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Autocratic-Democratic Continuum Model

Keywords: control styles drawbacks, laissez faire


This review starts with various meanings of 'management'. After that it introduces different styles of leadership from a number of authors.

The problem of leadership can be an important concern that has intrigued many theoreticians and professionals over time, resulting in much research and study. There is no-one accepted meaning of leadership, although there are numerous opinions submit. Sergiovanni, (2001) suggests a moral substance to leadership, 'control is, in the end, challenging - a search to do the right thing'. Yukl describes the bigger picture regarding the leadership of 1 person over many 'Most explanations of leadership mirror the assumption so it involves a cultural affect process whereby intentional influence is exerted by one individual [or group] over other folks [or categories] to structure the activities and human relationships in an organization or company'. (1994, p3)

The group performs an important part in leadership theory, that i will discuss in greater detail later in the chapter. Bass gives authority a confident connotation and defines it as 'an instrument of goal achievements' where control can be regarded as constructive behaviours seeking group goals. (1990, p15-16) This is developed further with an autocratic perspective by (Gardner, 1990; Riches, 1994, 1997) suggesting that 'Command is the process when a person exerts effect over individuals and communities through goal setting or activities'. Smircich and Morgan develop the group thinking by highlighting the lively engagement of 'enthusiasts' in allowing market leaders to take on an influencing role. They say 'Leadership is an obligation or perceived right on the part of certain individuals to identify the reality of others'. (1982, p258)

In society organisations have grown to be more responsible, organisational leadership has arrived to the forefront and it is one of the very most researched and analysed topics in the region of organisational development (Chapman, 1993). Research discovered that good leadership performs a vital role in creating the culture that enhances learning in colleges (Brundrett & Terrell, 2004). Successful control is invariably associated with school performance. In the many lists produced by researchers, 'firm' authority (Reynolds 1991), 'professional' management (Sammons et al. 1995) and 'outstanding' leadership (Levine & Lezotte 1990) are determined as major factors adding to school effectiveness. Authority has also been shown to have an impact upon university improvement processes (Leithwood & Steinbach, 1993; Stoll & Fink, 1996) and an impact upon school final results (Hallinger & Heck, 1998; Southworth, 2001).

For schools, the qualities of leadership and management are a crucial element in trying for efficiency (Sammones, Thomas, Mortimore, Owen, Pennell and Hilman, 1994). Teddlie and Reynolds reveal that leadership is usually provided by the headteacher or main, they found that 'leadership is now centrally synonymous with institution effectiveness for most, including many operating within school improvement paradigm. . . ' (Teddlie & Reynolyds, 2000:141). As such, the capability to establish clear organisational goals has been found to be always a relevant variable linking authority and school effectiveness.

Leadership Theories - Development through history

They a wide range of theories on control which have been developed over the years and surely a lot more to follow. This is a brief synopsis of the theory behind the subject. The individual innovator, they are individuals who have been scrutinised throughout history, this scrutiny has brought about "The great man" theory, the view that leaders are born and not made, therefore that the procedure of collection of leaders is essential, and this training and development in control has no result.

In the overdue 1940s and early on 1950s, however, some qualitative reviews of the studies (e. g. , Bird, 1940[8]; Stogdill, 1948[9]; Mann, 1959[10]) prompted research workers to have a substantially different view of the generating forces behind authority. In critiquing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some characteristics were common across a number of studies, the entire evidence advised that persons who are market leaders in one situation may well not necessarily be leaders in other situations. Eventually, leadership was no longer characterized as an long lasting individual characteristic, as situational solutions (see alternative management theories below) posited that folks can be effective using situations, however, not others. This approach dominated much of the authority theory and research for the next few ages.

Trait Theory, this promises that certain personality attributes determine success in authority. Stogdill (1969) discovered that some personality characteristics were common to successful market leaders, there's been difficulty in discovering them constantly and agreeing explanations of personality characteristics.

