Posted at 11.21.2018
The phrase ethics is extracted from the Greek expression "ethos" which means custom or usage. Ethics can be explained as a philosophical research of morals; that is of
social justice and
good living conditions
Can be identified among other activities as "price appraisal", ie
the price of something compared with the price of another
high qualities (in thoughts, religious beliefs and population)
The conditions moral value and moral value are usually used to mention the sense of "good" or "correct" as opposed to immoral and unethical. Morality is a sociable instrument that guides individuals and groups in their daily lives. It needs individuals and organizations to follow it. It helps the people to respond rationally as participants of modern culture.
NORMATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE STATEMENTS
V. Grassian (1981) says that attempts to provide coherent or reasonable, systematic and justifiable answers to moral questions are called normative ethics. This means that moral ethics focuses on normative statements which have implications on individuals behaviour. Hence, it could be said that a normative affirmation is a value judgement that is good or bad, wrong or correct, suitable or unacceptable. The example, "Abortion can be an immoral function" is a normative statement.
Moral judgements can be split into either special or standard. Regarding to W. K. Frankena (1973), he says that in a moral judgement; we can say a certain action or type of action is
morally good or bad
obligatory or non-obligatory
necessary or needless to carry out.
Such a judgement is named a judgement of moral obligation or denotic judgement.
As a school we can discuss things that are not actions nor types of action regarding people, their motives, aims and behavioural qualities or nature. Similarly, we can also say they are
morally good, bad, virtuous (having better behaviour or higher moral rules than others),
vicious( evil, cruel) in charge, saintly, etc.
Evaluation of the sort is called moral value judgement or aretaic(excellence of virtue) judgement.
Table 1. 1
1) Normative Assertions with Moral Judgements
Judgements of moral obligation (Deontic judgements or commitments)
I do not like to dispise anyone
You need to be a passionate student
What Ahmad did is incorrect ?
It is not proper to pressure your son to work until late night.
We need to keep to our promise
All dictators deceive their people
All human beings need the to freedom
Bribery is wrong in the sight of legislation.
Moral value judgements (Aretaic judgements)
my dad is a kind-hearted penghulu
he is definitely liable in his work
you ought to be fined
ali's purpose is good.
a good person will not cheat or steal
benevolence(kindness) is a noble quality
jealousy is an ignoble(mean) motive
the person who can forgive such a neglectfulness or blunder is a saintly person.
2) Normative Assertions with Non-Moral Judgements
Judgements of non-moral responsibility (deontic judgements)
you need to buy a fresh pair of shoes
you just need to buy tickets for this concert
you really should sleep earlier
shakira has to eat at the institution canteen every day.
to make a table, you need fingernails or toenails, not scotch tape.
A good method is to send soldiers to the battlefield
To answer effectively, students must read the questions care completely.
All hostel residents should care for their safety
Judgements of non-moral value (aretaic judgements)
that car is good
his life is not happy
I did not brush my tooth in the right way
Kamarul attempted to defend his discussion in the question.
pleasure is good in itself
democracy is the better form of govt.
peaceful demonstrations are allowed in many traditional western countries
sweet food is not healthy.
Normative statements in the form of direction or orders ie. To guide or order an individual or the public to follow a rules or law, ex : parents must be respected
Non-normative assertions are known as descriptive assertions and they are not concerned with judgement of moral prices. Ex lover : in Malaysia, reshuffling the cabinet is the prerogrative of the prime minister.
Fewer people are registering themselves as voters
Good citizens must register themselves as voters
We still do not know much hereditary engineering
Genetic manipulation should be used to check on the deformity of newborns at birth
Suicide instances have increased
Killing oneself as an individual sacrifice is permitted
Pornography tarnishes life in the campus
Pornography is forbidden in the campus
Parents have authority in the family
Always obey the orders of your parents
Basic concept of value :
On our red money note, standard bank Negara Malaysia makes this declaration - this money take note of is legal tender of Ten ringgit - this can be an example of "value" from the "materialistic" aspect. From the aspect of "morality"- there is no difference between a robbery of RM10 and a robbery of RM100, although there is certainly a difference in value.
2) in a contemporary society, if a person has big money, he's considered rich; if he does not have much money, he's considered poor. However, we ought to not assess a person only based on his wealth or the amount of money he possesses. Instead we should appraise him from the point of view his quality of living, his figure and the moral prices that he offers. Such intrinsic value can only be experienced by the individual concerned or are observed and taken into account by people who view them.
M. Rokeach (1973) in his book, THE TYPE of Human Prices, highlights another quality of moral value; a value changes from time to time and differs from one place to another.
