Many scholars have commented on how behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism have affected the research in neuro-scientific educational technology. At this point in your college student career, you have had an possibility to read materials on each of these learning theories or methods. How might you describe your beliefs about learning with regards to these ideas? How will this selection of beliefs affect your own future dissertation work? You may select one or more of the theories outlined or provide another that is scholarly and accepted in the books. It doesn't matter how you approach your answer, it must explain key conditions and theorists, provide comprehensive concrete examples, and must be scholarly in shade. [Important - although this can be an open reserve question, it asks you to state your current values and relate these to works and theorists YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY READ. You might cite them informally. Enough time enticement to "Yahoo" or "Wikipedia" a theory or theorist and review their works in the limited time that you have got. Consider your beliefs, outline your ideas, and use your resources to further support your argument]
In my first calendar year as a doctoral university student at the University or college of North Colorado, I asked Dr. Ku and Dr. Lohr if indeed they thought I got a behaviorist or a constructivist. At the time, I was just starting to find out about learning theory in a Mindset class, and all the theories in the textbook appeared to make sense whenever i find out about them independently. Throughout my job as a doctoral student I have regularly transformed my position through various ideas. My current understanding and application of learning and its own marriage to theories is more pragmatic. I assume that the proper use and software of learning theories will depend on the framework to which it is applied. Here are some is a short discussion regarding my values about learning in relations to each of these theories.
Behaviorism, popularized in the 1950s and 1960s, is based on an objectivist ontology and empiricist epistemology. Behaviorism draws many of its ideas through experimental research in mindset (i. e. , Pavlov's test out his canines). Proponents of behaviorism consider the mind to be tabula rasa, or a bare slate. These include people like John B. Watson, Edward Tolman, Clark Hull, and B. F. Skinner. Skinner, specifically, is well-known for introducing operant fitness, which is where patterns is improved through reinforcement. Programmed instruction can be an example of a strategy that uses behaviorist theory.
I assume that the stimulus-response type learning is inadequate, particularly in helping students gain higher order skills. However, I really do assume that behaviorist learning guidelines can be employed to certain disciplines for specific purposes. For example, acquiring typing skills can be an example that is often raised by those and only direct instruction. Also, in extra terms learning, rote memorization of vocabulary is necessary in learning to be a skillful communicator in another language. In such instances, direct instructions and rote memorization are good strategies of teaching and learning.
Information processing theory is often linked with cognitivitist learning theory. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory space Model from the later 1960s introduces the various stages of information control from sensory insight to long-term memory. According with their model, there are three types of storage: sensory recollection, working recollection, and long-term storage. Sensory memory supports information only for a brief amount of time. When prepared, information goes to working memory space. Working ram, which consists of short-term ram and short-term store, is the main point where more processing occurs. George A. Miller introduced the magic number seven plus or minus two to indicate the items of information that can be processed through working storage. Paivio's dual-coding theory shows that there are two stations that information becomes processed: visual and auditory. Cognitive capacity can be maximized by using both of the channels.
Using strategies such as rehearsal and chunking, information becomes used in long-term memory. Long-term storage is where knowledge is permanently stored. It is assumed that once information is stored in long-term memory, it is never lost. However, information from long-term recollection must be stored successfully to permit easy retrieval. Endel Tulving's finding of episodic and semantic storage suggested that there have been two information control systems in long-term memory space. Episodic memory was for specific events and semantic memory space is standard information. In education, the concentrate is on semantic storage.
My personal notion about cognitivism is that it strengthens our knowledge of learning from where behaviorist left off, and that its ideas can be applied to constructivist technique. Behaviorists assumed that your brain was a blank field and, thus, reduced its importance as a function of learning. However, when cognitivists opened up the package, it disclosed cognitive processes that can better describe real human learning and proposal.
I think about the education system in Japan where there is a nationalized insurance plan to reduce the number of information that students would need to learn. At the time, everyone believed it was a reasonable solution to the condition that Japanese students were only memorizing a large fill of information without being able to use it effectively. The idea was to lower the amount of facts, rules and principles to review, and spend more time connecting bigger ideas. Alas summative evaluation discovered that students were not learning any much better than these were before. One observation can be made from this failed policy. The Japanese policymakers failed to understand that the number of information parts was far less important than finding ways to chunk information. This illustrates that, if the learning environment is a lecture or a vibrant debate, instructors have the power to transfer knowledge or help an environment that reduces cognitive weight.
Constructivism is a theory with the essential belief that knowledge is produced by the individual and that it is a continuing process. There are a number of types of constructivism. Trivial constructivism is a combination of information handling and knowledge development by the individual. Radical constructivism is related to von Glasersfeld and the theory that knowledge is built based on specific experiences. Friendly constructivism is related to Vygotsky, emphasizing the theory that knowledge is a shared experience between people. Situativity theory, which is associated to the works of Lave and Wenger, can be argued as a different type of constructivism where in fact the emphasis is on social and physical context.
Constructivist learning theory shouldn't be mixed up with constructivist methods of instructions. Generally, constructivist methods expect a) students are effortlessly motivated; b) students actively construct method, somewhat than have it transmitted by someone else; c) meaning is established through attaching new information with prior knowledge; d) knowledge can be personally or socially constructed; and e) knowledge is most beneficial constructed in authentic learning contexts where sick organised problems parallel true to life problems and issues.
Problem-based learning (PBL), which includes been extensively studied by Jonassen can be an exemplory case of constructivism. PBL focuses on a particular problem to be fixed. Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a different type of constructivist learning strategy. IBL, which is similar to PBL, targets questioning and defending an answer to an issue based on data. Finding learning promotes deep learning through scholar engagement.
I assume that constructivism is suitable for the changing character of learners in a population that is changing speedily. When I was in high school, plagiarism in an English class meant that a scholar had copied from another scholar or had copied from Cliff notes. However, with the prevalent use of the Internet, not only are e book records available, but also, discourse and reviews to those catalogs, mp3 and YouTube videos that helps illustrate or create mental models, among a great many other ways in which information is sent. Thus, it appears as though locating the right answer is less important than getting a good answer supported by good information. Acquisition and copy of such skills will be fundamental for a student's life-long process of learning.
My current subject of interest for my dissertation is researching a constructivist charter institution and better focusing on how inquiry-based learning is being used as a method of instruction. Specifically, I am interested in the different activities of the administrators, teachers, and students, and the way the interactions among them make a community of learning. I think that my pragmatic idea and method of understanding learning theory can be applied in two ways.
First, understanding constructivist rules will help me better understand my position as a researcher utilizing a constructivist methodology to analyze whether or not inquiry-based learning is indeed being effectively and efficiently employed in the classrooms. Also, I am interested in seeing if direct instruction-type methods are being applied for lower-level or rudimentary skills. Many constructivists do not deny the fact that direct instruction could be useful in certain learning environments. I would like to see how so when different learning solutions to instruction are being used to increase learning.
In conclusion, I was reading the Handbook of Research on Educational Marketing communications and Technology, I was surprised to realize that in the glossary of terms, there was no classification for the word learning. My understanding is the fact learning varies, predicated on context and purpose. I believe that we no more live in a world where there is merely one way to a difficulty. Perhaps my current research in constructivism has afflicted the way I understand the educational experience. Nonetheless, I solidly believe that it is important to be able to understand and apply the various theories predicated on the fundamental goal of helping students achieve success not only throughout their studies, but also, after their studies as well.