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Assessment Of Community Resource Management Environmental Sciences Essay

This is a community development planning review which analyzed the tool management capacity of decided on barangays given the prevailing frame of mind of men and women (i. e. no sense of ownership of local resources), how local organizations worked to effect security and development of the resources, and how the stakeholders handled these resources. To go after with this purpose, the study protected barangays Ayala, Talisayan, Pamucutan, La Paz, Cawit and Tulungatung - western world shoreline of Zamboanga City. It employed Participatory Source Appraisal (PRA) in data gathering. Data obtained were put through SWOT evaluation.

Results of the analysis discovered that the neighborhoods' resources are so vast and wealthy which barangay officials cannot manage only. LGUs have laudable source management plans that require people's cooperation to apply. However, people do not take part because they imagine this is LGUs' singular responsibility. Meanwhile, buyers, mostly outsiders, have more access to resources, which some over-utilize and/or pollute with commercial wastes.

Results of the study, therefore, indicated a need for barangay officers and the visitors to build their capacity to effectively deal with community resources through collaborative initiatives in all periods of development. Thus, the study recommended a source management action planning to be participated in by both barangay representatives and sector reps.

Introduction

Natural resources are the foundation from which the rural while can get over poverty. (Ferrer, et al, 1996). However, in a country like the Philippines which is known for its wealthy and great natural resources, this is a paradox that poverty is constantly on the reign especially among rural individuals.

Although poverty alleviation and ecological development are components of Philippine administration programs, planning has been focused at the bigger echelon of federal bureaucracy leading to a top down way which does not attain participation of concerned communities leaving no feeling of possession in the programs integrated. Local level involvement and grassroots initiatives are key elements in virtually any community reference management effort. (Ferrer, et al. 1996).

One of the strategies which placed emphasis on community involvement in management of resources and cultural justice is community-based seaside source of information management. Community-based Coastal Learning resource Management (CBCRM) is one of many approaches used because of its emphasis on both natural resources and public justice. Its roots result from two strains of civil society activities in the Philippines, particularly: environmental conservation and human being protection under the law. It undertakes Community Reference Management in the framework of community transformation by ensuring social and economic equity, holistic and built in management, and lasting livelihood and development. Community-based natural source management (CBNRM) is one of the most crucial manifestations of true decentralization as it pertains to control of rural resources. CBNRM programs, if successful, can be models of local empowerment, imbuing areas with greater power over the utilization of natural resources. Beneath the right circumstances, they can also bring important advantages to poor people and poor areas (Holmes & Cooper, 2005).

The ECSOM (Ecosystem-Based Community-Centered Sustainable Development Organization and Management) suggested by the Maximo Kalaw Institute for Sustainable Development, is also one particular community-based lasting development framework. ECSOM supplies the municipality and other sectors, the platform for designing and instituting programs for economical development and poverty alleviation, and affirms what is already provided for in the 1987 Constitution and Local Government Code of 1991 (Roxas S. K. , 2007).

A study is regarded as necessary in building an ecosystem-based community-centered lasting development corporation and participatory management preparatory and pre-feasibility phase. So, emphasis is put on expanding contribution beyond consultation. It is making the folks not mere data resources but also regarding them in the process of data gathering and in building their aspirations, needs and talents toward a just, equitable and lasting future for everyone. On this concept was this analysis anchored, as conducted in barangays Ayala, Talisayan, Pamucutan, Lapaz, Cawit and Tulungatung which form the ECSOM cluster in the west coastline of Zamboanga City.

Method

The study protected the whole neighborhoods of the six barangays in the western coastline of Zamboanga City, as the main subjects of the study. Specifically, it mobilized the next stakeholders from each community: barangay representatives displayed by the Chairperson, Kagawads and Sangguniang Kabataan, the Barangay Health Staff, Day Care Personnel, Purok market leaders and PO leaders, and associates of areas such as; farmers, fisherfolks, women, junior and factory workers.

