Nowadays the demand of marine resources constantly increases. The growing demand stimulates the introduction of fishery and other sea resources exploitation. However, the unreasonable use of marine resources can cause the fatal damage to some ecosystems also to the global ecosystem of the world ocean. The over fishing is a main concern. The US Food and Agriculture Organization, or FAO, provides the statistics about the global production from take fisheries in the world. In the recent 2 decades (beginning with 1985) the reported landings of marine get fisheries have fluctuated between 80 and 86 million shades per season (DKNVS statement, 2006) However, the constantly increasing contribution of growing countries and China leads to the progressive development of captive fisheries quantity. At exactly the same time, the overfishing in a few regions has recently led to ecosystem degradation plus some varieties extinction. Analytics think that at the nearest future the fish will remain the progressively more high-value item, and the global demand to the fish and marine products will continue to grow.
The use of other marine resources, like energy resources, mineral deposits, and gene pool, also grows and can lead to overuse and ecosystem degradation, too. In the aggregate the human exploitation of the marine resources and other factors of individuals influence, like this inflatable water pollutions and coastal agriculture, can result in the irreversible changes in the ecosystem of the sea up to the full total degradation. Nowadays the technical potential of humankind doesn't have the technologies of sea ecosystem resurrection.
The thesis of the paper the next: the real human exploitation of the marine sources must be controlled to prevent overfishing and other sorts of overuse, or the ecosystem of the global ocean can be irreparably broken.
Humans will be the link in the meals chain so the human activity has an impact on ecosystems. Even early human societies changed the encompassing ecosystems. Nowadays the expansion of human population and its impact on the environment escalated the condition on the global size. Sure, the exploitation of the land resources is more active than the exploitation of the sea sources. There are various terrestrial ecosystems destroyed and ruined with human being factors. However, the low acceleration of marine life routine causes harder resurrection of the pelagic sources. The principal difference in the human being exploitation on the land and on the ocean is the next: on the land the humankind rebuilt the structure of terrestrial ecosystems and changed the wild species with the domestic species. In the ocean the important kinds weren't replaced. They truly became extinct and the extinction of some marine kinds resulted in the degradation of sea ecosystems. Regardless of the existing fisheries regulations, the last majority of the fish companies throughout the sea are overfished. Not merely fishes but marine pets or animals like turtles and whales and some species suffer from population reduction up to 40% comparatively to the population volume a century back. Some popular kinds are almost getting close to extinction, for example, blue-fin tuna.
There are three types of overfishing, or three sorts of direct effects of captive overfishing. To help make the maximal gain per recruit the fish should grow to the proper average size. The fishery of the smaller fish is a rise overfishing. To replenish the population it is necessary the proper percent of mature adults. The scarcity of mature people in the population to the low the level of reproductive capacity is a recruitment overfishing. The change in the balance of ecosystem caused by fishery and protecting against the population development is an ecosystem overfishing. All three types of overfishing have negative impact on the ecosystem.
Thus, the exploitation of marine resources should become more careful and realistic because of lower temp of resurrection.
There are also some indirect ramifications of overfishing, and the reduction in biodiversity is one of them. Losing in biodiversity is a serious treat to the ecosystem in a complete. "The cumulative loss of species-from inconspicuous worms to large fish-sharply reduces the ability of sea life to avoid diseases, filter pollutants and rebound from strains such as overfishing and climate change" (Blankenship, 2006) The many studies show that higher rate of biodiversity is the bottom of health insurance and stability of ecosystem, as well as its capability to recuperate. However, the overfishing and the collapse of some the most popular kinds create the development, which can lead to the total collapse of ocean ecosystem in 2048 (Blankenship, 2006). The careful fishery management can avoid the total collapse however the strict restrictions and bans should be applied without delay.
Italian scientist Lorenzo Camerano discussed the issue of double-sided rules in 1880 calendar year. The issue is pursuing: the high amount of parrots can reduce the society of the insets in ecosystem, however, the number of birds can be high only on those regions were the massive amount food (mainly pests) is available. (Sheffer et al, 2005)This specific example illustrates the top-down and bottom-up system of rules in the ecosystem. The bottom-up rules is the main system of natural legislation and the marine ecosystems are no exception. However, the individual interference is an essential aspect of top-down rules, which changes the natural regulation in ecosystems including marine ones. The nature of food chain is similar atlanta divorce attorneys ecosystem: solar technology and inorganic ingredients are transformed by autotrophs, chemotrophs and litotrophs through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis to organic compounds. Then the organic ingredients are altered by heterotrophs into the more complex organic and natural ingredients. The predators are the highest website link in the pyramid. Usually the amount of predators is controlled by the number of low-level microorganisms. The disappearance of predators from the meals chain can result in the unrestrained progress of low-level organisms' people.