Values has its functions ;
it acts as a criterion or standard which is constant and strong for a person or society to do something in a manner that is good, accurate, and acceptable
it can be an indicator, guide, and guide to resolve moral discord. Different moral ideals may be in conflict with one another, but a guide from value itself will be described in order to solve the conflict. Ex; you can be found a reward to handle a task which is dangerous. The task might be best for society but harmful to your loved ones (your safety is at risk) In such a conflict, value plays an important role to make you arrive in a conclusion whether to simply accept the task or even to reject the offer.
It places a limitation on the behaviour or action of a person or the modern culture. An individual will or won't take action or behave in line with the values organised by family.
Quality received or turned down as instrument to accomplish certain objectives
Dependent on other ideals to achieve certain objectives
Second order beliefs; Bravery, diligence, admiration for others.
Quality received or rejected solely because it is good or bad without considering its impact.
Not reliant on other values to attain certain objectives. The value described it itself the ultimate objective
First order value; kindness, love, justice
Quality accepted or turned down by someone who gives his views
Accepted or rejected on the basis of an individual's opinion
Quality which may be valuable or not valuable but clear of personal choice
Accepted or declined based on a couple of criteria agreed after by all or most people.
Value accepted or rejected by laws in a culture in order to accomplish certain societal objectives
Can change with time
Value the value of which is not related to the custom of a certain society
Constant at all times and in every places and in virtually all norms of society.
The target of the theory of normative obligations is to guide us to make decisions and judgements about actions using situations i. e. to try to know what we and other people must do.
The theory of SM is a theory which tries to relate moral standards, legislation of a world and the country's or general law with ethical concepts. It also stresses the individual's responsibility to check out purchases from an authoritative body.
An individual must know what they can and cannot do and whether a certain action is right or incorrect or a certain behaviour is good or bad.
Religious aspects -
Buddhists - are advised not to be extreme in life i. e. never to unnecessarily torture themselves rather than to be manipulated by desire. They should also behave virtuously (to be kind and adoring) to become rewarded, and finally to achieve nirvana.
Christians - is governed by the instructions and prohibitions set out in the Ten Cmmandments which prohibit getting rid of, adulterous relations and stealing.
Hindus - must take notice of the moral regulations stated in old writings like the Ramayana and the Upanishads. These legislation guide the Hindus in what they ought to do and what they need to avoid.
Malays - Muslims must practice a disciplined life observing the moral and ethical teachings of the Koran and the Hadis.
Members of an society normally see something of moral expectations with general principles related to moral norms. 2 most important functions are :-
the moral specifications system in the society identifies situations so that every person wards off self-interest to reinforce a system of behavior that brings benefits to self as well concerning other people
moral standards provide to resolve discord in the world by giving justifications that are acceptable to the public as bases for action that involves prudential says and moral cases.
Prudential statements - are based on self applied interest that is on the needs, wants or objectives of individuals.
Moral boasts - derive from requirements that are outside the personal interest of individuals.
A weakness of SM is that whenever different societies have laws, regulations, traditions, and moral beliefs that differ, misunderstanding, discord and social stress may occur.
According to R. B. Ashmore, moral theory, which is said to be a systematic way in identifying questions on principles, begin when we ask, " Why should I act in this way and not that ?"
MG Velasquez says that the average person is not delivered with the ability to understand and apply moral criteria. This ability, like his physical, emotional and cognitive talents, grows with maturity. Hence, his capability to deal with moral issues is created as he develops.
Aristotle, the famous Greek philosopher says our moral potential, called personality virtues or morally good behaviors, is built through training and repeated practice. Moral ability is educated to us by our families or by world until we've become familiar with thinking, being and acting with techniques that are morally appropriate. Features like courage, temperance, generosity, self-control, credibility, sociability, modesty and fairness or justice are personality virtues that may be acquired through behavior.
The development of personality is within gradual levels and the following :
during child years - we could told what is correct and incorrect. We will follow advice as to avoid punishment. Childhood conformity to moral criteria is based on home interest.
teenage - the moral specifications become internalized. We start to comprehend the implications clearer and obey them. Obedience is based on devotion to family, to friends to country.
Matured - we inherit from family, peers, culture or religious beliefs. We begin to evaluate moral criteria.
An individuals PV can be summarized as :
All PV are obtained through the teaching-learning process or training.
PV are behaviors, meaning they are standard deeds distinct and visible. When such a habit is formed, a stable tendency produces in the individual which is called that individual's characteristics.