The study used primarily the Participatory Tool Appraisal (PRA) process that enabled members to unravel and analyze their situation, and in acting/planning independently. The PRA is an approach that evolved from a series of qualitative multidisciplinary method of learning about local-level conditions and local people's perspective including agro ecosystem analysis (IBRD/WB, 1998). It seeks to generate knowledge and then to use that knowledge to enable the members as they create answers to the problems they face. Final results are focused not only on the creation of this change, but also on individual and group empowerment, and the creation of a heightened sense of self-esteem through ownership of the process and the answer (Palloff, 1996, p. 47). Extra data were also gathered and analyzed to generate the barangay information and dished up as type to the development planning process.

Four phases marked the diagnosis process. (1) introduction and development of research design that was inspired and affected by the Ecosystems-Based Community Centered for Sustainable Development Firm and Management (ECSOM); (2) pre-study assessment with respective officers and stakeholders of worried communities to provide the proposed analysis and agree as to its purpose, scope and coverage, also to generate determination of stakeholders to participate in the procedure; (3) mobilization and proposal which entailed the formation and orientation of the PRA team. The actual data collection used PRA tools (reference mapping, public services mapping, development flow graph, seasonality diagram, organizational matrix, historical transect, pie graph of home income and expenditure) facilitated through workshops and focused-group conversations conducted in the six barangays with the individuals as associates in data collection and analysis. Research of data was done at that moment by local research participants during the display of workshop outputs that provided chance for checking and responses, triangulation of conclusions from three (3) resources (e. g. workshops, target group talk and interview with recognized key informants, and extra data) to determine trends and priorities, subjecting data collected to SWOT evaluation, and doing of loan consolidation workshops and data validation; and (4) action planning that was a two-pronged process of (a) proper planning that led to the formulation of the 3-yr development plan and 1-yr investment plan of the barangays consolidated as a cluster arrange for the 6 barangays; and (b) organization building including formation of your viable organizational composition required to operate and implement the cluster plan, filled with vision and quest.

Based on the conceptual circulation of the study, the principal source (input) in data gathering was the creation sectors in the community which included the agricultural and fishery industries as well as the local federal government, community-based people organizations, non-government organizations, and the business enterprise sector. The info gathered from the members were used to look for the state of source of information management practice of the community in terms of availability, gain access to, usage and sustainability.

Results

In order to look for the community reference management capacity of the six barangays, results of the analysis were classified the following: (a) natural source of information (specifically pertaining to the main creation areas i. e. agriculture, fishery and forest resources); (b) basic social services; (c) community infrastructure; and (d) organizational management/ governance.

Results of the study revealed a vast and abundant natural resource platform for the six barangays which comprises of the production areas such as agriculture and fishery. About a 30-kilometre shoreline traverses the coastlines of barangays Ayala, Cawit and Talisayan - female source of fish, lobsters and other sea products for small-scale fishermen. It provides great economical opportunities for both local and international investors who take part in fishing, canning, pack and tin can production, and seafood mill operations, which provide sufficient income to some residents and outsiders. Small-scale fishermen, both citizen and non-residents of the area have lesser usage of fish resources as their sportfishing technology are no match to the best motorboats of commercial fishers. Furthermore, they have finally to go much out at sea as there are almost no fishes close to the shorelines scheduled to water pollution by commercial wastes. In conditions of resource usage, while large-scale fishers take action for commercial purposes, small-scale fisher folks do it generally for subsistence, and whatever extra, they sell (See Stand 1).

Sustainability of marine resources is challenged by air pollution scheduled to dumping of untreated industrial wastes into the sea, and by petrol spill from factories. On the other hand, dynamite angling destroys coral reefs fingerlings. Likewise, the utilization of fish nets by small-scale fishermen, will not also free fingerlings, resulting in decreased level of fishes in the region. Both commercial and small-scale fishers do not heed an existing ordinance on seafood ban through the breeding a few months from October to December.

Table 1

Community Learning resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Marine Resources

Accessed by both big commercial watercraft owned mostly by foreigners and their Filipino companions; and by marginal fishermen, both residents and non-residents of the area.

For seafood canning to provide local and foreign markets.

