Posted at 11.21.2018
In order to understand Antoni Gaudi's creative perspective we must go through the context in which he worked. It seems that earlier studies of Gaudi have never researched thoroughly into positioning him within this cultural context; and also have alternatively preferred to outline him as a lonely reclusive body or concentrated on his sophisticated architectural forms. This dissertation will explore whether politics, social and economical advancements in the late 19th and 20th Decades in Catalonia and Spain demonstrated touchstones for the architect, his work and his immediate circle; and whether these factors inspired his creative decisions and have been overlooked throughout his life.
The work is composed of three inter-related portions. The first section will discuss Gaudi's Catalan origins, and early social influences. Park G?ell will be utilized to illustrate this. The next section explores Catalan nationalism, interpersonal classes and the climb of Catalan industrial capitalism. It will examine the politics turmoil and tensions between Castile and Catalonia, like the three Carlist wars, which were fought from Catalan territory, the disastrous effects after Spain's loss of her empire in 1898, and the impact of Tragic Week in 1909. It'll consider how these may have afflicted Gaudi and his working rationale. This section will be analysed through the exemplory case of the Casa Mila. The third section will study Gaudi's transfer in faith and the impact that this experienced on his structures. This may be shown through the exemplory case of the Sagrada Familia (Holy family) Cathedral.
This discussion starts by considering the view expressed by Clara Gari of the Catalan architect's methodology:
Perhaps why is an instant understanding difficult in Gaudi's work is its daring and exciting uncertainty, that range which slips between architectural 'code' and 'structure'. Such ambiguity is accentuated much more when the matrixes from which Gaudi extracts a established stylistic 'code' are not always evidently evidenced. But instead they appear, normally happens, ambiguously lost as a consequence of a sort of intervention, before the adoption of the chosen 'code', which by way of a distorted lens, varies the facets and the color in it, tricking us with a free all embracing carry out, and with an root energy immediately emanated from the ethnic traditions which is difficult to simplify'
Gari seems to be commenting that, despite Gaudi's classical education and training as an architect, he could associated risk being very radical in his use of the accepted architectural codes and set ups of his time. In Gaudi's work, rules and structures appear to be handed down through the filtration system of his imagination and his Catalan id, and are changed into something can happen distorted but can have a robust effect after us as observers.
Antoni Placid Guillem Gaudi I Cornet was created in Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain on June 25, 1852, into a family which had result from a long type of Catalan sellers, miners, farmers, weavers, boilermakers and coppersmiths. Gaudi was unveiled to the family build tradition young when observing his father in his workshop. He was proud of this heritage and once said: 'I have the grade of spatial apprehension because I am the son, grandson, and the fantastic grandson of coppersmiths. . . Each one of these generations of people gave me prep. ' Gaudi's predecessors came from a cross-Pyrenean culture that bordered the MEDITERRANEAN AND BEYOND and were accustomed to absorbing affects from different cultures, while somehow retaining their own Catalan identity. The Catalan words, for example, is nearer to the tongue of Languedoc in France than it is to Castilian which is spoken in the majority of Spain. Joan Bergos explains in his book, Gaudi the man and his works, that: 'Gaudi's lineage therefore has profound, if distant origins in central European countries, blended with the virtues traditionally found on the list of people of Tarragona, a typically Mediterranean people, keen, industrious, courageous when confronted with adversity and relatively willing to irony. ' The Mediterranean region of Tarragona, using its natural environment and quality of light, are components of the rural world that Gaudi seems to provide as recommendations to his architectural forms. His love of character began as a little child, when arthritis rheumatoid, made physical exploration and play agonizing and difficult and he was limited to traveling around on the back of the donkey, corresponding to family stories, he was able to analyze his natural area and also to create his own imaginary world. Perhaps because of his difficult begin in life Gaudi may are suffering from an inner world of illusion, shape, structure and colour, made by his understanding of the artisan's build and the natural forms found in his environment.