PV are operational ;ie they permit us to regulate how to respond and action in a certain way
PV are good; they differ from bad habits and vices. There are perfect, and allows us to act in the perfect manner. Along with the acquisition of PV, we become good individuals.
Read up page 23 - variances.
1993 - THE 12 PILLARS (page 25)
DILIGENCE BRING SUCCESS
ENJOY YOUR WORK
MODERATION IS VIRTUE
INFLUENCE BY EXAMPLE
DUTIES MUST BE DONE
PRUDENCE AND THRIFT
GIVE Concern TO PATIENCE
SHARPEN YOUR ABILITY
Source : Institute Tadbiran Awam Negara (INTAN) Malaysia
Refer to stand 2. 1 Personal Development- positive & negative (web page26)
Can be split into 2 industries :-
Teleological Theory (TT)
Deontological Theory (DT)
TT says that whethera value is right or incorrect depends on the ultimate results associated with an action. The final decision will depend on the amount of good or right matters that have been done. TT places great emphasis on the consequential results of your action is also called consequentialism.
Utilitarianism Theory (UT)
UT state governments that activities are right if they're useful or for the best happiness of the best number of people. The bombing of Hiroshima, for example, was targeted at ending the entire world war which got caused untold fighting.
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) an English philosopher unveiled a scientific principle to analyze the quantity of pleasure. He allotted each factor with a value which may be examined into 7 factors :
intensity of pleasure produced from an action
duration of pleasure
certainty of pleasure
propensity of the knowledge of pleasure
fecundity / inclination to be followed by more pleasure
purity / tendency for an action to produce opposite effect and pain
the calculus is performed by multiplying the full total balance with the level or number of people experiencing pleasure or fighting.
Factors 1 - 4 are being used to gauge the value of pleasure or fighting. It is only targeted at a person and his connection with pleasure and fighting.
Factors 5 and 6 are used to assess when keeping track of many pleasures and hurting.
Factor 7 is used when many people are participating. It also shows by giving attention to the increase on the whole happiness.
This means that that UT requires us to choose an action that will produce the greatest good ( delight and pleasure) for the greatest amount of people.
Some weakness :
the intensity of pleasure or pain is a subjective subject which is difficult to evaluate b'coz individuals feel in another way.
the quality of pleasure and pain experienced by one individual is different then that of another.
It is difficult to measure the level of pleasure and pain of a person at different times in several circumstances.
Can be thought as a theory which considers a value nearly as good if it benefits the average person himself/herself, and bad or cruel if it harms or triggers him to suffer or reduction.
Egoism can be divided into 2 factors :
psychological egoism - is a descriptive theory which claims how people act. It considers that all MEN are selfish. It strains that people take action for his or her own self-interests and cannot react in any other way
2) Ethical egoism - prescribes how they need to act and that men
ought to be selfish or have the to be selfish.
Factors that encourage egoism are :
the social environment in influencing an individual's values - our moral judgement, habits and behavior are socially conditioned.
b) The occurrence called the new narcissism or admiration of oneself,
emerged from the desire to defend oneself from sensing shame or
guilty because of unequal circulation of profits which benefits oneself
but causes others to suffer.
The presence of inelasticity in motivation and encouragement. Psychoanalysis and genetic reports consider that each personality trait can be tracked to infancy but has been argued and disagreed by many psychologist saying that the operative purpose in an infant or a little child is not the same as an adult.
Deontological Theory (DT)
Deon means duty. Somebody who supports deontological views thinks that to act morally, we should have self-consciousness in receiving specific constraints or guidelines which place our limitations between personal interest and the overall good.
Deontologists say that there factors which determine whether an action or rule becomes good or right apart from good or bad in its results.
DT examines how liable we could in treating other folks and what our duties are towards them - this is recognized as act oriented methodology. This means the measurement or analysis of ethics depends upon the action of an individual and NOT the result of that action i. e. whether that action is right or incorrect. From your DT theory- appears a concept known as Basic principle of Obligation.
Principles of Obligation (PD)
PD emphasizes duty with regard to work. Immanuel Kant is regarded by some philosophers as the most crucial thinker on ethics. He wrote on ethics, commitment to liberty, dignity, human being prestige and moral responsibility. He believed that moral responsibility does not originate from God or community or human specialist but from reasoning.
His moral views had become known as Kant's Ethics - read up, web page 37.
Kant's Ethics 1
The idea of good will
The theory of categorical imperative
Kant's Ethics 2
Conflicting floor of obligation
Place of inclinations
No accounts for wrong doing
The Ideals of Religion and Perception.
