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Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System


"Anatomy is study of the structures of the body and their marriage with each other. "

"Physiology is scientific study of the functions of your body and exactly how their work together as systems. "

Anatomy study assists with understanding the human body part structures, and the physiology study really helps to know the functions of those parts that help the organism in its action performance.

The knowledge on the human being physiology and anatomy forms the basis of all medicine. Without focusing on how the body is made up, how it can fail and how it works, we cannot even picture the effective treatments. Most functions of your body are not voluntarily controlled, they occur deliberately to generate, maintain and endure life. Learning physiology and anatomy means that people know the general basics of drugs where disease is unusual composition (anatomy) or function (physiology) of the human's cells, tissue, muscles and organs, in case you understand the standard function and composition it is simple to realize the source of the trouble.

This project will identify and summarize functions of the key the different parts of the digestive system; identify cell and tissue types; identify and illustrate the urinary system. The resources used to complete this assignment were tutor notes, "Creative Training learners manual", Tucker L. "An introductory guide to Anatomy & Physiology", free media resources and OpenStax College "Anatomy & Physiology".

Part A

(i) Identify the parts of the digestive system on the diagram overleaf.

(ii) Demonstrate the function of every area of the digestive system discovered in the diagram above.

(iii) Outline the structure of Proteins, Extra fat and Glucose, and explain how each of them are digested and soaked up by your body.

"The digestive system are system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste products; in animals the system includes the alimentary canal stretching from the mouth to the anus, and the human hormones and enzymes assisting in digestion. " http://www. dictionary. com/

Digestion is important for producing food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, progress, and cell repair. The major functions of the digestive system are

  • Ingestion
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • Defecation.

The organs of the digestive system can be divided in to

  • Gastrointestinal tract includes: oral cavity, oesophagus, belly, small intestine and large intestine.
  • Accessory organs includes: pearly whites, tongue, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver organ and pancreas

(i) Identify the parts of the digestive tract on the diagram overleaf.

Smooth muscle- lining of the wall surfaces of gastrointestinal tract involuntary contracts and relaxes creating influx like contractions called peristalsis that helps to move food along gastrointestinal tract and really helps to mix the substances. Segmentation contractions move Bolus (partialy digested food) in oesophagus. Every cell of the body needs nourishment, but most skin cells are immobile and their can't happen to be source of food. Drink and food must be became smaller molecules of nutrients prior to the blood absorbs them and transports those to the skin cells through the body. The digestive tract breaks down nutrition from drink and food into carbohydrates, necessary protein, fats, and vitamins.

The functions of digestive tract are:

  • Ingestion- taking food in to gastrointestinal tract
  • Propulsion- goes the substances along gastrointestinal tract (peristalsis & segmentation)
  • Digestion is divided into:

1) Mechanical break down of food (nibbling & segmentation)

2) Chemical break down of food by enzymes (very successful catalysts for biochemical reactions) made by glands and accessories organs of the digestive system

  • Absorption- process when digested food substances pass through wall space of some organs of the gastrointestinal tract into bloodstream.
  • Elimination- food substances which can't be digested and absorbed are excreted as faeces.

(ii) Demonstrate the function of every part of the digestive system discovered in the diagram above.

The gastrointestinal tract is the key system to malfunction and transforms food into microscopic substances that essential to maintain body cells and tissues in different parts of the body.

1. The Mouth The to begin the actions of the digestive system -ingestion starts off when the meals is taking into the alimentary canal trough to the mouth area. There the food is chewed, teared and grinded by pearly whites.

The Tooth:There normally are 32 pearly whites in adult oral cavity and there are 4 types of tooth. Each kind of one's teeth has their own function in the break down the food.

  • Incisors- 4 in each jaw, distinct, narrow-edged pearly whites used for lowering and biting
  • Canines- 2 in each jaw, between incisors and premolars, distinct, pointed tooth used to rip food
  • Premolars- 4 in each jaw, blunt, broad tooth with two distinct ridges used to chew food
  • Molars- 6 in each jaw, there are similar but larger than premolars, each has a four sharpened ridges used to crash and chew up food.

The Tongue: Muscular organ with many taste buds and receptors. In charge of the preferences: nice, sour, bitter and sodium. Tongue goes food from tooth to tooth building starch with help of saliva.

The Salivary Glands: You will discover three pairs salivary gland: the parotid gland, submandibular and the sublingual gland. Liquid called saliva is secreted from glands; it includes drinking water, mucus and the enzyme- salivary amylase. The function of saliva is to lubricate food with mucus for swallowing. It also acts to keep the mouth and pearly whites clean and eliminate bacterias, because saliva consists of lysozyme and antibodies and it starts off intestinal process on glucose adding saliva to starch. Both types of digestive function- mechanical and chemical, begins in the oral cavity.

2. The Oesophagus

Oesophagus is hallowing muscular tube leading from throat to the tummy. The epiglottis (a small flap that protects windpipe) helps prevent from choking. Food moves along oesophagus by peristalsis pressing the bolus onward to the abdominal. The lining of the oesophagus secretes mucus to help ease the passing of food.

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