For subsistence and small-scale sales of fishes by marginal fishermen.

Community Learning resource Management Capacity (Marine Resources)

Approximately, a total of 182 hectares of abundant agricultural land are specialized in rice-farming in the low-lying barangays of Ayala, Cawit and Talisayan. Upland barangays of La Paz, Pamucutan and Tulungatung have rich agricultural farms that produce grain, vegetables, fruits, poultry, and cock. These farms utilize tenant farmers and plantation laborers. La Paz and Pamucutan are engaged in large-scale creation of fruit and vegetables and other high-value crops. Constant skills and technology development in these modes of agricultural development are given by the Team of Agriculture. Earnings and income made from a 50-hectare farm is believed at Php100, 000 per harvest (See Stand2).

The cluster produces sufficient grain supply to the residents of the six barangays. Large areas (in hectares) are specialized in rice farming in the following barangays: Talisayan - 180, Tulungatung - 115, Pamucutan - 100 and Ayala - 40. However, the use of the potentials of the agricultural land learning resource is not maximized as harvest is merely twice a year.

Sustainability-wise, most the farmers do not use organic and natural fertilizer and insecticides and still rely on chemical-based ones. In addition, some farmers complain of lack of post-harvest facilities. Others have difficulty in delivering products to the marketplace scheduled to poor highway condition, giving chance for middlemen or compradors to buy plantation products from farmers at very low price, almost 1/3 of the market price. Kaingin system, which continues to be being employed in some areas, endangers the soil's richness while against the law cutting of trees and shrubs in forest areas to provide the box stock as well as for charcoal making of Talisayan, has resulted in dirt erosion and subsequent siltation in waterways, endangering the supply of water in irrigation systems (See Table 2).

Table 2

Community Tool Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Agricultural Resources

(Agricultural lands, irrigation)

Accessed largely by residents.

Employs residents as tenants or plantation hands.

Vegetable, fruit, rice, poultry and cock farms for subsistence and commercial purposes.

Community Source Management Capacity (Agricultural Resources)

Two (2) major waterways - the Dumalon and Sas streams supply normal water to the irrigation systems of Cawit, Tulungatung, Ayala, Talisayan, and Pamucutan. These streams and their tributaries, apart from being way to obtain irrigation water, also provide good quality fine sand and gravel - a source of a quarrying business flourishing in the area by outside traders (See Table 3).

However, unregulated fine sand and gravel quarrying, in conjunction with cutting of trees and shrubs in forests, has resulted in garden soil erosion and erosion of river lenders and subsequent siltation. This problem has resulted in flooding in adjacent barangays prompting fishpond owners, in Cawit especially, to complain. Aggravating the problem is the dumping of garbage in waterways by some residents. A potential proposed mining exploration can pollute this inflatable water. Moreover, a suggested mining exploration in the region poses yet another threat to rivers through chemical air pollution.

Table 3

Community Source of information Management Capacity (Streams)

Community Learning resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Rivers (with good quality sand and gravel)

(Common tool of the six barangays)

Some barangay people plus some industries have access to forest resources and wildlife

Sand and gravel seen by outside buyers.

Provide normal water for plantation irrigation as well as for household, commercial and

industrial use.

Sand and gravel quarrying for business purposes by non-resident investors.

The Ayala watershed contains 102 hectares, with 277. 46 hectares of close canopy area, 217 hectares of plantation forest, 1. 93 hectares residual forest, 663 hectares cultivated area, and 11. 14 hectares available grass land. There is an existing arrangement between metropolis federal and DENR for the security and conservation of the Ayala watershed that provides potable water to the complete of Zamboanga City.

On the other palm, La Paz watershed is protected and preserved through the occurrence of the WMSU College of Forestry and Environmental Studies WMSU experimental task which protects 1, 277 hectares planted to indigenous trees and shrubs. But residents access and illegally minimize trees and shrubs, including bacawan trees, essentially for building homes and other similar structures, without reforestation. There is also rampant reducing of trees to provide raw materials for the package factory in Talisayan. Noticeably some forest areas are steadily denuded.