Situation theory is based on the view that authority cannot be analyzed from the group over which management has been exercised. The view is the fact leadership is a group phenomenon which will vary regarding to situations and over time. Also, management is not really a one way process of influence. Leaders are affected by followers as well as vice versa. The studies that were carried out tended to maintain small random groups in handled settings (eg Lippett and White).

Leadership styles, there are two ways of analysing styles of leadership: some may be on the range from autocratic to democratic, that i jave chosen as my focus for my action research study, and is associated with the work of Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973). The other is based on the comparative dominance in a leader of "concern for people and romantic relationships" or "concern for development or results"; this theory is associated with Blake and Mouton (1964). They also discussed that "The point to be emphasised here is that managerial styles aren't fixed. They aren't unchanging. These are determined by a variety of factors. Most are subject to changes through formal teaching or home training. " (Blake and Mouton, 1964 p. 13)

Behaviour theory is dependant on ten work of Halpin who suggests that market leaders do two main things:

Initiate buildings: establish goals, create stations of communication, establish types of procedures and review techniques.

Consider others: generate a local climate of trust, admiration and warmth

Halpin suggests that effective management is associated with high performance on both items.

Contingency ideas are intricate, they recognise the interaction of leaders and their environments. These are two models:

The model produced by Hersey and Blanchard (1977) recognizes both directive and supportive behaviour in a leader, which may be modified based on the level of development, experience and determination of the subordinate.

The model developed by Fiedler (1967) combines an analysis of the leader's style (people or creation?) with an analysis of three parameters of the situation which can be seen as favourable or unfavourable to the first choice, e. g. the amount of formal specialist. Fiedler's research reveals that a activity orientated leader is most effective to a situation that is specially favourable or unfavourable and a people orientated head works more effectively where the situation is not specifically favourable or unfavourable.

Action Leadership originated from Contingency Theory by Adair (1984) who suggested that there were three main dimensions to leadership. We were holding; a concern for task, a concern for the team or group and a concern for folks. Effective leaders can pay attention to all three proportions. Adair then recognizes a set of key actions which all leaders must perform according of each of the three measurements.


Leadership and ManagementLeadership tends to be equated with eye-sight and beliefs and management with procedures and structures:

"Management and management aren't synonymous terms. One can be a leader without having to be a manager. You can, for example, fulfil lots of the symbolic, inspirational educational and normative functions of your leader and so represent what a business means without carrying the formal burdens of management. Conversely, you can control without leading. An individual can keep an eye on and control organizational activities, make decisions, and allocate resources without fulfilling the symbolic, normative, inspirational, or educational functions of management. " (Schon, 1984, p. 36)

Here the differentiation is not intended to distinguish between roles. Schon goes on to state that since we generally expect professionals to lead, it might be permissible to treat management and leadership as you, although he does identify the concepts of: management as science and the artwork of handling. This latter notion may have more in common with control.

In the traditional research of Lewin et al. (1939) at the School of Iowa, three control behaviours, or styles, were evaluated: the autocratic, the democratic, and the laissez-faire. It had been discovered that the autocratic style will centralise authority and dictate work methods, while the democratic style tends to entail employees in decision making, delegate expert, encourage contribution, and use responses to coach employees. With the three, the laissez-faire style was found to be inadequate atlanta divorce attorneys performance criterion.

This original research of Lewin's greatly inspired other studies conducted after World War II. The most significant of these studies were performed by the Ohio Point out Group (Shartle, 1949, 1950; Fleishman, 1953; Halpin and Winer, 1957; Hemphill and Coons, 1957), as well as took 38 Chapter 2: Books Review

place at the School of Michigan (Katz, Maccoby and Morse, 1950; Katz, Maccoby, Gurin and Floor, 1951; Katz and Kahn, 1952). Each one of these studies found that leadership displaying matter for folks produced greater results than that exhibiting concern for creation.