Gaudi originated from a deeply religious family and received an intensive Catholic spiritual education generated from the continuation of middle ages Guilds. This would have included obligatory prayer to the Virgin, Christian doctrine, spiritual morals and spiritual background. By 1874, at the age of 22, Gaudi had moved to Barcelona along with his sibling Francesc; and here he started his preparation to train as an architect at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura (Top Technical University of Structures). Here he examined Spanish structures which would have focused upon its many ethnic customs, including: Phoenician, Roman, Greek, Visigothic, Celtic, Arab, Berber and Jewish. These could have been completely soaked up into the thinking of contemporary design so that there is no prejudice from the adoption of Islamic motifs and icons. One could imagine how important this multi-faceted ethnic heritage of Spain could have been for the development of Gaudi's own method of architecture. Gaudi also appeared to promote the concerns and ideals that bounded the vibrant and intellectual atmosphere during his children, and would have been inspired by the famous intellectuals of that time period: Pugin, Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc. The last mentioned was responsible for the Gothic revival in France as a pupil of Le Grand Durand he had inspired France's adoption of Renaissance models and 'rationalist' approach to city planning, which got put the united states at the forefront of European creative and architectural debate. You can also presume that Gaudi experienced read the work of the English writer Ruskin, where he suggests, in his publication: The seven bulbs of Architecture:
' I say that if men really lived like men, their residences would end up like temples which we'd not dare to violate so easily and in which it might be a privilege to have. There must be some odd dissolution of family love, a strange ingratitude towards everything that our residences have given us and our parents have taught us, a weird awareness of our infidelity with admiration and love for our father, or perhaps an awareness that our life is not to make the house sacred in the eyes of our kids, which induces every one of us to want to create for ourselves, and build limited to the little trend in our personal life. I see these unpleasant concretions of mud and limestone that skyrocket like mushrooms in the boggy fields around our capital. . . I check out them not only with the repulsion of the offended view, not only with the pain that is the effect of a disfigured surroundings, not with the unpleasant presentiment that the root base of our nationwide grandeza will need to have infected with gangrene right down to their tips as soon as that they were planted in this unpredictable manner in out indigenous earth. '
It seems that Ruskin's moral and aesthetic dilemma was the one which Gaudi would also experience as a professional architect, and he would move between his support of socialist ideals and various privileged cable connections with the aristocracy and upper midsection classes (his possible clients) throughout his life. Gaudi was found out by the bourgeoisie without whom his architecture would not stand today. Nonetheless it seems he had not been indifferent to the communal life of his era and its own contradictions. Other contemporaries working towards these ideals, were: Elies Rogent (1821-1897), whose design of Barcelona's University or college building was influenced by the German Rundbogenstil, which was a Neo-classical rounded arch; Joan Martorell (1833-1906) who designed the Neo-gothic brick and glazed-tiled cathedral of Saint Francesc de Sales (1885); Josep Vilaseca who collaborated with Lluis Domènech i Montaner (1850-1923) on the Batlo tomb (1885). As his ex - professor at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura, Lluis Domènech i Montaner was at the forefront of the Catalan Modernist motion, also known as the 'Renaixenca' (or Rebirth), which encouraged art, theater and literature in the Catalan terms. He was also accountable for designing the Palau de la Musica Catalana which symbolises the approaching jointly of the Catalan nationalist sentiment and international culture. It also shows a particular link with Gaudi's Colonia Guell, Casa Vicens and Playground Guell, though its elaborate ornamentation, sculptures and colourful ceramic mosaics, which seem to make reference to a deep reference to Catalan aspect and nationalism that were apparent at the time. This connection can be seen in the leaf and flower habits on the facade of the Palau de la Musica Catalana that are inspired by Moorish structures and used the curvilinear design seen in Artwork Nouveau.
