Anatomy And Physiology: DEPENDENCE ON Nutrition

Nutrition is the process by which living organisms obtain or absorb food. These foods contain chemical substances which will be the source of energy and necessary for expansion, repair and maintenance. Nutrition build your body and invite it to function.

There are six types of nutrition; carbohydrates, protein, extra fat, vitamins, mineral deposits and normal water which living organism need for sustenance.

Carbohydrates produce and store energy and high temperature. You will discover two types of sugars; simple and intricate. Examples of simple carbohydrates are glucose and sugar. Complex carbohydrates are the starches the body gets energy from, they include; potatoes, rice and pasta.

Protein plays a vital role in the forming of structures in organisms. They are used for body building or development and repair of damaged tissue. Protein are also used in the forming of enzymes, hormones and muscle.

Living organism also needs fat to be healthy since it supplies and stores energy and heating. They are being used in the transport of system. drawing. bitmap soluble vitamins and supports organs like the kidneys, and signals hormones.

Vitamin A ensures proper bone growth and healthy skin, vitamin B organic breaks down sugars and fats and helps to give healthy nervous system, whiles vitamin C heals wounds and helps the disease fighting capability. Vitamin supplements D ensures the absorption of calcium mineral for strong bone fragments and tooth whiles vitamin supplements E helps in the forming of red blood skin cells.

Minerals also play important function in the torso: Iron is vital in the formation of haemoglobin, Calcium mineral and phosphorous are needed for the forming of strong bones and teeth, whiles Iodine is very important to the proper working of the thyroid gland.

Water can be an important compound since it supplies the medium in which all biochemical reactions such as digestion, excretion and absorption takes place. Water assists with regulating the body temps and also forms the basics of all the body fluids.

2. 1 Explain the functions of sugars, lipids and proteins, and evaluate different food resources.

Carbohydrate is one of the nutrients that provide our bodies with energy. They include sugar and starch, and their main function in organisms is the development and storage of energy and warmth. There are two types of carbohydrates; simple and complex. Examples of simple glucose are glucose and sugar, whiles complex carbohydrates will be the starches the body gets energy from. Different food sources of sugars are; rice, potatoes, and pasta. In case the right amount is used, they supply your body with the required energy necessary for the muscle, brain and central nervous system. They also play an important role in the metabolism of amino and fatty acids as well as regulating blood sugar.

Lipids contain natural excess fat and natural oils which derive from plant and canine sources.

They perform the function of storing and supplying of energy, bodybuilding components and certain natural vitamins. A lot of the energy used by the heart and soul is extracted from excess fat. Lipids also protect various organs. Lipids are also used as human hormones that play the role in regulating body metabolism. They help in the development of human hormones and store supplements - ADEK. Resources of fat are: margarine, milk and groundnut oils.

Proteins play a vital role in the formation of structures in organisms. Proteins are designed up from proteins and are being used for body building or growth. Also, they are for the repair of broken and exhausted tissues. When there is certainly shortage of glucose and fatty acids, they are being used for the creation of energy. Proteins are also used in the formation of enzymes, human hormones and muscle. In addition they form a major part in the bone, muscle and other cells and liquids. Food resources of protein include; meats, fish, eggs and groundnut and the finish product of digesting protein is amino acids.

2. 2 Explain the need for minerals and vitamins and evaluate different food resources.

Vitamins are organic constituents of food required in very small amounts for a variety of metabolic purposes and for good health. Vitamins on the other side are inorganic elements essential for normal progress and development. There is the necessity for vitamins and minerals because they're important for keeping good health insurance and avoids some diseases. They are found in a number of foods, so a balanced diet should provide the body with the needed volumes. They control the chemical substance reactions within the body to convert food into energy. There are 13 vitamins which are grouped into two teams: water soluble vitamins that are B & C and fat soluble natural vitamins; A, D, E & k.

Vitamin A is important for expansion and healthy epidermis, and also helps in your body's immune system. Food sources for these natural vitamins include; dairy, butter, chicken breast, and mackerel. Vitamin supplements B complex reduces carbohydrates and fats and helps to give healthy anxious system; whiles vitamin C heals wounds and helps the disease fighting capability. Vitamin D ensures the absorption of calcium for strong bones and teeth and vitamin E helps in the forming of red blood skin cells. Vitamin supplements K helps the liver in the production of blood clotting factor for preventing inside bleeding. Through the experience of the healthy bacterias, the body also makes supplement K in the top intestine. Various food resources of natural vitamins include; liver, beans, vegetables, oranges and egg yolk.

