Aristotles four causes theory uphold that the complexities can be grouped into varies divisions. The 4 causes are based on general laws, and these causes are from the question of why something is. To answer such question is to provide a cause. Any artifact can be divided to these four causes. There is the Material Cause, Formal Cause, Efficient Cause and the ultimate Cause. The Material Cause is the essential element that makes up something, quite simply the cause of the object. For example the Material cause of a table would be wood, without the wood the table cannot exist unless these were present in its work. The Formal Cause pertains the appearance or pattern with which these materials are accumulated. Including the Formal Reason behind a table is the arrangement, shape, and the design. Efficient Cause is the source or designer of this from which finished. became what it is. For instance the Efficient Cause of a table will be the carpenter who managed to get. Thus, the table is the table it is, as a result of particular carpenter who managed to get. Lastly, the ultimate cause is the end (telos), the best purpose or exact form of this object that comes to be. The final reason behind a table would be to place meals or even to place objects together with it. For Aristotle it is rather important to understand the goal of something in order to comprehend how to live a life ethically particularly humans. This is part of the explanation of the table's existence, for it would never have been built in the first place.
Give a brief critical analysis of Aristotle's notion of Happiness.
The central question of ethics for Aristotle is, exactly what does it take for human beings to lead a good life? Aristotle outlines 3 points that he thinks need to be fulfilled for a few purpose to be ultimate.
Ultimate goal has to be self- sufficient.
Final goal. In other words something you want for its own sake, much less stepping stone for something else
Since All activities have a final cause, or contributes to some other desire, Ultimately for Aristotle the one goal that appears to fulfill each one of these stipulations was Happiness (eudaimonia). Not in the narrow sense of mental or emotional state but rather in the sense of physical condition or flourishing. If humans can find happiness, happiness by its self is self- sufficient. Aristotle says that individuals need to make choices and in order to make choices we must develop certain habits or virtues, that may allow you to make the right choices. People need to comprehend and even essential to be taught the virtues habits. You need to develop these virtues to develop a happy life, however the virtues will be the means to the finish. How do we accomplish that end? In order to understand that, we need to understand how Aristotle understood the human soul. Aristotle divided the soul into 3 parts. The basic area of the soul is basically vegetative. Our anatomies grow and develop alone without almost any conscious control. Similarly, to the vegetable world because it occurs totally without rational control. Above the vegetable soul, it is the animal level, the level of desires. As humans Aristotle says we've certain responsibility to regulate our desires otherwise we would simply be no different then animals. And lastly there is the rational area of the soul which controls the pet desires, as well as seeks for higher types of learning, education and higher types of gratification. Happiness is the activity of the soul according to reason and these activities must be according to virtue and excellence. If there are several virtues & excellences then they must be the highest activity. In the event that you detain happiness, you might only die happy. Aristotle distinguishes 2 types of virtues. 1. Intellectual Virtue and Moral virtue. Intellectual Virtue originates from teaching and Moral virtue originates from Habituation. We acquire these virtues through virtue's acts. Aristotle considers the life span of the Gods, because the experience of your God is contemplation. Which can be the highest form of activity of the soul to attain Happiness. The Gods are engaged in intellectual virtues. The Gods aren't considering human affairs. When there is a perfect life for Aristotle, which happiness it is in this existence, its the here and now not in the afterlife. The wise person is the one that studies the most, and the the one that studies the most is the the one which is loved by the Gods, because he's performing a task the is accepted by the Gods. Therefore, Aristotle would say that if you reached happiness then you have achieved the best human existence.
Does Plato make a convincing case for why philosophers should rule society?