At once, the civil engineer Ildefons Cerda (1815-1876) had been given the commission to extend Barcelona's limitations by demolishing its wall surfaces and providing land for new personal areas. It appears that his ideas were influenced by Haussmann's redesign of Paris, and were based on a similar grid system. Cerda was surprised that the working classes were paying proportionately more in hire for their confined living accommodation than the wealthy payed for their luxurious cover. The look for city, although Neo-classical, was also considered 'realist' because of Cerda's knowledge of modern metropolitan sociology and living conditions. It appears that this enlargement signalled to other architects that it was satisfactory to explore new means of designing open public and private areas. This new sociological frame of mind towards urban areas can be seen as the catalyst for the creation of the thought of the Garden City. The concept of setting up neighborhoods outside locations was started by enlightened professional philanthropists such as Robert Owen, Titus Salt and George Cadbury, creating small casing projects for his or her workers in Britain as far back as 1800. However, the most important of the Garden City motion was Ebenezer Howard whose book 'Tomorrow: A Peaceful Way to Real Reform', published in 1898, was to be highly influential in town planning throughout the 20th hundred years. YOUR GARDEN City movement is a good exemplory case of the changing interpersonal attitude for the built environment and can be seen in the later planning texts of Tony Garnier and of Le Corbusier's ASCORAL, first published as 'Les Trois Establissements Humains' in 1945. In a short text called Notes on the family house (Casa Pairal) compiled by Gaudi between 1878 and 1881, he displays on the relationship between house and family:
The house is a tiny country of the family. . . The privately owned or operated house has been given the name of Casa Parial (family home) who in our midst does not recall, on reading this manifestation, some beautiful example in the countryside or in the city? The pursuit of lucre and changes in traditions have caused most of these family homes to vanish from the city, and the ones that stay are in such a terrible declare that they cannot keep going long. The necessity for a family house isn't only limited by one age group and one family in particular but can be an enduring need for all family members.
The text seems to be referring to the unity of a country and of its people, it shows the knowledge of an architect who aims for sanitation and health, as well as the anti-urban feeling which got arisen in Great britain and multiply throughout Europe. You can presume that this also shows Gaudi's deep-rooted connection with the rural world, that of peasant and craftsman, a global from which he previously come. Maria Antonietta Crippa explains in her book, Living Gaudi that:
Gaudi's attention had not been directed immediately to the bourgeois house, but to the "needs of everyone". She goes on to say that 'He will not cover his unease at the abnormal, over accelerated expansion of towns, which uproot many folks from the land of these birth and force them to live in rented properties in the "land of emigration. " And he applauds your choice to abandon congested city centers for the spacious, light-filled, leafy suburbs.
Perhaps this sociological strategy is what allowed Gaudi to believe in the imaginative design that he created for Area G?ell in 1900. This was a garden city which captured the nature of the 20th hundred years and adopted the fashionable trend in European countries for creating large ornamental spaces. It was a open public space which would produce a haven away from industrialisation, where in fact the common man, both rich and poor, could exercise and discover public events throughout their new-found leisure hours. It had been also designed as an area where nouveau-riche individuals could live comfortably away from the packed city centre. The park seems to reveal Gaudi's extraordinary thoughts in what could be seen as an optimistic phase of his life. Maria Antoietta Crippa explains that: 'Gaudi's backyards are reminiscent of "The Rose Garden, " evoked in the first of T. S Eliot's Four Quartets: a place that arouses remembrances of youth, but which is also symbolic of a former and another that are alive inside our present: "Humankind cannot endure too much simple fact. / Time history and time future / what may have been and what has been / point to one end, which is obviously present. ' She goes on to clarify that the garden is a metaphor not simply for an earthly paradise, but also of the energy of human memory space, another extension of Gaudi's internal world. The area draws together metropolitan sociology, his early childhood affinity for characteristics and his strong sense of Mediterranean Catalan nationalism and symbolism. Gaudi uses the Moorish skill of 'trencadis', a way of deliberately breaking tiles and re-arranging them into complex habits. He uses this technique on the long serpentine bench-balustrade where busted ceramic parts have been arranged into words and symbols with spiritual and Catalan nationalist connotations. Some historians have also recommended that the Doric columns which consist of fluted shafts made of rough stone, protected at the base with white ceramics, and joined to the roof by domes that happen to be supported by carefully curving beams, not only evoke the action of Mediterranean waves but are also similar to the Temple of Delphos and reflect the culture of Greece and the Mediterranean. They thought the structure of these columns existed as a tribute to Greece, which acquired won its freedom from the Turkish Empire, attracting parallels with the politics situation of Catalonia and the Catalans' desire for independence.