Minerals also play specific and important function in the torso. You can find two types particularly; macro vitamins and micro or track minerals. Macro mineral deposits are needed in large quantities and they are calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulphur. Trace or micro minerals are needed in small amounts. Even though the body needs it, it requires just a tiny bit for the body to operate; ion, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium.

Ion exists in foods as vegetables, eggs and kidneys and is vital in the forming of haemoglobin. Its lack reduces the air transporting capacity of the bloodstream and triggers anaemia. Calcium mineral and phosphorous are needed for the forming of strong bones and teeth. You can get them from milk, fish and wholegrain cereals. Calcium plays a role in blood vessels clotting and muscle contraction. Iodine is important for the proper performing of the thyroid gland. Its food source include parmesan cheese and sea seafood. Magnesium is derived from fruits and helps in the transmission of nerve impulses. Potassium is another form of mineral which will keep the muscles and the stressed system working properly. It ensures the right amount of drinking water in the blood and body tissues. Food options are bananas, broccoli and tomatoes. Zinc is the previous mineral type which helps the immune system. It's the body's system for fighting off illnesses and attacks. It also helps with cell progress and helps heal wounds such as slices. The food options for this mineral include pork, lamp, beans and lentils.

3. 1 Describe the main organs of the intestinal system

The digestive system comprises of the digestive system; a series of hollow organs became a member of in a long pipe from the mouth area to the anus, and other organs that helps your body to breakdown and absorb food, known as the accessory organs. Those accessory organs are the salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver and the gallbladder. The individual digestive tract takes in food in a variety of forms and extracts the nutrients that the body turns into energy, and the remains are then excreted.

The digestive tract also includes a part of clean muscle that really helps to breakdown food and move it along the tract. Organs that make up the digestive tract are the oral cavity, oesophagus, belly, small intestine, large intestine also known as the intestines, rectum and the anus.

The mouth is the site of ingestion. Its primary function is to help absorb food by crushing and wearing down how big is the meals into smaller systems. The mouth area includes the teeth, tongue and the hard and very soft Pilates. There's also three sets of salivary glands: parotid, sublingual and sub maxillary that secrete saliva to help in chewing food. There is a lining in the oral cavity called the mucosa which consists of little glands that produces drink to help digestive function. The tongue also mixes saliva with food and steps it towards the pharynx.

The oesophagus is a food tube that starts at the pharynx and leads to the diaphragm into the abdominal. Bolus is pressed down the oesophagus by peristalsis; a round sphincter muscle starts to let food move and closes behind it to avoid the food moving back from the abdominal.

The abdominal is the positioning for breaking down food by gastric acid and intestinal enzymes after it comes down the oesophagus. Gleam lining called the mucosa which is made up of tiny glands that produces juice to help digestion. The small intestine is the main place for digestion because, it where nutrients and vitamins are absorbed. It then passes through the large intestine which compressed the throw away and stores any drinking water left over from the small intestine. Wastes are finally disposed off by the anus by the end of digestion. The liver, pancreas and gall bladder are important in secreting and storing substances that helps in the breaking down of food.

The liver and pancreas produces digestive juice that grows to the intestine through the tiny pipes called ducts. Digestive juices are stored in the gallbladder until they are really needed in the intestine. Parts of the anxious and circulatory systems also play a significant role in the digestive tract.

3. 2 Explain the function of the main organs of the digestive tract.

The role of the digestive system is the physical and chemical substance break down of food. After ingestion, food and essential fluids are refined by the intestinal organs so that nutrition can be absorbed and circulated through the bloodstream and then to your body for the needed nutrients. Any remaining food which is not able to digest is taken away through the anus as faeces.

The digestive system comprises of the digestive tract; a series of hollow organs joined in an extended tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help your body to break down and absorb food.

Organs that make up the digestive tract are the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine also known as the bowel, rectum, and anus. They are the main organs of the digestive system. There's a lining called mucosa inside these hollow organs. In the mouth, tummy, and small intestine, the mucosa is made up of small glands that produce drink to help process food. The digestive system also includes a covering of even muscle that helps break down food and move it across the tract.