Main religions and beliefs
Youngest of the world's major religion
From Saudi Arabia 1, 400 years ago
Spread to worldwide by the finish of the 20th century
Islam and real human development
life of an individual is an activity which includes continuity
the process starts 9 weeks before baby is born, i. e. from enough time of fertilization until death and enter hereafter.
God, i. e Allah swt, will send an angel to place a "roh" or heart and soul in the embryo. This may impact and determine 4 areas of the baby's fate in the future :
deeds in the life
suffering or happiness
death does not mean the devastation of roh. The roh will exist, after death, in a non-material from until consequence is offered judgement day and it'll be determined then whether YOU go to heaven or hell.
The final target of a virtuous life on earth for a muslim is to go to heaven eventually.
Human Beings from an Islamic point of view :
In Islamic view man does not emerge from a material process but is made by substance that controls the planet, ie Allah and possesses 2 elements; roh and body.
Man as Caliph / kalifah:
man's visit as a caliph is a great reward from Allah which makes him more noble than other creatures including the perspectives.
The features of a caliph are basically around in man when he makes the contract with Allah in the roh.
As a caliph, man should screen his natural characteristics that he has within him through knowing and believing in Allah and His qualities
Islamic Holy books:
The Koran is undoubtedly the original coaching of Allah. The holy verses in it contain information uncovered by Allah to Prophet Muhammad s. a. w.
Hadith (hadis) which is a record of the word and activities of the Prophet S. a. w.
Koran and Hadith will be the most authoritative resources of Islamic teaching.
Aspects of Islamic Teaching
The idea of Ibadah
Islamic Moral Values:
only the Koran should be the yardstick to understand Islamic moral value.
If one used the Koran completely, one would be virtuous and pure
Failure to obey or rejection of the Koranic coaching would bring chaos and disorder to mankind.
Islamic morality is founded on aqidah (trust); provides strong groundwork for the idea in Allah in the qadak and qadar (Beliefs), in sin and merit (pahala) in rewards and punishments in the hereafter.
The Koran itemizes behavioural qualities that are despicable :
unbelieving in Allah s. w. t.
treacherous (dangerous but looks safe)
lying, cheating, eradicating, consuming, committing adultery, etc.
Read up types of Islamic morals and important conditions.
places great importance on the worship of God
there is merely 1 god which is a union of 3 folks God of Daddy, God of Kid and God of the Holy Spirit.
The creator of the religious beliefs is Jesus Christ. Anno Domini (Advertisement), the entire year of the beginning of Jesus Christ.
A. D is utilized in times in the non-muslim world to point the amount of years or hundreds of years that have handed since the birth of Jesus.
Christians consider Jesus is the kid of God delivered to world to free man from sin.
The Bible is the holy e book for Christians. 2 parts ie Old Testament, written before the delivery of Jesus Christ, and the brand new Testament, written by fans of Jesus Christ.
History and Religious Denominations:
Christ indicate deliverer
The earliest Christians were Jews who presumed that Jesus was a prophet who originated from that community.
Old testaments - deals with preparation and execution about the labor and birth of Jesus.
New testaments - is a testimony to the life, death and overcome death of Jesus, the new community, (the chapel) people of god which emerged as a result of Jesus.
The Orthodox church - mainly in eastern Europe and Russia
The Roman Catholic cathedral - the largest
Lutheran chapel - supporters and followers of Martin Luther (german). The protestant cathedral in Germany
The Calvinist Chapel - followers of John Calvin of the Protestant sect
The Anglican Cathedral - Chapel of England - Methodist.
Christianity and Human being Development :
Man's romance with God is more important than physical and cognitive development and progress. Many Christians believe that the difference between man and dog is the fact man has been created in the likeness of God. This sets man on an increased school than god's other creatures.
Man has 3 types of spirit ie:-
growing soul - enables man to increase and grow
feeling heart and soul - are external senses and internal emotions
Intellectual heart and soul - allows man to believe, to remember to get affective, creative, etc
Is a scripture of the Christians. It will guide man to live a life a moral, bright and excellent life, advice him to avoid sinful activities and save him from negative elements.
The whole Bible is made up of 66 volumes.
"Genesis" is the first booklet of Moses(the first level) in the Old Testament mentions how god created the world in 6 days and rested on the 7th, the first man and girl; Adam and Eve. In the publication of 'Proverbs' it says obey your parents, avoid sin, be dedicated and faithful, be logical avoid adultery, don't be lazy, be genuine, be large.