Gaudi found its way to Barcelona at a time of important change in architectural thinking and it appears that he benefited from appointment and leading architects of his day, who were mixed up in regeneration of Catalan culture, where, the re-birth of the terminology had a vital contribution in Catalan's rediscovering their traditions and their common identities. In the journal: Tongue tied: The role of linguistics in Basque and Catalan Nationalism, Ryan Barnes talks about how important the rebirth of the Catalan dialect was:
Language has always been an essential component of nationalism, providing a unique feature and source of satisfaction for a collective people. The capability to communicate with one another is vital to building bridges between strangers and forging the idea of a 'country', which instils the idea of unity among a people that contain never met. . . Moreover, communication brings knowledge with it. Terms conveys the ideas of an people or region through literacy works such as poems or books, which nationalists can look back on with satisfaction.
It seems that Catalan nationals were checking themselves, not to the intellectuals in the Spanish capital, Madrid, but to designers and designers of other countries in Europe who have been more technologically advanced, such as: Britain, France and Germany. The Catalan language have been suppressed for many years by Spain's central authorities however now Catalans seemed to take satisfaction in self-expression, while being aware of trends from the other aspect of the Pyrenees, including the redevelopment of Paris and the creation of the London squares with their ornamental gardens. In addition they seemed aware of the Neo-gothic structures which was encouraged by intellectuals such as Pugin, the architect of the Properties of Parliament and John Ruskin's ideas on individuals' education and benefits. It seems that Gaudi too was alert to these ideas, and although Catalonia was isolating itself from the decrease of Spain, it was also maintaining new and important influences from in foreign countries. Catalonia was becoming a developed region within an undeveloped country.
Catalonia had end up being the professional centre for the others of Spain through the 19th century, an interval when there was increasing unrest in the whole country. Through the 18th hundred years Catalonia had changed from an overall economy based on goods for local utilization to an overall economy with wider commercial aspirations. This industrialisation took place in a country of untapped raw materials and very low purchasing electricity. Catalonia's manufacturing growth depended after its way to obtain energy generated from hydraulic turbines on its irregularly flowing rivers, but in the 20th hundred years the hydroelectric probable of the Pyrenees was eventually secured for advancing commercial production. The school system of Catalan world was largely the result of three successive long waves of industrialisation and capital accumulation, with the attendant growth of new factory-linked centres, the significant importance of the labor force, the loan consolidation of a skilled working class and a large middle class, as well as further advances in the direction of secularisation and urbanisation. These three long waves entailed the following innovations: the growth of the bourgeois course, the rise of the industrial society founded, at first, as in so many other places, on the textile industry, and the establishment of great family fortunes. Karl Marx was writing in Das Kapital at this time frame about the growth of the bourgeoisie in European countries:
Constant revolutionising of development, uninterrupted disturbance of all interpersonal conditions, everlasting doubt and agitation distinguish the bourgeoisie epoch from all previously ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their teach of ancient and venerable prejudices and ideas, are swept away, all new made ones become antiquated before they can ossify. . . The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the cities. It has generated great cites, has greatly increased the metropolitan population in comparison with the rural, and thus rescued a considerable area of the populace from rural idiocy.
In normal with the bourgeoisie across European countries there was a growing number of newly abundant Catalan industrialists such as Eusebi G?ell and Pere Mila i Camps who were seeking the outward manifestation of their lucky position in contemporary society. The city culture of Barcelona enticed them since it offered them a style of life that was equal to what they witnessed in other European industrialised societies. To express their vitality, and their love of the new, as Marx discusses, they needed modern fashionable architects who could take advantage of the fads in design that were current in those other countries.