Mouth is where digestive function process begins; food is joined, cut, crushed and chewed by one's teeth and divided with saliva. The process of mechanised and chemical digestion commences at the associated accessory organs such as the tooth tongue and salivary glands through mastication, whiles the mouth area also commences the propulsive process of swallowing.

The next organ is the pharynx which serves as the passage way when food is swallowed and connects the mouth and the oesophagus.

The oesophagus is a thick walled muscular tube that connects pharynx with the tummy and functions as the passageway for food from the mouth to the abdominal. This functions by an activity called peristalsis.

The abdominal is a j shaped muscular tote which chums, digests, and stores food. It goes on the procedure that started in the oral cavity of reducing how big is the meals. It functions as a momentary safe-keeping site for food where chemical digestion of protein begins. Some fat soluble chemicals are also consumed through the liner of the belly into the blood stream.

Another organ of the digestive system is the tiny intestine which is located between the stomach and the large intestine. It steps about 6m about. The tiny intestine is where digestion is completed and almost all the absorption of the digestive function products in to the blood stream happens. Mechanical digestive function and propulsion of the food through the gastrointestinal tract is achieved by the alternate contraction of the soft muscles of the small intestine wall structure. Enzymes conveyed through ducts from the pancreas, liver organ and gallbladder, as well as enzymes secreted from the cells lining. The tiny intestine's function is to chemically digest the meals. The soluble digestion products are taken up into the bloodstream by passive and energetic mechanisms.

The large intestine, also called the digestive tract is part of the main organs of the digestive system which measures about 1. 8m long approximately and is situated by the pancreas and wraps around the small intestines. It is considered as the biggest area of the digestive system which contains large amount of vitamin producing bacterias - B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid and biotin. The top intestine is the website of absorption for the remaining water from the indigestible food subject, stores this unusable food and eliminates them from the body as faeces which consist of indigestible materials, bacterial and sloughed off intestinal cells. The large intestine will take about 11 to 16 hours to finish up the rest of the process of the digestive tract.

The rectum functions as a momentary storage service for the human being waste. It wall space expands the receptors from the anxious system found in the rectum wall space, stimulate the desire to remove waste material from your body through the anus, which is the beginning part of the rectum where waste products from the body are expelled.

Two solid digestive organs, the liver organ and the pancreas, produces intestinal drink that reach the intestine through small pipes called ducts. The gallbladder stores the liver's intestinal juices until they are simply needed in the intestine. Parts of the anxious and circulatory systems also play major functions in the digestive system.

4. 1 Clarify the process of digestion

The digestive tract is a gastrointestinal tract that has oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, abdominal, small intestine and large intestine. They have other accessory structures, such as salivary gland, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. (Anatomy and physiology, 1999).

Digestion actually starts in the mouth area when food is ingested; food is chewed and blended with saliva to moisten it, as the enzymes in saliva start to break down carbohydrate (starch). When food is chewed, it becomes lubricated, warmer, and simpler to swallow and absorb. The teeth and mouth area works alongside one another to convert each bite of food into a bolus that can quickly transfer to the oesophagus. There's a coating in the oral cavity known as mucosa which is made up of little glands that produce juices to help absorb food. Following the bolus is swallowed, it enters the oesophagus where it is still warmed and lubricated as it goes toward the belly.

The acidic environment of the belly and the action of gastric enzymes and pepsin convert the bolus into chime, a liquefied mass that is squirted from the abdominal into the small intestine. Inside the hollow organs is a lining called the mucosa in the abdomen, which contains little glands that produce juices to help digest food. Carbohydrates have a tendency to leave the stomach rapidly and enter into the small intestine, proteins leave the stomach less quickly, and fats stayed there the longest. The stomach then secretes juice that works to convert food into a solid liquid. These liquid then passes in to the small intestine.

The change of protein into amino acids, fat into fatty acids and starch or carbohydrate into simple sugar is what happens next in the tiny intestines. The tiny intestine is the main site of digestive function and absorption. Enzymes and secretions from the pancreas, liver organ, gallbladder, and the small intestine itself, incorporate to break down nutrients in order to be consumed. The pancreas is a veritable enzyme stock, providing enzymes to break down proteins, fatty acids, and sugars. Intestinal skin cells also source some enzymes. The wall of the tiny intestine has millions of tiny skin cells that are known as villi. In the hollow organs is a lining called the mucosa in the tiny intestine which includes little glands that produce juices to help digest food. Cell has many small arteries where digested materials are consuming, and transported to the body cell. Materials that are not absorbed move into the larger intestine, where in fact the water and salt get ingested. The hard stable waste goes out via anus.