The variety of wildlife like deer, wild pigs, monkeys, tarsiers and birds is increasingly lowering due to constant hunting by local residents and those from neighboring areas like Sibuco, Zamboanga del Norte. There is no barangay ordinance to regulate the activity.

Table 4

Community Learning resource Management Capacity (Forest, Watershed, Wildlife)

Community Source Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Forest trees and shrubs and wildlife

Occupied by farmers under stewardship program.

Landowners and local populace get access to forest resources.

Residents and non-residents have access to animals resources.

Farmers raise fruit and vegetables.

Landowners decrease trees for development.

Wildlife hunted for food by residents and non-residents.

Ayala -La Paz Watershed

Protected area

Source of potable water for commercial, professional and home use.

Although the rich mineral resources in some barangays stay untapped, there is a proposal of the mining company do to mining exploration in Baluno and La Paz covering around 5-7 hectares. Residents highly oppose the proposal having experienced the consequences of mining done by Zambales Mining at La Paz ten years back. Ayala farmers were also damaged because these were not able to plant for almost ten years. You may still find remains of poisonous substances in the riverbeds because of the Zambales mining procedures more than a decade previously. Today, some residents engage in camote mining (small-scale) for subsistence (See Table 5).

Table 5

Community Tool Management Capacity (Forest)

Community Learning resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Mineral Resources (e. g. silver, copper, zinc, manganese and ore within La Paz and Pamucutan)

Access is bound to residents in the area who engage in small-time mining activities or 'camote-mining'.

To meet subsistence needs.

Social services within the six barangays, mandated of barangays local government systems (BLGU), are day care and attention services, elementary and secondary schools, health center, barangay hall, church or masjid, and cemetery. Health services are available 24/7 although some medical facilities lack. Basic education is well-provided in the six barangays, with only two barangay high institutions serving the complete cluster. The main problem of these institutions is inadequate university facilities. Various organizations within the barangays which offer microfinance facilities are KFI, TAYTAY, Ayudahan and ASA. Land Loan company itself offers up to Php300, 000-loan to farmer coops. Lending options are availed of in order to finance family enterprise or to subsidize rice farming inputs. However, anticipated to poverty, loan proceeds are occasionally used to buy basic needs. But the sadder thing is the fact others devote to vices (See Table 6).

Table 6

Community Learning resource Management Capacity (Basic Sociable Services)

Community Basic Resource

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Health

Generally accessible to residents thru barangay health centers, lying-in clinic in Ayala and wellness center in La Paz, which operate 24/7.

However, not so accessible to residents of La Paz and Pamucutan anticipated to distance and insufficient transporation.

High usage.

Education

Pres-school and primary education are available in all six barangays.

Secondary education available only in Ayala and Talisayan.

In La Paz, households are dispersed so that it is problematic for children to wait school anticipated to distance.

School children avail of universities.

Credit facilities

Several microfinance facilities operating in the area (KFI, MEMPCO, TAYTAY, Ayudahan and ASA)

Land Bank offers up to Php300, 000-loan to farmer coops.

For family organization or to subsidize rice farming inputs; some spend proceeds to buy basic needs; others, on vices.

As mandated, all the six barangays have their respective elected Barangay Councils. Federal government line organizations as well as instrumentalities of metropolis administration do their part in dealing with the essential services needs of the populace. Community-based organizations are also operating in the area such as women's organizations, farmers' associations, and youth associations, sustainability which are challenged by the actual fact that these are mainly leader-driven. The neighborhood catholic chapel exerts a degree of effect in the affairs of these communities. A number of non-government organizations also use projects in these which offer free medical services and cover projects, to mention a few. Local and national line businesses of the government also provide services to the barangays. Furthermore, the Zamboanga City Normal water Area and the Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative also prolong their services (See Table 7).

Table 7

Community Source Management Capacity (Operational Management And

Governance)

Resources

Available

Access

Utilization

Sustainability

Office of the Barangay Council per barangay

Line organizations:

DepEd, DOLE, PNRC, PCSO, DAR, DSWD, CSWDO, PNP, FD, CAO, CEO, others.