Most of the architects at the moment were drawn into the Capitalist desire to use space as a item that may be built on and sold. Gaudi, although ready to provide his considerable talent to industrialists who had been acquiring land for building assignments, eventually rejected this approach to architecture and only a go back to the traditional architectural forms, such as cathedral building, as a symbolic representation of Catalan nationhood. According to Maria Antonietta Crippa, Gaudi had been setting out over a different course in terms of the secularisation of modern architecture, as will be confirmed in the exemplory case of the Casa Mila. In her book, Living Gaudi, The architect's complete eyesight, she shows that:
. . . (Gaudi's) constructions were built at the same time whenever a utopian, secularising development was developing in the wonderful world of European architecture. This trend, which was radically different from the direction used by the Catalan architect, suggested the creation of the new metropolitan and residential areas that would fix the imbalances triggered by the violent expansion of metropolitan areas and by the technical revolution that occurred in the second 1 / 2 of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth.
Despite the evidently luxurious life of Barcelona's bourgeoisie, the political situation in the complete of Spain was progressively unstable throughout the 19th century. Instead of developing a system of political parties Spain had been confronted by a series of military services coups; and instead of political debate there have been attempts to change the written constitution. Between 1822 and 1875, opposition to liberal capitalism resulted in five civil wars, that have been fought out on Catalan territory. The past three were to be known as the Carlist wars, in which royalists and the military services compared the liberals and republicans, which conflict continued into the 20th hundred years with increasing brutality and bloodshed. THE 3RD Carlist war ended in 1876 when Gaudi was 24. Gaudi presumed that: 'warfare, offering violence as a remedy to any problem, is inevitably demoralising. The Crusades were a failure and many sensible Carlists left behind that cause when confronted with the behavior of the Carlist pushes. ' It seems that Gaudi was thinking about general public affairs and adopted improvements on the political field. He once said:
I am very like my father. At one point, not long before he passed on, there had just been elections, and he still got enough eagerness for the topic to ask me to tell him which candidates had been elected' He railed against separatism and he defended energetically the ideas of rationalism and a strong and united Spain. Gaudi was one of a huge group of intellectuals known as the era of '98. In 1898 the politics drop of Spain worsened when it entered a warfare with the USA, which it might not find the money for to battle. America supported the minority of planters in the colony of Cuba, who have been making needs for emancipation from Spain. Pursuing Spanish reprisals against these rebels, and reinforced by fictitious says in america press, America launched an attack on Spanish makes which caused tremendous loss of life and led to Cuba being
'liberated' into an American sphere of effect. The shock of beat in Spain was frustrating, as Gabriel Tortella talks about within the Development of Modern Spain, an Economical Record of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Hundreds of years:
. . . the increased loss of market segments for industry and agriculture, the increased loss of human life, of physical and military resources and income to the Treasury, the disappearance of various vehicles and communication systems, and perhaps the main, a widespread sense of revulsion and demoralization.
For Spanish rulers and folks, it seems that such a nationwide humiliation inflicted by a comparatively young democratic state would recognise their country out as deeply flawed and unstable in the modern age of the early 20th century, and would be associated with decline, politics chaos and eventual brutal civil battle in 1936-1939. A few years following this catastrophe, Gaudi started work on the Casa Mila, a building six experiences high, with eight apartments rentals on each floor grouped around two inner courtyards, one circular and the other oval. It is designed so that light floods in through the two inner courtyards which can be available to the sky. Gaudi's idea was that the building should be considered a pedestal for a massive statue of the Virgin Mary associated with two angels, which he previously hoped would stand 25m above the rooftop of the building and could have dominated the city. The building seems to reveal Gaudi's revulsion at the anti-clerical assault in Spain and loss of spiritual interpretation in modern day society. Perhaps he'd have decided with Kandinsky's view that: the nightmare of materialism, which includes turned the life span of the world into an bad, unproductive game, is not yet past: it holds the awakening heart and soul still in its grasp.