5. 1 Describe the framework of the liver

The liver is the major gland found in the body, and it weighs about between 1and 2. 3 kg. It really is located at the right upper part of the stomach. It includes two lobes that is a round body part. Its two arteries enter the liver as hepatic portal vein that originates from the small intestine, and the hepatic artery that is oxygenated bloodstream from the lungs. The liver organ has two ducts that unite to form the distributed (joint) hepatic ducts that open up with the pancreatic duct in the hollow side of the duodenum. The gallbladder is inside liver, it serves as storage for bile, which is formed by the liver cells. The right lobe of the liver is bigger than the left. The boles separate into many small lobules that are made up of many liver organ cells. The whole liver composition is permissible with the machine of bloodstream capillaries and lymph capillaries. The liver organ cells do secrete bile that is collected in the bile capillaries, and then join to create bile ducts. The complete bile ducts eventually join to form the main hepatic duct. The primary hepatic duct then produces a branch that is recognized as cystic duct. The cystic duct goes into the gallbladder. The cystic duct joins hepatic duct while inside the gallbladder. The two ducts continue as the widespread bile duct, which joins the pancreatic duct to form a distributed duct, which opens into the duodenum (first section of small intestine). (Anatomy and physiology, 1999).

5. 2 Describe the role of the liver organ in working with nitrogenous throw away and toxins.

The liver is similar to chemical control centre which has got many functions and they includes; the creation of bile, it also produces protein, and stores glycogen, iron and some supplements. The liver also removes toxins and waste products from the blood vessels and converts them into less harmful substances. In addition, it regulates blood glucose, lipids and proteins, forms plasma protein and stores natural vitamins such as A and D.

When the body uses necessary protein, it is divided into proteins by the liver. The by product of the used protein is ammonia which is toxin to the body. The liver then uses enzymes to convert this ammonia into urea, which switches into the blood. It is then chosen by the kidneys to stream from the body. Other disposal is through the intestines. Without the help of the liver to convert ammonia into urea, it would build up in the blood vessels which can cause problems.

Another factor is the utilization of drug or alcoholic beverages. Again, the liver with the aid of digestive enzymes reduces this substance which is then disposed off by your body. These broken down toxins are eliminated from your body by switching and then excreted to the bile or bloodstream. From the duodenum, bile waste products substances go into the intestine and eliminates from the body as faeces. Bloodstream waste substances is also filtered from the blood by the kidneys and taken out from your body as urine.

The liver has to convert extra fat soluble contaminants into water soluble substances that can be excreted from your body. It filters the blood to eliminate large toxins, synthesizes and eliminates bile and other fat soluble toxins and live enzymes eliminate unwanted chemicals. The process of disposing of waste occurs by oxidations and conjugation.

Oxidation neutralizes the toxin that may then be neutralised by conjugation. This technique converts a toxic chemical substance into a less hazardous chemical.

Conjugation is the pathway where in fact the liver cells add another compound such as sulphur molecule to a dangerous substance to make it less harmful then excretion.

6. 1 Describe the gross and ultra structure of the kidney

The gross structure of the kidney is exactly what we can easily see with this naked eye. It contain the fibrous capsule surrounding the kidney, the cortex which is a red/brown colour part of tissues that is below the capsule and outside the pyramid and the medulla, which is the innermost part consisting of the renal pyramids. The ultra structure is exactly what we can not see with this naked eyeball. They are the functional units, the nephrons and the smaller amounts of collecting ducts.

The kidney is either of two bean designed excretory organs that filtration waste material from the blood vessels. It is located at the dorsal area of the abdomen. The remaining kidney lies somewhat above the right. Each kidney comes with blood by the renal artery and drained by the renal vein. Appearing out of the two kidneys are a pair of ureters which conveys urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder for non permanent storage. The very last part is the urethra which is responsible for sending urine from the body.

The diagram below was lifted from; (www. ivy-rose. co. uk/human body), shows the gross composition of the kidney.