The sea ecosystems have their specific features. The role of photosynthesis isn't as significant such as terrestrial ecosystems. On the other hand, nearly all chemotrophic organisms inhabit the sea. The primary maker in the sea ecosystem is phytoplankton and the seafood is a primary natural predator. Nowadays the very best positions in the food web of most ecosystems are occupied with people. The overfishing, or the extinction the key natural fishing, can result in trophic cascading results changes in the ecosystems.
The ecosystem of Canadian East Seacoast, hardly harmed with cod overfishing, is suffering from this changes in the ecosystem. The east shoreline of Newfoundland was historically known as the spot of fishery. The article in the Greenpeace archive instructs that in 1497 season the explorer John Cabot published the huge cod school "virtually obstructed his ship". Five decades following the Canadian federal government totally restricted the fishery in this area due to collapse of ecosystem.
After the loss of large fish people following degree of the meals web - small fishes and large invertebrates, such as northern shrimp and northern snow crab - significantly increased the populace volume. The progress on this food-web level caused the lack on its nutritive platform, large plant-eating zooplankton (> 2 mm). The decrease of zooplankton, in its turn, became the reason behind phytoplankton population level increase. The unpredicted (but natural) result was the exponential upsurge in seal populations. The top fishes like cod contend with seals in the food web for the nourishment basic. The extinction of main competition allowed growing the seal society.
The economic consequences of cod overfishing were also significant. Thus, the cod companies have began to recover in areas south of 44 diplomas north. The demanding bans can help to restore the cod population and to go back the ecosystem to its first state. However, other areas north of 44 diplomas North the cod stock failed to retrieve despite a nearly complete shutdown of cod angling. The coastal areas of Newfoundland still have problems with the job reduction and battle to recover.
The changes in marine ecosystem lead to the shift in commercial fishery to the low-level of food-web, smaller fishes and crabs. Nowadays the economical value of the shrimp and crab fisheries is more than the earlier value of the cod fishery.
There are also various other indirect ramifications of oversifishing that are not so visible, but they also donate to the general problem.
The lack of macrofauna brings about the increased loss of ecosystem structure and the rise of "pests". Generally pests will be the species damaging to humans. In the case of degraded sea ecosystems pests will be the invasive species. With the lack of restrictive factors such species are able to congest the ecosystem and push out virtually all native kinds declining the biodiversity. For instance, European inexperienced crab, the native inhabitant of Baltic sea and the northern area of the Atlantic ocean, became the invasive specie in the seas of Australia, South Africa and SOUTH USA.
The "ghost angling" is result from doing some fishing nets lost of still left in the ocean by fishermen. The nets are almost unseen in the dim underwater light. They can drift for a long distance. Fishes, marine family pets, sea birds and even individuals divers can be captured and entangled with the web. The web restrict motion and can cause the disease, hunger and suffocation. The quantity of "ghost fishing' can rarely be examined because the most victims go down the ocean bottom.
The need for fishery management rises together with the fishery development. Typically the most popular methods of over fishing avoidance are the implementation of angling quotas, boundaries and bans, the development of fishing farms rather than captive fishery, the coastal zone management plus some other options.
Studies and analyses show that in the nearest future the sustainability concerns will increase due to environmental controversy. The growing demand will demand the increase of fishery however the protection of marine ecosystems will require the stringent bans, restrictions and control. The developed countries should put into action the environmental polices and institutions first and provide the same norms to the growing countries. The use of fishoil and feashmeal should become the important problem of the national coverage. For example, China bans the fishery in the South China Sea for the certain period every year. However, all the quotas and limitations cause the protests and amount of resistance from fishermen.