It seems that Mila I Camps was uneasy about the appearance of the proposed huge statue of the Madonna on the top of his property, as relating to skill historian Robert Hughes:. . . given the turbulence of 1904 it would probably lead to the devastation of his building by infuriated anti-clerical mobs. It seemed that Gaudi was appreciated to convey the importance and opulence of the life span of the new entrepreneurial school, who: did not look to days gone by, but only desired a very important factor: to invent their own future. Instead of the statue of the Virgin Mary, Gaudi was compelled to replace it with air flow towers, chimneys and sculptures. The stair units are topped with crosses with four identical biceps and triceps and the chimneys are surmounted by small domes very much like warrior heads. Regarding to Maria Antonietta Crippa the causing sculptures on the top: '(carry) a robust emotive fee'. She continues on to say ' consider, for example, doing this that he uses catenary set ups and fluted surfaces, or the features that appear in his artificial panoramas and stone landscapes; these elements all work to make a dream world, as regarding the multitextured, undulating façade of Casa Batllo, or the strange ghost world of the rooftop terrace of Casa Mila. ' Could these anguished, twisted figures express Gaudi's internal illusion world? Or indeed his state of mind at the time? Could they possibly present the assault of his times and his personal bereavements? It is realistic to consider that the architect's creative process is firmly inspired by his unconscious brain, as Karl Jung argues: Archetypes are numinous structural elements of the psyche that have a degree of autonomy and energy of their own, that allows them to attract whatever details of the consciousness that suit them. They are not hereditary depictions, but instead certain innate predispositions to form parallel representations, that i called the collective unconscious. One could assume these distorted varieties were connected with his distress at the increased loss of his preferred sacred icon, the Mom of Christ, but may also have held a more personal relevance as a representation of his own mother, who had died 30 years previously together with his brother Francesc. The time following their fatalities, in 1876, had brought on an all 'enveloping melancholy' for Gaudi.
Reflecting on the Casa Mila it was probably a good idea that Gaudi had not used the building as a full time income shrine, as violent protests again erupted in the town, and saw the using of 40 religious institutions, convents and monasteries, and 12 Parish churches in 1909, the rioters taking into consideration the Church to form area of the corrupt bourgeois structure. The so-called Tragic Week seemed to impact Gaudi deeply; perhaps this is the reason why everything he produced later on seemed to be built-in the Catholic soul of somehow making amends for the damage. Could it be that he was transporting the burden of unconscious guilt for his own deficits and for those that possessed devastated the Mother Church? At the same time as interacting with this religious crisis, it seems that he was dealing with faltering physical health. The death of Gaudi's patron Don Eusebi G?ell in 1918 ground him to an entire halt, after which it is presumed that he had a psychological breakdown. During his previous eight many years of increasing isolation, perhaps he turned his back on the chaotic situations in his country and withdrew into a life of abstinence and religiosity. Upon these unpleasant tragic loses, after his father's loss of life and the death of his sister's daughter Rosa, his sense of uncertainty about life and on experiencing rounds of Mediterranean fever. He started his descent into a tight life of religiosity. My closest friends are dead; I have no family, no clients, no lot of money, nothing. Now I could dedicate myself wholly to my cathedral. Gijs Van Hensbergen summarises the crisis for Gaudi's generation when he points out in his publication: Gaudi the Biography:
. . . Spain's lack of her empire in 1898 and the Tragic Week of 1909 in which convents and churches were burnt down; both got strong effects on Gaudi, his friends, patrons and completely modified his working patterns. The politics situation in Catalonia was a sophisticated, potentially explosive one. Catalonia's alliance with Spain (Castile) was one of enormous tension. . . Before the civil war, some Spanish intellectuals and politicians recognized the dangers, but tragically they didn't have the energy to halt the momentum of the approaching crisis. Few decades have have you ever been so savagely self analytical as Gaudi's. Few have put themselves through such painful discovery. . . These politics and public tensions between reform and reaction provide the subtext and invisible buildings of Gaudi's work.
