Posted at 01.02.2019
During the prenatal period there are extensive natural factors that can affect the child's development. There are plenty of environmental factors that can harm the fetus and hinder a healthy development. In the early years, development targets fast and regular changes regarding physical growth. Good nourishment becomes an essential component in this area of development and we also find many engine milestones that the average person will need to achieve. Cognitive and social development will also play a simple role in this era and theorists like Piaget have advised certain stages in regards to these areas.
There are several regions of development that will affect the child's overall development and progress. We will observe that there are specific ages defined for a specific milestone to be reached. However, we should understand that every child differs and may acquire different developmental successes in several times compared to other children.
The motor, sensory and perceptual skills of babies are developed as they are exposed to a wide range of experiences, with a great deal of possibility to explore and understand the world around them. Providing them with physical play where they could be laying smooth on tummies or back again can help them develop more powerful muscles and even more coordination. Sensory stimulation through touch, flavour, hearing, finding and smelling will be key in their development. Assisting the infant explore and induce his senses will generate the beginning of understanding of the world around him. Perception is gained through the sensory information the newborn receives. Stimulation and a rich caring environment will help provide the necessary track record and support for the infant's motor unit, sensory and perceptual development.
Cognitive development in the new born infant can be observed as the child becomes alert to physical sensation. He will explore with mouth area, hands, and foot and begin to understand cause and effect and will get started to problem solve throughout the 7th month. One important reality to remember is the fact that children are thinkers and they will learn by exploring and trying to understand the earth around them.
In the middle childhood we may find that we now have many physical and neurophysiologic changes including refining motor unit and perceptual skills. These are starting to improve coordination, control, manipulation and movements. Their fine motor skills are receiving much more processed and we might view them tying their shoes, lacing and threading, writing and attracting (San Ramon, R. G. 2010). Many of these marvelous changes constantly occurring generate specific milestones which are a product of growth in sensory -motor, memory, skeletal and muscular maturation. Needless to say neurological development is backed by the environmental stimulus that they are subjected to. We will also notice that during this time period children are very active checking out their environment and learning how to regulate their bodies in order to have success in certain video games, athletics or skills. We must supply them with many opportunities to apply and master all of the skills and abilities they are know learning. The greater enriching and challenging the environment the greater the probabilities for learning and increasing (Zembar, M. J, Blume, L. B. (2009).
At this level in life they make remarkable leaps how they store, process and use information of their environment. Cognitive development theory originates on the basic principle that mental operations become more complex and complicated through progressive and sequential changes. The idea is dependant on the idea that folks cognition evolves as he grows to certain degrees of competence in a number of cognitive skills. As the individual gains cognitive abilities they are built-into a general cognitive capability (Fogiel, 1999). Piaget was trained in biology and school of thought and was very thinking about understanding how humans come to really know what they know. Piaget thinks that before there can be learning there has to be development. Another important premise that he held strong to was the assumption that we undertake several stages even as slowly and gradually acquire different abilities. In child years children discover that peer connections are of great importance to them. Play is crucial to their development of public emotional development. It is key to allow them to build a sense of personal and moral prices. As they engage in play they commence to explore various ways for problem resolving, looking at other perspectives, they could take emotional or social risks (Child Development 2010).
Piaget's assumption when it comes to cognitive development was that children do not reason or think like adults. He emphasized individualistic development for learning during early, middle, and later childhood. Piaget proposed a constructivist theory of cognitive development that suggested that individuals pass through an orderly and predictable series of changes.
There are four levels of development matching to Piaget:
Sensorimotor: From delivery and the first two years. The infant discovers romantic relationship between their actions and the external world acquire concept of cause and result.
Preoperational: 18 or 24 months - 7yrs. progress of symbolic activities. Start off to create mental images of things and situations symbolic play (Huitt, W. , & Hummel, J. 2003).
Concrete operations : 7 -11 yrs. Start out to understand seriation, relational conditions, and reversibility.
Formal procedures: 12 - adulthood. Their rational thinking process starts to transit from cement to more abstract.
A child that has been given a stimulating and supportive environment will be able to develop to the best of his skills. Having a solid socio-emotional development will impact all areas of development because it is our inner drive, self concept and self-confidence that will provide us with the power and aspire to learn and grow. When we provide children with a solid socio-emotional base then we allow for them to get strong romance skills such to be able to express and regulate their feelings, take risks to explore new situations and conditions and be able to build healthy interactions with those around them.
There are many studies that claim that family structure does have an effect on a child's cognitive and emotional development. There were some correlations between parent's education and children's IQ. A similar is true for the beginning order and how big is the family they belong to stating that this can impact academic performance. However, there exists one essential aspect that people must place special attention to which is situated on how safe and sound the child seems using their immediate family. Having a family group that provides an environment of warmth, persistence, maturity and good communication will definitely give a solid foundation with regards to development.
We must check out another factor that may effect the child's development and it has to do with parenting styles. There may be evidence that one parenting styles might not exactly be as supportive of an child's cognitive and public emotional development. I believe one that best provides the necessary grounds for development is the authoritative parenting style as it is saturated in nurturance, maturity demands, control, and communication. As the worst scenario is the non included parenting style which is low in control, maturity demands, nurturance and communication (Fogiel, M. 1996).
Diana Baumrind studied preschool aged children and found out that there have been four important measurements of parenting: disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturance, communication styles, and goals of maturity and control (Cherry, K. 2005). From these sizes she advised that there were four parenting styles that people could watch and that could effect child development.
1. Authoritarian Parenting: They are based on stringent rules founded by parents whom children should obey. Parents do not give explanations of the guidelines. The parents have high requirements but aren't responsive to the child.
2. Authoritative Parenting: These parents establish rules that children should follow but their style is more democratic as they are more responsive and willing to hear questions. The parents tend to be nurturing and forgiving. They are assertive however, not intrusive. They want children to be socially liable and assertive.
3. Permissive Parenting: These parents are very indulgent and have few demands because of their children. They scarcely reprimand because they has suprisingly low goals of maturity and self control. They are extremely nurturing and communicative as they action more as a friend than a parent or guardian.
4. Uninvolved Parenting: These parents have few needs low responsiveness and communication given that they are incredibly detached from their child although they provide their basic needs. Sometimes these parents tend to overlook their children.
When inspecting these parenting styles there are a few interesting conclusion when it comes to how they affect children.
Authoritarian parents foster obedient children that are lower in self-confidence and enjoyment.
Authoritative parents foster children who are happy and successful.
Permissive parenting foster children who are low in self rules and contentment.
Uninvolved parenting fosters children with insufficient self-confidence and personal control.
The different parenting styles do happen to affect a child's development and many times we must check out the reasons that parents behave the way they are doing. It really is a complex circumstance because so many factors enter into play that could produce significant differences such as family size, socio economic status, culture, religion and educational level.
The youth years are important to build the foundation because they will pretty much established the level for the given individual to prolong the introduction of important life skills. Those that learn better are usually those who have a secure family system and a very encouraging environment. An environment where these are permitted to make flaws and study from them without view. An environment where they feel absolve to explore and create. In the life and the introduction of an individual we will see that we now have several factors that'll be of great impact to their progress. However, environmental factors such as insufficient stimulation, nourishment, pushing households may be a few of the factors that will play a basic role in growing confident people with strong cognitive and socio emotional skills.