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Attention On Commercial E Waste material In Putrajaya An Environmental Sciences Essay

According to the definition by Office of Environment Malaysia, 2007, e-waste is defined as waste materials from the assemblage of electronic or electronic kitchen appliances that consist of components such as accumulators, mercury-switches, a glass from cathode-ray pipes and other turned on cup or polychlorinated biphenyl-capacitors, or contaminated with cadmium, mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, lithium, gold, manganese or polychlorinated biphenyl.

In Malaysia, e-waste is categorized as scheduled waste material under the code SW 110, First Program, Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Restrictions 2005. This electronic waste or often called e-waste has huge range of digital or electric powered equipment from various segment of entities for domestic as well as commercial usage. Now era of technology devices such notebooks, cell phones, air conditioners, refrigerators, and washers become important home appliances in individuals life nowadays.

1. 2 Problem statement

Nowadays, the amounts of development in digital and electrical sectors are showing incredible development in world. However, over several years ago, the researchers supply the attention concentrating on the impact of e-waste to the surroundings. The number of e-waste made was 52718 has been reported by DOE Malaysia in 12 months 2007. In 2008, there is significant increase as 688, 000 metric tonnes of e-waste has been made which is estimated Malaysia will create e-waste about 1. 11 million metric tonnes in 2020. The waste material generated can also increase significantly parallel to the production of the products. E-waste is now a problem since it can also influence to the human health of it is not cared for properly.

Electrical appliances consist a thousand of chemical ingredient that including steel such as business lead, mercury which is a major source of contaminants and carcinogens. Many components of such equipment are believed harmful and are non-biodegradable. Since it is discarded incidentally of either legal or illegitimate dumping, these poisons have potential to leach out in to the landfills. The problems come up from e-waste dumping is turning out to be a serious problem, since there is absolutely no best practicable method to dispose it.

Electronics and electrical power waste is becoming a worldwide pollution problem due to environmental matter since there are many components of such equipments are believed non-biological which can't be degraded and dangerous as they contain heavy metals inside the gear. Emergence of current economic climate sector in growing as well as developed country cause serious problem in e-waste management. Improper e-waste dumping, transport used component of electronic and electric equipment over limitations, inefficient disposal method and problem related to location and facilities to dispose this type of wastes also raise the significant task in e-waste issues in order to sustain environmental development.

1. 3 Objective of Study

The purpose of this review is to determine the public consciousness regarding the unsafe of e-waste and the management of commercial waste materials of electrical power and electronic gadgets in Putrajaya. The premises and the individual that bring up business associated with electric powered and electronic equipments are put through this survey. Those who offer with commercial e-waste such any people who offers, resells, retails, vehicle repairs or gets rid of commercial e-wastes as well as other person that related in electric and electronic digital stream especially consumer. The target includes:-

To find amount of produced e-waste in Putrajaya.

To determine about consciousness on the proper management of commercial e-waste.

To review disposal method in Malaysia today.

To review the regulation that available and plan the responsible bodies in this country to formulate further alternatives for the environmentally sound management.

1. 4 Significant of Study

The goal of the study is to recognize generation status of e-waste in Putrajaya. Improper e-waste dumping, shipping used element of electronic and electric equipment over limitations, inefficient disposal method and insufficient good disposal facilities cause serious problem in e-waste. Therefore, the analysis is necessary as some sensible steps should be studied to ensure the waste is handled properly by others further down of electronic digital and electronic customer.

The review will be conducted in Putrajaya to assemble the information on the public attention regarding the proper management of commercial e-waste. Questionnaire will be distributed and data will be utilized as main data to know the level of awareness on the management of e-waste among people that engage in the stream of commerce with respect to electrical and electronic digital products. Respondent will be determined randomly to complete the questionnaire form. It really is aimed to identify the level of knowledge on threat of e-waste among areas.

The purpose of this research also to know the potency of environmental legislation in Malaysia; hence this explanatory research which really is a combination of literature review, data collection and interviews can be used to encourage the in charge bodies to formulate further alternatives on the problems associated with e-waste. The study is also subjected to propose environmentally acoustics management of the scheduled misuse.

