and frequently has challenges trusting others. People who have borderline personality disorder also experienced psychological instability and mood swings from unhappy melancholy to irritability and panic. Usually they exhibit unstable and impulsive actions such as gambling, drug and liquor mistreatment, promiscuity, physical self-injuries as well as suicide serves or attempts. Regarding to Maddux and Winstead (2008), pathogenic mechanisms of borderline personality disorder are issues of abandonment and exploitative mistreatment. They usually develop malevolent perceptions and goals of others as well as persistent thoughts of bitterness or rage and the capability to regulate affect (p. 235).
Under extreme cases of stress and severe conditions they can experience short psychotic episodes in which the loose contact with actuality. Still in situations less severe the individual will frequently experience significant disruption of interactions and work performance. In most cases borderline personality disorder will develop unhappiness which can cause much suffering and may lead to several hospitalization and serious suicide makes an attempt. Maddux and Winstead (2008) explained that as individuals, people who have borderline personality disorder may be frequently hospitalized due to their affect and impulse dyscontrol, psychotic like and dissociative symptomalogy, and suicide endeavors. The chance of suicide is higher with a co-morbid of ambiance disorder and drug abuse (p. 236).
According to Mayo Medical clinic. com (2010), for a person to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder the he or she must meet criteria indicated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and experienced at least five of the following symptoms:
Extreme concerns of abandonment
Unstable sense of personal information or self-image
Self destructive actions and impulsivity
Self-injuries and suicidal behaviors
Extensive feelings swings
Persistence feelings of emptiness
Anger problems such as dropping temper and having physical fights
Episodes of paranoia and/or lack of connection with reality
The treatment for borderline personality disorder includes psychotherapy allowing the patient to talk about the difficulties about earlier and present experience with an empathetic and non-judgmental way. It really is very important that the therapy be organised and constant motivating the patient to speak about his or her feelings alternatively than release them in a standard self-defeating way. Because almost all of the patients have a co-morbid Axis I disorder (e. g. Major Depressive Disorder) medications such as antidepressants and in some cases antipsychotic are helpful during treatment. According to Maddux and Winstead (2008), sessions should point out the building of a solid therapeutic relationship, monitoring self-destructive and suicidal conducts, validation of hurting and abusive experience and the campaign of self-reflection alternatively than impulsive activities (p. 238).
Hospitalization sometimes can be necessary throughout extremely difficult episodes if self-destructive habit and/or suicide threaten to go off. This is necessary as may provide non permanent shelter from external stress. Therapeutic goals may include improved self-awareness, impulse control and increased stability of human relationships. It is also important that the individual learn how to cope with anxiety and reduce mood disturbance symptoms. Maddux and Winstead (2008) mentioned that dialectical behavior therapy has shown to be for the most part effective treatment for borderline personality disorder. Dialectical action remedy is a derivative form of Zen Buddhist rule of overcoming coping with popularity. Pain can be conquered when it's accepted as an inevitable and fundamental part of life (p. 238).
With increased consciousness and the ability to develop introspection and/or self-observation the patient will be able to make changes in his/her harmful patterns developed before preventing them from duplicating itself over again. To be able to increase the chances of success, is imperative that the individual follow your skin therapy plan, practice healthy coping skills, learn about the problem and possible causes as well as getting treatment for other related problems such as material or alcohol misuse and getting a good support system. Maddux and Winstead (2008) mentioned that dialectical habit therapy shows coping skills focused on mental control and social relationships. The person eventually during specific classes with the therapist will be able to discuss any problems making use of the new skills (p. 238).