The kidney is reddish brown in shade and has got a deposit of fat together with it. It could be seen to have a central cavity, the pelvis, as the encircling mass of cells is differentiated into an exterior cortex and an interior medulla. Urine formed in the kidney passes by a set of ureters, in to the bladder where it is stored until released by the urethra.

Each kidney consists of about one million nephrons which may be thought to be the functional device doing both functions of excretion and homeostasis. In the interior end of the nephron is a spherical composition called the Malpighian body which is found in the cortex. It contains a cup-shaped Bowman's capsule and a two times coating of epithelium, enclosing a tiny cavity known as capsular space. The capsule then expands into a pipe that coils many times to create the proximal convoluted tubule. It then descends into the medulla where it makes a u-turn known as the loop of Henley.

The tubule ascends again in to the cortex, developing the distal convoluted tubule, which starts into a collecting duct, along with other nephrons. The collecting ducts converge at the pelvis of the kidney, shedding their contents into the ureter, which holds the urine to the bladder for momentary storage. Going into the narrow opening of each Bowman's capsule is a small arteriole, which breaks up into a network of capillaries, the glomerulus. Giving the capsule is another arteriole, which subdivides to give a network of capillaries enveloping the convoluted tubule.

6. 2 Clarify the process of filtration in the nephron

The main function of the kidney is to purify the blood which move through it. It extracts and minimizes all harmful substances and ensures it has the correct composition. That is achieved through the procedure of purification, re-absorption and secretion. As the artery bringing blood into the glomerulus is larger than that carrying blood vessels from it, a high pressure is built up within the glomerulus. Under this pressure, filtration occurs. This involves the forcing of substances from the glomerular capillaries through the thin wall structure of the Bowman's capsule, into the lumen of the tubule. This filtrate contains water, glucose, proteins, vitamins, salt and urea.

The filtrate passes down to the proximal convoluted tubule where significant re absorption occurs. Over 80% of the glomerular filtrate is consumed including all the sugar, amino acids, water and vitamins. The process of absorbing the useful metabolites back into the blood stream is recognized as selective re absorption which involves active transfer and passive diffusion. Active move requires energy (ATP) which is provided by the cells of the tubule. Further waste chemicals may be added to the tubules by lively secretion from the blood capillaries surrounding the tubules.

The Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubule help to regulate the amount of water in the body. This is attained by the help of an hormone known as ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) produced by the pituitary gland. The tubule also really helps to regulate the pH of the blood vessels, regulating the quantity of ions in it.

When the osmotic pressure of the blood vessels is very high, more normal water is absorbed from the urine. This mechanism dilutes the bloodstream and profits its concentration on track. At low osmotic pressure of the blood, hardly any or no normal water is utilized in the convoluted region of the tubule. Low attentiveness of the blood raises its regulatory activities by creating vulnerable or diluted urine at regular intervals but discharged in large amounts to help bring the blood concentration to normal. This regulatory activity is managed by ADH. Its presence in the blood stream affects the collecting duct in so doing regulating the quantity of normal water in the urine.

6. 3 Explain the techniques where the kidney can vary the quantity and attentiveness of urine.

The cells of our body are surrounded by liquid that is extremely regular in its properties. The many metabolic procedures that take place in the cells of the body require a constant interior environment. Homeostasis is the procedure that ensures maintenance of this internal environment. Almost all chemical activities in the body system are enzyme handled and they work better under good condition regarding pH, temp and other factors.

Whenever your body's normal heat range is transformed and the condition of salt regarding K*, Na*, C1- ions are not well preserved within the physiological boundaries, lots of process including anxious transmission are affected.

The legislation of the quantity of water and mineral salt in the body is handled by hormones. When the amount of water in the body is low and the body starts to dehydrate, the concentration of salt in the blood increases resulting in an increase in the osmotic attentiveness of blood. The brain picks up this change and nerve impulses are sent to the pituitary gland to energize a rise in the creation of ADH. This increases the permeability of cells of collecting ducts plus they reabsorb more water which really helps to normalise the osmotic condition of the blood vessels.

On the other side, when water in the body system is greater than normal, ADH production puts a stop to or reduces. Under this condition, large quantities of normal water are discharged together with the urine into the external environment, which is known as osmoregulation.


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Thompson, Bnowak (2009) 'liver detox' [online] Offered by:

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