The Ohio Condition Group formulated dimensions of awareness and initiating structure. The first of these signifies the extent that the working relationships a head has with subordinates is characterised by common trust and esteem for group people' ideas and thoughts. The latter signifies the extent that a leader is likely to determine and structure her/his role and the functions of group people for the sake of seeking goal attainment. The Michigan studies spoke of worker orientation and development orientation. The previous emphasises the extant a leader values interpersonal relationships and allows individual distinctions among subordinates; this is associated with high group efficiency. The second emphasises the magnitude to which a head values the specialized or task areas of the work and is concerned with completing the group's jobs; this is associated with low group productivity and low job satisfaction.

1. 2 Autocratic leadership

The Autocratic Leadership Style was initially identified by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938, along with the democratic management and the laissez-faire control styles. The autocratic control style may also be known as the directive authority style.

Autocratic authority can be reported to be synonymous to dictatorship where only one person has the authority on the followers or individuals. Their decision must be used as the golden rule and shouldn't be questioned. They plan out everything and order their subordinates to work matching to their guidelines. For instance, when a company has an autocratic head as the Managing Director, the employees in the business would have to work as per the guidelines place down by him. They might not be likely to make any contribution off their side, which might actually help in enhancing the output of the business. In a nutshell, the autocratic innovator has full control of these around him and is convinced to really have the complete authority to take care of them as he desires.

The premise of the autocratic management style is the belief that in most cases the employee cannot make a contribution with their own work, and that even if they could, they might not. Matching to Douglas McGregor this belief system causes the mentality of Theory X (Dessler 37). McGregor feels Theory X staff have no involvement in work generally, like the quality of the work. Teacher Henry Daryanto interprets McGregor's theory as mangers coping with this theory by using "carrots and sticks. " The carrot is usually a monetary motivation, such as piece-rate pay strategies while the stick is docking purchase poor quality or missed development targets (Daryanto). It appears only money and dangers can encourage the lazy, disinterested worker.

The natural management style for a supervisor with this Theory X perception system would be to favour is the autocratic management style. Autocratic professionals try to control work to the utmost extent possible. A significant threat to control is complexity. Intricate jobs are more challenging to learn and employees who grasp such careers are scarce and own a degree of control over the way the job is performed. An autocratic managers attempt to simplify work to get maximum control. Autocratic managers prefer a tight top-down; chain-of-command approach to management be applied.

Management style is a term that refers to the type of the partnership between professionals and non-managerial employees. It includes not only the personal relationship between people but also the design of communication and the behaviour that managers have of employees and the behaviour they make in employees. The term "leadership" may also be used. This refers to the ways that managers achieve the attitudes and actions of their employees. Usually the actions desired are those that lead to the achievement of organizational targets. A kind of leadership therefore signifies a method of management.

One particular design of management is autocratic, which our learning team sometimes identifies it as "antiquated. " The autocratic style of management is dependant on the utilization of coercion as a way of control in an attempt to induce employees to respond in a specific way. The response of employees to such coercion is seen to be extremely authoritative, that is they'll do because they are told because the choice may be unemployment. Another response by an employee to this autocratic style is they might only do the definite minimum required of them to sustain their jobs. Clearly productivity in this organization will never be very high. Armed service and laws enforce1ment organizations historically operate within an autocratic design of management, but this is seen as necessary in the situation where they operate. As a result of this acceptance resentment should not arise since there can be an accepted of design of management in these organizational varieties.

Our learning team is convinced not only should a style of management be chosen based on the type of business, it should be chosen to match the particular situation in confirmed organization. For example the means of interacting with a disciplinary matter will differ from that used in a problem-solving situation. The style of management of tedious way of life will differ from the management of project and design activities. Managers must therefore choose a management style to match the situation. We also criticizes the autocratic style and suggests that such a style will lead to turmoil, low determination and low output. Most of us advocate a more democratic style of management. This does not signify management by committee or making decisions by democratic voting, this means affecting people in organizations in a few areas of the working of the business.

The communication style of an autocratic innovator is usually described as the best way. They let you know exactly what they want done. The feedback you'll get from this type of head would generally be unplanned. They might simply tell you when you have made a mistake. The decision making process is usually unilateral and they accomplish goals by directing people. Now that might not sound like the kind of leader you'd follow, but there are situations when this style is effective.

