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Andy Warhol: Modernism Vs Postmodernism

By reference to both artworks and writings- within the period of 1950-1970, critically discuss to the extent in which Andy Warhol has produced 'skill after Modernism'. In what ways has the artist upheld, modified or declined modernist worth.

This article will critically discuss the extent to which Andy Warhol upheld, adapted or declined Modernist values that may further research how Warhol created 'skill after Modernism.

In order to answer this question the primary Modernist beliefs will be reviewed, these include ideas such as avant-garde, the machine get older, transhistorical, equilibrium, aesthetic, individualism, form, purity, essentialism, universality. This will form the foundation to which a final result will be produced as to whether or not Andy Warhol upheld, modified or declined these Modernist worth.

Modernism described ethnic tendencies and a social movement which were only available in the later 19th century and ran into the early on 20th Century which fixes its roots at the 'shattering of ethnical icons and norms. ' Modernist musicians and artists presumed that the 'traditional, sociable and political order is no longer able to portray the modern needs as different from the past. They searched for stylistic innovations that may better expose their present reality. '

The first Modernist value to be mentioned is avant-garde. The Modernist avant-garde practice can be explained as the 'collaboration of three characteristics: scientific experimentation, aesthetic engagement with the means of signification and an immanent sociable political dedication. ' This meaning identifies Modernists experimental and innovative art which pressed boundaries of what was socially accepted.

Warhol surfaced alongside Neo-avant-garde in the mid 1950's, where Modernist values were subverted by the principles associated with modern artwork within the Modernist period through the eruption of more diverse, new routines. Warhol and his 'Pop Art' work was a good example used to show that the neo avant-garde can be an avant-garde that 'prevails as only inauthentic mirage of the avant-garde of the 1910's and 20's. ' Warhol's use of the 'photographic silk verification process was the decisive step by which Warhol aligned his working method with this content of his paintings. It was through this task that he made conspicuous and quite specific contribution to the move forward of avant-garde art. '

The neo-avant-garde was a fresh undertake avant-garde which wanted to bridge the space between 'life-as-art and art-as-life' and redesign our day to day existence. Pop Fine art was used to inform a 'melancholic account of arts inability to imagine socially better works. ' Warhol therefore modified the Modernist value of the avant-garde where he added to the ideas of the Modernist value. He did this by adapting to the ever globalising contemporary society and created new means of creating and browsing artworks.

In the 1960s, Andy Warhol created several "mass-produced" images from images of stars such as Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor. He used the technique of silkscreen printing, this sometimes appears as neo-avant-garde. This is observed in his Turquoise Marilyn (Fig 1. ) is based on a promotion still of Marilyn Monroe, with vivid colorings highlighting her eye, lips and earrings. He also famously replicated the same image in a variety of different shades.

Warhol created many bits using the silkscreen approach which was a good technique as much of the same image was easily replicable. This notion leads me onto another Modernist value of the device Age.

Within the Modernist period, music artists had to come quickly to terms with the idea of machines. Many embraced the idea, 'soughing to fuse art work and life through an expanded approach to mass culture, performance and creation. ' For example the Italian Futurists encompassed the ever before advancing machine age. They created work whereby they repeated 'shapes over and over' like a machine.

Warhol desired to be machine like in his everyday activity and also his artwork. He do this by using repetition in a whole lot of his work. He mentioned: 'I think everyone should be like a machine, I think everybody should end up like everybody. ' Within his daily life he acted just like a machine and this was shown within his work entitled Campbell's Soup Cans (Fig. 2. ) He cases he created this piece of work because he drank it daily, it was a schedule. 'I use to really have the same meal everyday, for two decades. . . the same thing over and over again. '

Warhol liked the thought of other folks creating the same work as him; he said 'I think it might be so great if more folks used the silk displays so that no person would know whether my picture was mine or somebody else's. ' People thought that this would convert the art work world upside down yet Warhol argued again by duplicating that he just wished to be machine like; 'I feel that whatever I really do and do machine like is exactly what I want to do. '

While working as a commercial designer Warhol presumed the 'process to do work in commercial art was machine-like, but the attitude had feeling to it. ' This feeling within work was viewed as bad to Warhol as he wished to be more detatched from his work, hence the wanted to be machine like.