Most accessible structural reference to all constituents

Utilized by people for negotiation of disputes; emergency assistance; issuance of certificates; and making impartial decisions on barangay affairs.

Barangay officials readily available.

There is a need to reinforce their capacity to control and regulate usage of community resources thru ordinances and resolutions.

NGOs/Pos

People in neighborhoods get access to account in POs.

People get access to services provided by NGOs in the region like Gawad Kalinga, Glee Club, Kasanyangan Foundation, Inc. (KFI), Tzu Chi Base and USAID Equals.

Community people take benefit of the services and specialized assistance offered by NGOs and POs like cover tasks and loan grants.

Usually, these organizations are leader-driven.

Not fully useful as leaders are lacking in capacities.

Organizations need continuous capacity building.

Only few customers sustain their account.

The six barangays included in the study involve some if not absolutely all of the essential community infrastructures. The barangays have their individual Barangay Halls or Barangay Office buildings. Multi-purpose protected courts are also available in these barangays which were constructed inside college campuses yet others in donated lands. Barangay Ayala specifically has a mini-gymnasium where open public occurrences and activities are oftentimes presented. Other community infrastructures available in these barangays will be the properties which house the health centers, day attention centers and the institutions.

Discussion

The study revealed the existence a massive and abundant community resource bottom part in the clustered barangays, specifically, natural resources. However the people stay generally poor. Some reap the benefits of industries through job, but this is seasonal. Results of the analysis also mentioned that the areas have lesser usage of some resources than outsiders; and they cannot manage their natural resources effectively, giving outside buyers to bring havoc to these resources through air pollution and over-utilization. Barangay local government units admit they need to formulate more ordinances to safeguard the resources, while, existing ordinances are barely implemented. Meanwhile, the rape of the surroundings flourishes. Obviously, the destruction wrought by industries outweighs the benefits from their projects, especially on the long-term.

Although residents have high access to agricultural lands, farmers are beset with lack of farm facilities and needed infrastructure. Infrastructure may be the economy's backbone. Power and water supply, vehicles and communication systems are all important elements in people's pursuit to boost their quality of life. Conquering poverty means specific and collective empowerment, building up beneficial and income generating capacities and increasing opportunities. This requires a clear understanding of the activities of poor people and of the natural, social, economic and political environment where they live. In addition, it requires supportive policies, establishments, services and investment (IFAD, 2006).

The review also revealed that the barangay LGUs have very good learning resource management ideas. However, these remain unimplemented. Given the vastness of the cluster's resources, and considering the scope of the undesireable effects of inappropriate resource utilization both by residents and non-residents of the barangays, local officers certainly cannot take action alone. This politics exercise necessitates the engagement of excellent stakeholders - people, even at the planning stage. In addition, it necessitates concerted effort among the six barangays who are intertwined by the ecosystem.

Community based reference management is not only about communities taking on the mechanised management responsibilities. In addition, it requires involving neighborhoods in all periods of making decisions about the type and path of development and conservation (Mekong Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme, 2004).

However, the study indicated that most local folks continue to be passive about their role in handling community resources. To them, this is actually the singular responsibility of administration officials. Thus, there's a need for a two-way paradigm change: (a) for local representatives to encourage people involvement even at the look level of development initiatives, based on local officers' mandate (1991 MUNICIPALITY Code); and (b) for local people to understand and appreciate their essential role in purposively planning and controlling their resources for maximum gain access to and sustainability.

Cognizant of the imperatives, the participants of the analysis proceeded with the formulation of the Three-Year Development Plan and the One-Year Investment Plan. The planning activity was an exercise in community-based reference planning that involved the representatives of the many sectors of the city together with local officers who participated in the analysis, as encouraged by ECSOM and since recommended by the analysis team.

The cluster members furthermore institutionalized their programs by forming the cluster firm called the Alyansa de Costa Oeste Para Progreso Y Prosperidad, and created committees to go after the identified priority projects. The biggest challenge given that confronts the clustered communities is how to maintain the momentum and achieve their goals.

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