According to Plato, the society is to consist of three classes - workers, warriors and rulers. Each which must adhere to completing their direct commitment. As to the rulers, Plato's opinion regarding them is very interesting and various from the views of other philosophers. Inside the "Republic", he dwell on different types of rulers, which vary from democrat to tyrant, and he come to the conclusion that philosopher would be most suitable choice for the country due to number of characteristics. For instance, considering the aspect of love for honor, the dialogue between Plato and Socrates is shaped in the following way: "How about an honor-lover?. . . A rich man is honored by many people, so is a courageous one and a wise one, but the pleasure of studying things that are cannot be tasted by anyone except for a philosopher. "(Cohen M. C. , p. 567) Another reason behind the philosopher to be considered the best ruler according to Plato is the fact that unlike the rest of the rulers (monarch or tyrant), the philosopher is inclined to consider truth rather than prove his rightness to others. The philosopher is definitely available to new ideas and it is not likely to work with conventional methods which do not suit the problem. As the ideal candidate for the position of the ruler of their state is known as by Plato to be always a philosopher, there are two logical means of realization of this idea: a philosopher must turn into a king or a king mist turn into a philosopher. In any event leads to building a harmonious and strong state where everyone understands his place and fulfills his obligations honestly. It goes without saying that Plato's works are filled with bright ideas, inspiration and aspire to improve the society he lived in. Moreover, they are still very topical and the majority of them underlie modern philosophical concepts. However his theory is hard to implement in true to life due to its idealistic nature and the type of the human animal.
What is the relationship between the sun simile, the divided line and the allegory of the cave in Plato's Republic?
The Allegory of the cave in the Republic illustrates the effects of the education on the soul. It really is a story showing how true the truth is not always that which you think it is. It is a tale of tolerance and the power of possibility. Plato sums the Plato imagines a group of prisoners who've been kept in the cave their whole lives. They are chained so they could not see behind themselves and they're forced to stare at the cave wall in front of them. In it a fire is burning and between the prisoners and the fire is an elevated walkway. Each day a menagerie of objects cross the walkway such as animals, and people. Their shapes create a shadow play on the wall in front of the prisoners. This is actually the only world the prisoners have ever known. Then one day a prisoner was dragged from the cave in to the sun light, over time adjusting to the blinding light, he noticed that it was sunlight that governed everything in the visible realm and which was in one way or another accountable for everything they use to see. That is obviously the next stage. The free prisoner began to experience the world beyond the cave for the very first time and it was nothing like he might have ever imagined. Along with his new perception of the world the person returns to his friends and wants to convince them that what they were seeing was just an illusion. But the prisoners cannot recognize their own friend, he appearance as everything do, a shadow with distorted voice. This will not make the world beyond the cave any less real. The divided line explains Plato's theory of how knowledge works and how we come to obtain knowledge and clarity of the soul. Within the Allegory of the Cave the line simile explains the four types knowledge from lowest to the best. They are, Illusions, Belief or Trust, Mathematical Knowledge and last but not least Philosophical Knowledge. It illustrates that the reality works after we deal with reality. The Allegory of the Cave explains that if we want to seek the true truth we have to accept the pain of dropping our preconceived notions of what truth was before. The light of the fire inside the dwelling is the power of sunlight, which represents the form or character of the good. Once it's seen the conclusion must be that it turns out to be the reason for all that is right and good for everything.
Aristotle appears to argue that people are accountable for our moral character. However, if childhood training counts for a lot in developing moral character, . if we ourselves are not responsible for the training we receive?
Virtue is a disposition involving choice. There are 2 parts to virtues. Intellectual virtue and Moral virtue. Intellectual virtue comes from teaching and moral virtue comes from habit. A significant person raises their children in a virtues way, since virtue comes with training and habituation. Therefore, we can say that it is obvious that people are not born with these characteristics but acquired them through nature of act. . We are responsible for the sort of individuals we became, because we form our moral character through choices and actions. For instance, a relationship (virtue), can be nourished through love and commitment one to the other. It's not something that you can do inevitably but rather, voluntary. We have been what we should are, as a result of things that people repeatedly do, and really should not act ignorant nor make excuses. Example, becoming pianist by playing the piano, we became simply by doing just actions. If it weren't for our actions then teachers wouldn't be needed, for we'd be born with such qualities.
Explain Aristotle's Doctrine of the mean.
The doctrine of mean is Aristotle's declaration to search for the middle ground, extremes exist in almost every facet of life and one should seek for the mean. This mean is no absolute one but a relative one, customized to the situation and person. But the location is obviously in between the 2. For example in Nicomachean Ethics he lists the following examples; regarding fear and confidence the mean is courage, excess in confidence causes foolhardy and excess in fear contributes to cowardice and with respect to honor and disgrace the mean is high-mindedness, more than honor is called vanity and deficiency of it could be called humility or small-mindedness.