Literature review

2. 1 Electric waste

Issue on e-waste arise as the development of electronic home appliances as well as its waste materials that generated is in high quantities. The electronic digital or electric devices usually contain harmful and hazardous metallic substance inside such lead, cadmium, mercury and chromium often are present in the equipment. Besides that, in some countries, their local regulators do not regulate the proper ways for e-wastes management to its removal or recycling. For some circumstances, e-waste can lawfully be dumped into municipal solid waste materials landfill site. However, recycling is an substitute for e-waste land filling in order to get over traffic problem. This technique has been popular and be concern due inexpensive as well as environmental problem. Removal of e-waste either by land filling up or recycling, it still require to meet few environmental regulatory requirement.

2. 2 E-waste management system (Laws and guidelines)

International regulation

Presently in the global situation, technology, transboundary movement and disposal waste material of electronic and electronic digital equipment are becoming issues of matter to solid misuse management specialists, environmentalists, international firms and governments.

The most high-profile international tool for controlling e-waste removal is the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Motions of Hazardous Wastes and their Removal. This Convention was initiated in order to deal numerous international problems regarding hazardous waste materials trafficking. The Basel Convention was the first global environmental treaty regulating transboundary motions and removal of hazardous waste materials.

Environmental Legislation in Malaysia

In Malaysia, Section of Environment become one of the key relevant bodies in federal which is sensible to establish the essential environmental rights and to enforce legislation on e-waste management. This authorities agency which is under supervision of the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE) carry out the objective to improve quality of life of folks as well concerning maintain and preserve the surroundings from pollution. Environmental Quality (Appointed Waste) Polices 2005 (SWR 2005) is developed to give a basis in e-waste conditions that applicable to the household and industrial and sector.

Regulation on e-waste was developed in 1989 was known as Environmental Quality (Given Premises) (Treatment Disposal Facilities for Scheduled Wastes) Polices, 1989 to control on collection, treatment, recycling and removal of e-waste. However, to cope the issues of the solid waste to become productive, Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Laws has been governed and substituted 1989 rules. It grouped e-waste as slated wastes and is practical Malaysia to regulate transboundary movement of e-waste. Presently, the federal government has provide recommendations to ensure proper pattern on e-waste recycling or safe removal.

Other associated regulations and guidelines related to e-wastes under the jurisdiction of DOE are shown below:

Environmental Quality Work 1974

Environmental Quality (Licensing) Regulations 1977

Environmental Quality (Program Waste) Rules 2005

Environmental (Appointed Waste) Rules 2005 (Amendment) 2007

Environmental Quality (Approved Premises)(Scheduled Waste Treatment And Disposal Facilities) Order 1989

Environmental Quality (Approved Premises)(Scheduled Throw away Treatment And Disposal Facilities) Polices 1989

Environmental Quality (Refrigerant Management) Regulations 1999

Environmental Quality (Prescribed Conveyance) (Agenda Wastes) Order 2005

Guidelines on Import of Scheduled Waste materials EG4/94, Division of Environment

Guidelines on Export of Scheduled Waste products EG1/93, Team of Environment

Guidelines for the Classification of Used Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Malaysia. Division of Environment. 2008.

2. 3 E-waste Collection Focuses on at Material Recovery Facilities in Malaysia

In Malaysia e-waste recyclers are grouped into "full and partial". Full recyclers are those material recovery facilities with the capacity to recycles all part of digital equipment they obtain, while 'Partial recyclers' are people that have limited capability to recycle all part of e-waste they obtain, that is to say that there activities are centred on refurbishment for reuse goal, although they also assist in dismantling and separation before mailing to full recyclers.

2. 4 Electric and electronic product in the marketplace

The path of failure to regulate the problems in e-waste start even before this kitchen appliance enters industry. First, manufacturers won't eliminate hazardous materials or design for disassembly. Second, federal policies neglect to hold manufacturers in charge of end-of-life management of the products. Thus, finally, consumers are the unwitting recipients of an toxic product discontinued by those with the greatest potential to prevent problems. Kept with few alternatives, consumers quickly will utilize recycling and take illegitimate action to dispose their e-waste.