Peter Halley adored Warhol's work and felt that 'one experienced a sense you can actually take part in the making of the work. ' This was what Warhol was targeting. He upheld the Modernist value of the machine age and brought it further frontward into a far more developed art work practice ideal. Warhol upheld the Modernist value of the device age through his use of repetition and other people doing his work for him.

Earlier described was that Warhol wanted to be like a machine, thus and therefore he turned down the Modernist value of Individualism. His work has been referred to as having 'a sense you can actually participate in the making of the work. ' The thought of artwork not being specific triggered 'emphasis on depersonalized development process, building an harm on the designers role. '

Transhistorical is another Modernist value which is often said to create timelessness among Modernist art work. It described the same style yet a big change in materials throughout history. The motive of artwork has been described as fulfilling the idea of the transhistorical, 'it specifies the invariant condition for something being art work in every world and which there is art in any way. '

The transhistorical idea of artwork is the 'basically unacknowledged basis for the first general art background. ' Warhol's skill has been described as providing an illustration of the fundamental emptiness of art. His art is seen as the 'termination point for the visual arts in world record. . . when fine art as a medium. . . is becoming inadequate, fatigued. ' In relation to the question, Warhol would be observed to reject the modernist value of the transhistorical, this is because he changed fine art itself, not simply the mediums used.

The next Modernist issue which I am going to address is the idea of Equilibrium. Equilibrium means a balance, where by a considered harmonious decision making process takes place within skill.

Warhol appears to reject the thought of equilibrium,

'when the equilibrium is not alone so intrinsically convincing, and the handling of the paint is stored adamant, the result is usually that the painting tends never to hold the eyesight: the spectators eyesight keeps bouncing off, no matter how hard he tries to keep it set on the painting. . . that has no inherent depth. . . and ends up erecting some sort of hand ball court for the eye.

Another Modernist value is cosmetic which is an emotion derived from the looks of artwork. The aesthetic was very important to Modernist artists as they aimed to create a religious place for the audience observing their artwork.

Warhol incorporated the thought of the symbolism between the aesthetic of artworks and the ones of other non art work products. 'Warhol as it were redefined cosmetic experience in terms of critical resistance. '

Warhol developed his own detailed aesthetic ideas, so we can say that Warhol modified the Modernist idea of the visual. He did this by changing the way in which we looked at work by changing the way in which work was made.

Form was another important value in Modernism where Clement Greenberg drew much attention to the importance of form and in particular; flatness. Greenberg presumed flatness was desired in art because it was what something was exclusive to painting. He says: 'For painting, such a focus means, most of all, the exploration and assertion of 'flatness, ' that is, of the two dimensionality that distinguishes a painting from a sculpture. '

Warhol used form in his work, but in a means that differed to many Modernists work. Form is the organisation of materials. Warhol's'. . . use of photography silk screens. . . plays a role. . . in the progressive discarding of paintings tradition-laden baggage, while conserving its form. '

The Modernists prices of Purity and Essentialism web page link collectively in Modernist work, as they make reference to what's needed in art works and what is essential and left after everything is recinded.

'It was Warhol himself who discovered as mearly accidental most of the items his predecessors meant essential to fine art. . . he brought the history to an end by demonstrating that no visible criterion could not solve the challenge through art by themselves. '

Warhol reproduces rather than represents, he seems to reject artistic style, he will not take authorship for his work. Previously mentioned he was said to want others to set-up his improve him, however, he strips his works into a restricted palette of colours, rather than defining every depth he uses only the essential lines so that the viewer can recognise what the subject subject is. Warhol has modified the ideas of purity and essentialism.

The last Modernist value is universality and the theory that art applies to everyone which everyone can respond to fine art. He does this by using celebrities so the day-to-day man could recognise his subject matter, he also assumed that anyone could be an designer and wanted equality in modern culture.