The desire to form something exclusively powerful and symbolic in a time of unpredictable political and social occasions may be in the centre of Gaudi's most famous design, the cathedral. A personal profile of Gaudi is distributed by one of his good friends Joan Bergos who remarked on the change in Gaudi through the latter years of his life, when he became completely consumed by his creative masterpiece. Bergos said: Faith changed the keen, impetuous, irascible junior into a serene, balanced, exemplary man, who only on uncommon occasions offered vent to any temperamental outburst and who radiated such a beneficent aura that he sometimes inspired conversion and even heroic sacrifice in those lives he touched. Furthermore, Tag Burry advises in his book Expiatory Chapel of the Sagrada Familia: Structures at length: The Sagrada Familia is a biography of a singular architect's coming to terms with his time, his personality and, eventually, his vulnerability.
Also you can also consider that Gaudi had been affected by Viollet-le-Duc's assertion that: We must find creativity through an accurate knowledge of the works in our ancestors. Not that such knowledge must lead us to imitate them slavishly, but instead it will show and provide all the trick skills of the predecessors. Perhaps that which was important for Gaudi was a designer must take from the traditional what he has absorbed into his own knowledge and re-interpret and re-work it such that it can appear innovatory and familiar, as well as inspirational.
When Gaudi changed to Barcelona as a man, it appears that he had been impressed with its prosperity of historical structures, which dated back to the Middle Age ranges. He had frequented the Basilica Cathedral of Santa Maria del Mar in the Ribera area which includes three aisles forming an individual space without transepts no architectural boundary between nave and presbytery. The simple ribbed vault is recognized on slender octagonal columns, and daylight channels in through the high clerestory windows. The building blocks stone was laid by King Alfonso IV in 1329 and the whole building was completed by local people including dockworkers, who gathered the large rock slabs from close by quarries. The task, which brought the whole community along within the eye-sight of a Religious family, was an architectural beliefs that Gaudi admired and that would support the theory for the Sagrada Familia.
The Virgin Mary retains a specific importance within the Catholic trust as she actually is seen as not only the Mom of God, but also as the Mother of the Chapel. Gaudi's family were devout Catholics, and it seems made regular trips to the Churches of Sant Pere and Sant Jaume. Religious practice in Catholic Europe in the 19th Hundred years was multifaceted and inspired by factors such as class, gender and region. Industrialisation and urbanisation presented the greatest troubles to the Cathedral as they required it to redefine its role in the community. Barcelona and Catalonia seem to acquire embraced the Sagrada Familia as a symbol of Catalan Catholic id.
Gaudi was also familiar with the dark Madonna of Montserrat, which was a statue of the Virgin Mary and the newborn Christ carved in wood in the early days of the Religious Church. Montserrat symbolises Catalan religious life, and it is a famous host to Catholic pilgrimage throughout Europe. He was also familiar with the 13th hundred years monastery of Poblet in Tarragona, which he explored as a young school boy. This is the burial surface and Palace of Catalan Kings. The Cistercian monastery was founded in 1153 to honor the 3rd Century Egyptian hermit St. Anthony the fantastic and to bring back the Christian monastic life of purity, compliance, poverty and chastity, after liberation from 400 years of Muslim rule. In the 19th Century, during and after the Carlist wars, the monastery was regularly looted during anti-clerical rioting and left in circumstances of wreck.
Because of Gaudi's life-long affinity for such sacred complexes, the structure of the Sagrada Familia appeared to provide Gaudi with an architectural form for religious revival. It was a cathedral dedicated to Jesus Christ, and his parents, Joseph and Mary. The thought of the cathedral was to epitomize the model of Catholic Religious family prices, which seemed to have had been eroded by rampant materialism. It had been to appeal to the working classes who might identify with Joseph as a great working father. It is reasonable to assume that this project may also have appealed to Gaudi because he believed indebted to his own dad for the support he previously given him as an architect. At this time Antoni and his father Francesc shared their home alongside one another until his dad passed away in 1906.