The six extensive categories of illegitimate e-waste disposal the following:

Direct illegal removal e. g. fly tipping

Use of unlicensed misuse management sites

Use of unlicensed carriers, brokers or waste products tourists

Shipping infringements

Mis-description of waste

Unregulated recycling and other removal activities

2. 5 Survey by EPA on import-export activities of e-waste

In 2005, the EPA conducted a 'snapshot' examination of import-export of e-waste from United Status into several countries with reputable disposal facility. Definitely the largest volume of broken CRTs reported to the EPA is exported to Malaysia. Roughly 72 percent (or 51 million kilos) of the exports for which the EPA received notification are delivered to one legitimate center in Malaysia. Canada and Korea, the second largest receivers, imported a considerably smaller volume of CRTs of around 16 and 10 per cent respectively. Compared to these importers (especially Malaysia), Brazil imports hardly any (roughly 1 per cent).

Table : Estimated export volume level by country (kilo)

Sum

Percentage

Canada (2 facilities)

11, 174 kg

16. 34%

Malaysia (1 service)

50, 698, 594 kg

72. 45%

Brazil (1 center)

342, 807 kg

1. 03%

Korea (3 facilities)

7, 103, 175 kg

10. 15%

Total volume

69, 319, 131 kg

Average volume

4, 077, 596 kg

2. 4 Chemical substance chemicals inside e-waste

Component of e-waste is very diverse and differs in the merchandise from another which may contain more than thousand different chemicals, which may fall either under harmful or non-hazardous types. But, many chemicals contained in e-waste are considered hazardous waste. There are numerous sources that used for the production of electronic and electrical home appliances; it could be either natural or synthetic materials. For instance, the material such chromium which is in a natural way occurring product is relatively harmless in nature that used for proposes of creation of digital equipment. However, it become damaging because of its toxicity if incorrect removal that can results human health and the environment.

The combination of the substances, along with smelting and getting rid of of waste, triggers local air pollution and activities from acid bathroom stripping will contaminate floor and surface normal water. These waste also present potential health problems including lung disease, lead poisoning and cancer tumor.

E-waste that generate the contaminant including (OIPC):

Lead in cathode ray pipes (CRTs) and solder;

Arsenic in elderly CRTs;

Antimony trioxide as fire retardant;

Polybrominated flame retardants in vinyl casings, cables and circuit planks;

Selenium in circuit boards as a power supply rectifier;

Cadmium in circuit boards and semiconductors;

Chromium in steel as corrosion protection;

Mercury in switches and enclosure.

There are even more details on some of the dangers posed by e-waste contaminants:

Arsenic

Arsenic can be categorized very extremely poisonous metallic element. As it has entered the environment, it is very cannot be ruined. Contact with this metal can cause serious health effects since it has potential to develop various types of cancers such skin malignancy, liver tumors and lung tumor. However, its semiconductor is important in transformation of electric current to laser beam light and the arsine gas AsH3 is trusted as dopant gas in the microchip industry.

Barium

Barium is also metallic element which is often to create toxic compounds when react with air.

Barium as a drying agent found in sparkplugs and fluorescent bulbs. Contact with low amount of water-soluble barium could cause breathing difficulties, increased blood pressures, stomach soreness, brain swelling and harm to the brains, kidney and liver. It has propensity to cause paralyses and fatality when expose to high concentration of this drinking water soluble barium.

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether, Polybrominated Biphenyl and Tetrabromobisphenol are chemicals that are added to makes flame retardant and also to protect against the chance of accidental fires in a variety of electrical and digital equipment. However, combustion of electronic digital appliances comprising this halogenated materials cause formation poisonous emissions gases such furan and dioxins which are individuals carcinogenic.

Lead

Lead is a malleable soft metal which is well known has many applications and ideal as a solder. Lead-tin solder has been used greatly in electronic components to printed wiring boards, in the a glass of Cathode Ray Pipes for purposes of television or computer monitors. Business lead can cause several unwanted effects, such as it can have an effect on the kidneys, disruption of nervous systems and brain damage. When people exposure to high concentration of business lead even within short time period, it still has potential to cause tiredness, frustration, coma and fatality. Business lead has same attribute with mercury as it tend to accumulate in an individual organism and being moved through food chain.