In the work environment, some conditions may simply call for urgent action, and in such cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best style to look at. Surprisingly, most workers have already performed for an autocratic leader and therefore have little trouble adapting to that style. Actually, in times of stress or disaster some subordinates may actually prefer an autocratic style - they prefer to be told exactly what to do. So to conclude - the autocratic management style is very effective when times are nerve-racking, but very difficult during those occasions when the pressure is off the followers or coworkers.

Though autocratic leadership style is tyrannical, they have proved to be very effective during certain situations and conditions. Autocratic command works favorably during crisis and tense situations. When such situations come up in a company or organization, most people are confused and are not able to reach one common solution. During such times, having an autocratic head would be great as he'd take the reins in his palm and would point the personnel or employees to move forward. For instance, there's a terrorist attack at some place and the military have to save innocent people from there. If many people make an effort to give solutions, it might take time and the quest may result in failure. In such situations, having one autocratic person to command word the rest of the group about how to go about with the objective can result in success.

Another situation where the autocratic management style proves appropriate is while doing group projects. Many group tasks tend to fail because group people depend on the other person to make decisions. Such situations demand the necessity of an authoritative leader that can make decisions for the group. The leader should determine the ways in which the job would be achieved, divide the work among the customers, and also place a deadline for completion of the job.

Autocratic leadership may have its benefits, however, generally it is seen as something that is unwanted. Autocratic control style stimulates a one sided chat and because of this the creative and command skills of the employees become restrictive. As the first choice would have all the specialist, there's a chance that he would exploit his employees. There have been cases where an authoritative company has fired employees because they demonstrated the courage of disagreeing with him. It is also said that having an autocratic head hinders work environment communication and socialization. It is very important to truly have a cordial work place, where many people are friendly. Additionally, it may bring about disagreements and conflicts, if a group or company is led by an autocratic leader.

In the armed service and other immediate circumstances, people may prefer the ability to be told what do next. Relating to Money Zine, "In fact, in times of stress or crisis, some subordinates may actually prefer an autocratic style--they would rather be told just what to do. . . . The autocratic command style is very effective when times are stressful. "

Lengthy debate has no devote many work environments, and this form of management limits arguments. It allows employees to acquire one task, and that is to work, that could mean that the employees grasp their tasks and be efficient enough to help expand the business.

This approach to leadership may lead to more pressure from the supervisor on the rest of the employees, who then rebel contrary to the management method. Theft and other issues may come up due to a lack of office satisfaction. Relating to Smart Businessman, "That is one of the least desirable when it comes to building trusting relationships and acquiring buddies. In this system, one person has control over all of the personnel or fans. "

Making friends is an important part of life, in case this is ruined, it can create an unhappy environment. This means the quality of work, and not being viewed as human being can cause more resistance to new areas of the job. A little autonomy and cultural appeal can make a difference in retaining good individuals.

1. 3 Participatory Leadership

The premise of the participatory management style is the fact that the staff member can contribute to the look of their own work. The idea system that lead professionals to this finish was originally put forth as a management theory by McGregor, who called it Theory Y. Theory Y advocates assume that staff are internally determined. They take satisfaction in their work, and wish to perform at their finest. Symptoms of indifference are a result of the modern place of work, which restricts just what a staff member can do and separates him from the final results of his work. It really is management's job to change the workplace so the worker can, once again, recapture his delight of workmanship. Components of Theory Y are obvious in Deming's discussion of the role of the manager of people, presented previously.

Managers who practice the participatory design of management have a tendency to engage in certain types of behavior. To activate the staff they create and communicate the purpose and course of the business. This is used to help develop a shared eyesight of what the business should be, which can be used to develop a couple of shared programs for obtaining the eyesight. The manager's role is that of a head. By her actions and words she shows the best way to her employees. She actually is also a trainer, assessing the results of her people's work and helping them use the results to improve their processes. She works with the leaders above her in the organization to improve the organization's systems and the organization all together.