Gaudi dreamed the church in the form of the Latin cross bounded by seven chapels. The entire cathedral appears to describe Gaudi's view on faith with the seven towers representing the a week of creation, seven cardinal virtues and seven opposing sins. The 12 towers are dedicated to the 12 apostles, and the tallest one at 170 meters is dedicated to Jesus Christ. Each tower starts in the form of your square with a certain elevation becomes a tapering cylinder. They are simply each completed off with a mosaic appliqué. The mosaic ends symbolize the staff of your bishop. The Nativity Facade is motivated by the brand new Testament accounts of the delivery, childhood and youth of Jesus. Plaster casts were made from human topics, chosen to symbolize the true character, rather than an idealised view of society; the number of subjects included healthy individuals, disabled people but still born infants. The latter represented the children slaughtered by Herod. Other sculptures included depictions of Christ one of the doctors, and the mature Jesus practising his father's trade, as well as birds in trip, the star of Bethlehem and natural fauna and flora. Gaudi said that 'Everybody will find something in the cathedral, farmers see cocks and hens, experts see the signs of the zodiac, theologians the genealogy of Jesus, but the explanation, the reason behind it all, only the erudite will know it, and it must not be divulged. '
There will be components of Gaudi's architecture and life that people will never fully understand. Although there were many journals and books written about him, he is still a guy of many hidden facets, a few of which are yet to be found out. Yet it seems that the unseen, is what was most significant for Gaudi's structures with the concealed symbolism and references to Catalonia and the troubles of his time. His earliest influences seem to be his love of dynamics, closely from the scenery of his childhood Tarragona; and second, his artisanal backdrop, which inspired him to combine the basic techniques of building with the ability to commence visualising in three measurements. Teamed with his classical education and early affects from famous intellectuals, such as Pugin, Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc, it seems that he could think about architecture within its sociable context in a modern industrialised economy. In addition, it seems that the revival of art work, theatre and the Catalan terms, appealed to someone such as Gaudi, who opted only to speak his local tongue alternatively than Castilian, and who got a solid sense of nationalism towards his own region. Recreation area G?ell appears to mirror Gaudi's nationalism at a good and imaginative stage of his life and appears to capture the nature of the 20th hundred years. The recreation area was only made possible by Gaudi's patron Eusebi G?ell who made his wealth from the textile industry and was, like many, looking for new ways to get. One could claim that Gaudi was fortunate to find you to definitely finance his many assignments, almost all of which wouldn't normally have been permitted without G?ell's money. Due to speedy changes in professional world and the growth of the bourgeois course, as well as an extremely unstable political situation, like the Carlist wars, Spain's loss of colonies and Tragic Week, it appears that there was a significant change in Gaudi's working rationale at the level of his profession. The Casa Mila shows Gaudi both diminishing with capitalism and finally turning his rear on it, exhibiting revulsion for the materialism of his time. Here we see a man who is changing from an exciting young architect into a person carrying unconscious guilt for person tragedy and a growing spiritual commitment to correct the destructiveness of his time. You can perhaps claim that this was not surprising tendencies as Gaudi's technology, also called the era of 98', who got witnessed a whole lot devastation and bloodshed in their life. Perhaps it is also not unreasonable to expect men engaged within the arts and of this generation to express their inner feelings through their abilities, using hidden rules and symbols to demonstrate this. You can say that Gaudi has used his architecture to explore the secret of life and attempt to re-create through his own eyes. Gaudi once said: 'men may be divided into two types: men of words and men of action. The first speak; the latter work. I am of the second group. I lack the means to express myself properly. I'd not yet concretised them. I have never had time to reflect on them. My hours have been allocated to my work. Inside the latter stage of Gaudi's job it appears that he became seriously involved with the Cathedral and dedicated the rest of his life to the Sagrada Familia. Could it be that in the Sagrada Familia Gaudi acquired found refuge from the politics and interpersonal chaos and from his personal tragic loss? Could it also be that he created an inspirational space in which God, and not modern man, was the expert? It seems that he has had the opportunity to embrace people into his inner world, into his perspective as a large number of visitors flock to see his iconic architecture every year. Not only have he reform the life span of Barcelona through his structures, but he looked for effect in his times, and in exchange influenced the life of a whole community.