Mercury

Mercury is one of the most harmful with the feature of bioaccumulation. As mercury get entered into the environment, it cause harm to humans health, quality of family pets life as well as vegetation. It offers very serious poisonous effects when expose to the element as it triggers brain and liver damage if ingested or inhaled. Mercury metal has many uses in switches and other electric powered applications. A degree of mercury is employed in fluorescent lamps.

Methodology

The methodology is a route line to address the aim of study. In the methodology section, it should be planned in organized and has a good strategies to be able to get the important info associated of e-waste. Good data collection and examination will interpret the future situation regards to the problems. This analysis can be classified as primary explanatory research using mixture of books review, data collection and interviews. A number of the information is extracted by main as well as supplementary data from other journalist.

A survey is also conducted to determine the public consciousness regarding the dangerous of e-waste and the management of commercial waste materials of electrical power and electronic kitchen appliances in Putrajaya. The premises and the person that carry up business associated with electric powered and digital equipments are subjected to this survey. Those who deal with commercial e-waste such any people who sells, resells, retails, repairs or gets rid of commercial e-wastes and also other person that related in electric and electric stream especially consumer.

E-waste has significant environmental problem, especially in metropolitan cities since speedy change in technology products, low primary cost of gadgets that cause fast-growing surplus of the kind of wastes in Malaysia. The digital and electrical outlets and shops provide many kinds of products with their customers such as notebooks, cell phones, batteries, televisions, ac units, refrigerators as well as washing machines. The repair centres and people who generate income by mending and troubleshooting of electronic digital equipment are also subjected to fill the questionnaire which will be distributed.

3. 1 Respondent

The concentrate on respondents which will be picked in this research are those people that engage in the blast of commerce with respect to electrical and electronic digital products the owners of electric powered or electrical power company; including sellers, resellers or stores. Repair centre as well as the key statistics in the e-waste sector which is recycling company (Pusat Kitar Semula - Putrajaya) are also subjected to be respondent in this study. Individuals who are residing in Putrajaya personal area will be selected randomly to take part in this survey in order to get the information from the areas on their knowledge associated with e-waste.

3. 2 Data Collection Activities

All the respondents will be preferred randomly to fill up questionnaire form. They are requested to supply the information about how they manage their e-waste as well as the most preferable disposal method of e-waste that are used by respondents to support the environment. The survey also aimed to recognize on the areas knowledge level on hazard of e-waste since e-waste can threatens both environment and real human health. The question on general public awareness and basic understanding of e-waste will be asked in the questionnaire to get more information out of this target group. The respondents are also required to identify the neighborhood government companies that are accountable for the planning and enforcement of regulatory requirements to determine level of their knowledge on e-waste management and suggestions.

3. 3 Method to investigate Data

SPSS

SPSS is complete statistical software programs that used for analyzing dissertation and thesis data and can bring in dissertation data from any kind of file for research. The package is principally aimed at the ones that want to analyze problems and features an array of analytical functions. SPSS is conducted to make tabulated dissertation charts, information, plots of distributions and developments, and expressive reports, and difficult statistical examination making use of the data. Though SPSS appears to be a very user-friendly statistical package deal since it is the easiest method to translate the info into SPSS; this significantly reduces the initial work had a need to explore new data.

XLSTAT

XLSTAT is a Microsoft Excel add-in. It includes over 50 functions which cover almost all of certain requirements for data evaluation and statistics, including multivariate techniques such as discriminant evaluation, correspondence evaluation and clustering, as well as a selection of regression techniques, goodness of fit assessments and tabular sorting. Some utilities have also been included to help charting and data manipulation.

Flow graph of methodology

Issue on e-waste

Establish Target & Scope of Study

Literature Review

Data Collection

Questionnaire

Interview

Case Study

Methods

Respondents

Public

Business persons

Repair EE shop/individual

Analyze the data

XLSTAT

SPSS

Discussion

Conclusion & Recommendation

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