The angling farms are rather new but successful kind of seafood creation. "According to FAO statistics, the contribution of aquaculture to global resources of seafood, crustaceans and molluscs continues to grow, increasing from 3. 9 percent of total production by weight in 1970 to 29. 9 percent in 2002. Worldwide, the sector has grown at the average rate of 8. 9 percent per season since 1970, weighed against only 1 1. 2 percent for shoot fisheries and 2. 8 percent for terrestrial farmed meat-production systems on the same period. " (DKNVS report, 2006) the switch to the fish farming from the captive sportfishing is rather slow. However, the fish farming can help to protect and even avoid the extinction of marine kinds. Thus, last year in Australia the first land farm of southern blue-fin tuna was founded. The blue-fin tuna is extremely popular fish because of its buttery meat, for this reason this species is nearly collapsed. The land farm fishing is a real fishing alternative and should be developed.
The Norwegian experience shows that coastal zone projects for each municipality can be quite useful. These ideas should designate the zones for tourism and entertainment, for agriculture; for certain fishery related activities and protected zones. These ideas should be modified inside a certain period of time regarding the results of activities.
The pelagic stocks and options should be shielded not only from overfishing but form the pollutions and the issue of global sea environmental cover will receive more attention worldwide. The usage of fish products in the terrestrial agriculture (like the utilization of fishoil as the supplements) should be reconsidered and reduced. Among the list of other procedures of pelagic stocks protection should be the lowering and mitigation of the environmental impacts of extensive aquaculture. At last, the global organizations worldwide should develop the programs of poverty lowering on the seaside areas. It's important to reduce the volume of the captive fishery, both legal and unlawful, and change the fishery to fish farming.
The overfishing is in the emphasis of the research; however, it is necessary to mention other kinds of marine resources exploitation. Aside from the biomass resources like fish, plant and marine invertebrates, the sea resources are the natural resources (underwater deposits of engine oil, gas and mineral deposits and the nutrients dissolved in the ocean water), the power resources (thermal energy, influx energy, etc), and the gene pool. The development of underwater oil debris (just offshore drilling) were only available in the 19s century. For more than a century it became clear that offshore drilling changes the sea ecosystems in your community. The recent car accident on the BP olive oil platform in the Caribbean Sea seduced the attention of global publicity to the challenge of offshore drilling environmental impact and renewed the hot debates about the issue. The essential oil price development stimulates the offshore drilling development, however the environmental damage of computer overweighs the profits from engine oil trade in the long-term point of view.
The genetic potential of marine resources also draws in the attention to the marine sources. The biological and chemical diversity of the pelagic resources are well-known. Unique chemical substances have a great potential for the plastic, pharmaceutics, and agrochemical companies.
The global sea also hosts more than 300, 000 varieties of plant life and family pets, and the scientists claim nearly all deep-water species continues to be undiscovered. Thus, the gene pool of marine biomass is a field of active research. The observations in Norwegian sea industries supply the information that "a comparatively small number of marine plants, pets, and microbes have previously yielded more than 12, 000 novel chemicals. A number of the marine bioactive chemicals (with industrial applications as technological compounds, lab tools or elements in makeup products) already are sold and generate high benefits to mankind (and traders)" (DKNVS record, 2006).
Thus, the chemical compounds arabinosides extracted from the sponge, Tethya crypta, can be used in antiviral pharmacology and as the medicine in the severe myeloid leukemia treatment. They have a market probable up to $50 million gross annual sales.
The further research of the sea kinds and their probable will lead to the excess focus on the marine resources. However, the exploitation of any sea learning resource can be carefully been able and controlled to avoid the collapse of sea ecosystem.
The researches of marine resources discover new and new potential of its commercial use. The gene pool and the variety of chemical compounds in the sea open new choices in pharmacology, commercial chemistry, cosmetic makeup products, etc. Modern solutions permit the development of just offshore drilling and the underwater mining. However, the overuse of these possibilities can lead to the collapse of sea ecosystem. The exemplory case of overfishing shows the possible consequences of marine options overuse. The fishery is out there as long and humankind, thus its outcomes are the most evident and significant. The overshishing triggers the loss of diversity in ecosystems, the tropic cascading effects, and even the collapse of some varieties. It is the treatment to overall ecological unity of the ocean.
The fishery management can slowdown the ecosystem degradation preventing the irreparable harm. The modern techniques of fishery management include fish quotas and bans, fish farming, coastal area management plus some other global management like the struggle with poverty in the coastal zones. The human being factor already created the craze to the collapse of ocean ecosystem, and the immediate measurer are essential to avoid it.