Warhol also used everyday objects or subjects in his work, so that everyone could relate with his art work. He upheld the Modernist Value of universality, for example in creating his Brillo Box-Soap Pads (Fig. 3. ) out of any every day materials showing 'the defining role of theory to be a universal real truth about all artwork. ' Warhol talks of making his Brillo Bins in conjunction with his Campbell's soup cans:

'I did all the (Campbell's soup) cans in a row on the canvas, and then I got a pack made to do them on a field, and then it appeared funny because it didn't look real. . . I did so the cans on the package, but it came out looking funny. I had the boxes already constructed. They were dark brown and looked exactly like boxes, so I thought it would be great merely to do an ordinary box. '

The second area of the question asks how Warhol created 'artwork after Modernism', through influence of modernist prices Warhol effectively created fine art after modernism in the motion entitled 'Pop Fine art. '

Lawrence Alloway was the first person to render the idea of 'Pop Art' in 1958 which he described as 'mass produced culture', it then became popular to describe new works of art which had been produced in the time that had turn into a 'central stylistic idea of the pop landscape and a synonym for the social movement for the time generally. ' Warhol became part of this movements through his use of shade and subject.

'Art is whatever you can escape with' was a famous affirmation by Andy Warhol, who produced artwork after the Modernist period which influenced and encouraged many. Warhol was born in Pittsburgh in 1928 and died in 1987. He moved to NY and became a successful graphic creator in the first 1950's, he worked for shoe styles and as artist of display glass windows, then into the later 1950's he commenced to produce and show his own drawings, in 1960 he produced his first canvas and then he progressed into an chic designer becoming area of the up and coming avant-garde movements known as 'Pop Art work'.

'If they told me to get a footwear, I'd get it done, and if indeed they told me to correct it, I would-I'd do anything they told me to do, perfect it and still do it. I'd have to invent it and today I don't; after that 'modification' those commercial drawings would have feelings, they might have a method. The attitude of those who employed me had sense or something to it; they realized what they wanted, they insisted; sometimes they acquired very emotional. The process of doing work in commercial artwork was machine-like, but the attitude had feeling to it. '

Warhol was described as 'mercilessly debunking Modernist protocols. ' Warhol required an anti-Modernist way in some areas of his fine art and disregarded the Modernist idea of Abstract Expressionism; a activity 'deeply educated by its subject material and the artist's behaviour towards their themes directing their behaviour towards form and process.

Warhol's procedure for creating Silkscreens was a complete new approach. The silkscreen is merely a stencil, however Warhol combined it with photographical techniques which created different tonal ends. Warhol preferred his images from newspaper publishers and magazines then 'delivered it to a commercial silkscreen producers with an email regarding the desired measurements of the display and the amount of colors to be branded. When the screen had been ready for printing, it was went back to Warhol's Manufacturing plant. ' This technique of silk screening process intended Warhol could reproduce work quickly, simply and identically. Warhol also 'employed assistants to print his silk monitors in his Stock. ' Warhol's use of silkscreening can also be from the previous point of universiality as this system was mass produced and identical mirrored his views on an equal society.

Warhol was openly homosexual and his anti Modernist position educated his most renowned subject matter, Marylin Monroe (Fig. 4. ) and Elizabeth Taylor. These superstars 'were the maximum amount of gay icons as things of male heterosexual desire, not only for their publicised fighting in heterosexual relationships, and his silkscreen-printed 'portraits' of 1962-3 the garish inks almost functioned as make-up, creating 'drag queen' connotations. '

The Coca Cola container represents an image of mass produced consumer culture that was came across often in American population. Andy Warhol's 210 Coca Cola Containers (Fig. 5. ) was made using the printing strategy common to most of his work. ' The 'stacking' of his products in 'rows' implied a submission to the routinisation of supermarket-era shopping, as well as mimicking the techniques of mass creation. ' This also web links to the earlier mentioned idea of universiality

In conclusion, Andy Warhol improved art as was once know. He upheld the Modernist ideas of the machine time and the universal, whilst rejecting the thought of equilibrium, purity and essentialism and lastly adapting the ideas of the avant-garde and aesthetic.

Finally he said: 'Someday everybody will think just what they want to think and then everybody will properly be considering alike; that appears to be what's occurring. ' I feel that this amounts up artwork after Modernism as it shows how the varying ideas are adapting the ever before changing world.

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