1. 4 Democratic Leadership

The Democratic Command Style was first detailed by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938 along with the autocratic command and the laissez-faire authority styles. They distinguished democratic management from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic market leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement honest compliment and criticism, and a amount of comradeship. In comparison, market leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Kariel (1956) argues that Lewin's idea of democracy is manipulative and elitist and not democratic.

The dynamics of democratic authority, however, aren't well understood. Actually, there is absolutely no clear and well-developed definition of the word within academia. Inside a classic review, Gibb (1969, p258) lamented the fact that "the basic psychological interpretation" of democratic command acquired "nowhere been spelled out". Twenty years later, Miriam Lewin (1987) agreed. repeating Kurt Lewin's early "call for a better understanding of the detailed dynamics of democratic authority and followership through cultural research research" (p. 138). The democratic style was also included by Daniel Goleman in 2002 as you of his six authority styles.

In Bass (1990, 19-20) handbook on control a description is provided:

Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of an organization that often consists of a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and anticipations of the users. . . Management occurs when one group member modifies the drive or competencies of others in the group. Any person in teh group can display some amount of management. . .

Bass further argues that Command is behaviour, not position which is said of the democratic method of leadership.

The democratic leader gives supporters a vote in almost every decision the team makes. The procedure involved with being a democratic innovator is very time consuming because decisions are practically always made collectively.

The democratic management style can quickly build flexibility and responsibility and can help identify new ways to do things. This leadership style is most beneficial used when the enthusiasts are proficient in the organization's process and change is necessary. For example, this style can be used when the leader needs to introduce fresh ideas in to the organization to improve an old process.

Lewin, Lippitt and White were one of the first to categorize management styles in conditions of behavioral characteristics. Prior to their work, control characteristics were the target of control studies.

Under democratic authority, the people have a far more participatory role in your choice making process. One person retains last say total decisions but allows others to talk about insight and ideas. Primarily, democratic leaders must seek to make customers into market leaders (Theilen & Poole, 1986).

This is usually a impressive form of command. People are much more likely to stand out in their positions and develop more skills when they feel empowered, and folks are empowered when they get excited about the decision-making process.

Although it may take some time to achieve full contribution from an organization, the end result will be satisfying when you can manage to set up a power-sharing environment in your group project. You will find that democratic procedures often lead to a more productive and top quality work group.

Examples of democratic command:

Asking all group participants for ideas and type.

Voting on the best plan of action in a job.

Asking group associates to utilize their strengths and provide input on how to divide the task. ]li]Enabling users to work at their own pace and placed their own deadlines.

  • Pitfalls of Democratic Leadership

It doesn't take too much creativeness to think of ways that democratic management could backfire throughout a group project. As you almost certainly know, some participants of a group will work well independently and complete all work in a timely fashion. But there are other staff who'll procrastinate-and that can result in disaster.

If you are an all natural democratic leader, it might be essential to learn some characteristics of the autocratic or bureaucratic market leaders and tap into them as necessary. Will have a backup plan on hand!

Undemocratic control styles can bring about a variety of undesirable benefits: dependent and apathetic fans (Barber. 1984 Heifetz & Sinder. 1987; Manz & Sims. 1989; White & Lippitt, 1960). Furthermore, undemocratic leadership can undermine the pursuit of honest ideals, such as self-determination, personal development and democratic decision making (Barber, 1984: Sashkin, 1984).

1. 5 Laissez-faire leadership

Laissez faire style simply means a "delegate" method of leadership. Many research workers have found out that those children who grow under laissez-faire control establishments, are actually the less successful in any group.

This was also reinforced by these children making more demands upon their leader, as researchers have come to ascertain, amidst demonstrating little in terms of assistance as well as the shortcoming to work more independently.

Most laissez faire styles offer no or very little assistance to the customers of the same group, amidst giving the making of decisions to other group members. Just as much a maybe it's overtly effective in those situations where most employees or associates happen to be highly qualified and skilful in their area experience and know-how, it has often led to poor roles meaning plus a utter lack in motivation.

In this leadership style, the top or innovator only pieces that overall concern or education, where then he gets out of the way so that things can be remaining to run independently.

With the consumption of this control style, the first choice just accepts wholesome responsibility for many of the decisions that come into fruition, though the decision-making has been left to his team.

Also, the team members are also remaining to judge, analyse and transform concern and everything problems equally as they come.

Laissez faire is very appropriate for mature and serious senior teams, that have a history of proof and have confidence in handling lots of issues. By far the most pitfall and shortcoming of the type of authority is strictly failing.

In case of anything heading wrong, the first choice does not have any clout to blame his team, but an opportunity to see his shortcomings.

But in each management style, or authority style, the inspiration towards good management and overall productivity of participants or employees are organized within the management theories, that offer a dimension for everyone leaders to use for the realisation of these utmost goals. Leadership without goals is inability in general management.

Some of the theories include the Hawthorne model or tests, which lay emphasis on human relations. In this model, the work-place lightning do improve the efficiency during the experiment and after, that is, within the groups.

It has thus reinforced the fact that folks are not those logical and covert economic beings as assumed by the classical theorists, as well as the emphasis of social connection and the improvement of people's work once they have been respected.

Other ideas of management are the rule placed or bureaucracy, stipulated by Maximum Weber and offered the planet the red tape, since it lays emphasis on guidelines and overall regulations. Also, the methodical theory of management by Frederick Taylor brought out the notion that every job must be medically and also rationally optimised for overall output, that was perfected by the Ford Company and the economic incentives involved brought perfect results.

Lastly, the process strategy theory by Henry Fayol has been clear in command styles and in every management levels, even in laissez faire, as it lays much focus on planning, organising, coordinating, commanding, managing and even the personnel and line principles. The theories are not leadership styles however they harness the existing leadership and management styles.

Disadvantages of control styles

As much as the command style known as paternalistic management includes some autocratic dynamism, it comes as being a little warm and a lttle bit fuzzy within the precincts of its procedure.

In its paternal aspect, it harkens in the type of a daddy being organization though has good intentions in the life of your respective children and available limelight, the employees.

Just like most paternal beings are, except for those dads who keep on saying: "I told you", the typical paternalistic manager the majority of the times explains the specific reason as to the reasons he has taken certain actions in general management as well as for his employees. He is very far from being autocratic and looks after the harmony within his / her team.

A manager of this calibre tends to provide that environment that is flawlessly well rounded for all within his management wing, even including a previous consideration of their personal and interpersonal aspects in their lives.

In this esteem, there seems to occur some type of upward communication all the way from the tip to the high rates, in terms of provision of reviews which could be well used for the transformation of some aspects within the company for the success of staff satisfaction and avid determination.

Those to get paternalistic management style have related to it as providing an enormous movement on the motivation of employees more than an autocratic style, because the employees will fill the command as considering their welfare and therefore do care for them more as people and not only like robots.

Since the objective that is included with keeping the determination of the employees is highly one of them leadership style, there tends to be an overt possibility that is laid towards an increased loyalty of employee in addition to a little turnover.

The overall drawback with this leadership style depicts the entire disadvantage of management styles, posting such similarities with those elements of autocratic techniques of management styles, such that they have resulted in the dependency after the first choice through the employees, more than a specific impartial thinking.

In case there is a blunder done by the leader, which must be likely because we could flesh and blood vessels and human mistakes and mistake receive, a dissent could expand within the ranks of the employees given that they have a high dependency on the paternalistic manager and feel really disappointed.

As the credibility wanes, other advantages that the paternal management have been enjoying such as loyalty and even low turnover could begin disappearing.

In case of the dissent by employees, the moral and overall control style is infected, since the issue of employees and their standard welfare operates supreme than other kind of aspect within the measurements of any authority style and management strategy.

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