'The Revelation of Jesus Christ' is the previous volume in the brand new Testament. Mentions the coaching of Jesus Christ. It contains other ethical beliefs educated by Jesus such as humility, friendliness, perseverance, fairness, moderation, concern for others.
Terms in Bible : Read -up - web page 70
Bible; God; Man; Heaven; Sin; Hell; Jesus Christ
Christian Celebrations - read up site 71
Refer to the written text book from web pages 72 to 96 on these religions.
THE MORAL PERSON
The idea of moral will be considered in 3 aspects :
A) Moral content
Refer to guidelines of society and individuals characteristics. Under the rules of population, there are certain restraints on their freedom to do something in order that the basic safety and human privileges of others can be covered. These rules are put together from old and new knowledge and experience in individual life.
The moral issues experienced first by an individual will be the customary regulations that form the mores of your society. These traditions are validated by way of a individuals group.
It refers to standards or rules of our own ancestors. A person accepts and serves accordingly because they're prescribed norms. They can not be disobeyed or challenged. Likely to behave within the restrictions of customer morality.
Reflective morality demands reasoning and thought of the average person. This brings about the forming of specific criteria to guage the way to act
The difference between customer morality and reflective morality is not what is believed however the reason that notion is preserved
Rules of modern culture can be placed into 10 points :
improve the standard of living of the people
develop the intellectual capacity of folks so that they can function more effectively
protect real human life
defend human privileges and people's welfare
prevent degradation in behavior and morals of the society
stabilize conditions in the society
maintain peace in the society
create and protect social order
preserve communal harmony
10) save commitment when making decisions for oneself or other people.
Human characteristics can be employed to
Intrinsic drive - never to take action in a certain way, ex girlfriend or boyfriend; reluctance to break or guarantee, or hurt person and reluctance to help someone in need.
Feeling of guilt and disapproval - when a person acts in a way contrary to his own intrinsic desire.
Believed importance - do as a result of intrinsic motivation is considered very important to a person to the degree that he seems it should become part of his character.
Admiration or esteem - Against the negative attitude one has for people without moral inspiration is sense of admiration and esteem for someone who has done something remarkable in he moral sense.
Special terminology - A person find it hard to or will not learn how to communicate his desire, action or thoughts.
Believed justification - will need to have justification for his desire, sinful sense, disagreeable attitude and admiration.
B) Moral forms
" You can be found a high position in a federal office that is riddled with problem. If you try to oppose the corrupt system - they expel you and replace you with someone new. In such a situation, could it be right that you can accept the offer" ?
How does one fix the moral issue or dilemma ?
Using your cleverness and referring to societal guidelines;
Consider moral key points which you constantly uses;
Arrange the ideas in a hierarchy so that you of more basic moral concepts can be used as a tool to justify other moral concepts;
Make sure the principles in No 4 do not issue with each other.
Read-up on Principalistic Ethics Form and Situational Ethics Form - webpage 106-107.
Moral Sizes - can be shattered into 3 factors; reasoning; sense and performance. Make reference to the diagram on web page 108/109
Moral reasoning - to believe and assess rationally and openly.
Moral sense - love, compassion, sympathy.
Moral performance - to execute oneself that is morally right.
Moral Agent and Receiver and Ethical Sizes -web page 110
SOLVING MORAL CONFLICT
Types of conflicts that may come up :
A type of right may clash with a different type of right, or a kind of liberty may clash with another type of independence. BN and PKR
conflict may occur between one person and another
rights, utility, happiness, flexibility and justice - conflict comes up between various prices and concerns.
Egoism and standard energy - egoism can be seen when one's life is wonderful (self or own interest) and general utility refers to interest or welfare of others rather than do it yourself.
Happiness and work - good or bad (good for self but harmful to others) right or wrong (right decision for self applied but incorrect decision for others)
Normative Conflict in Social School of thought - related to flexibility, justice, rights, laws and sovereignty. Some of these issues can be categorized as ;
Conflict between justice and sociable tool - many communities in world can be reported to be too costly, ex ; children, older people and handicapped. They incur better cost than benefits they bring. By minimizing these cost, our company is denying these group of folks from a complete share of benefits seems unjust / wrong. Education, medical treatment and special health care should be considered. It is clear that the price tag on the costs is greater than the benefits derived from them. In times like this, justice and power conflict.
2) Privileges and Flexibility - a female has the to have as many children as she likes, however the UN Declaration of Human being Rights proclaims that it's the right of every children to have nourishing food and health care. To keep that right, only moms who can give their children hold the right to raise them. But this would be curtailing the rights of mothers.
Reasons for Discord:
According to D. R. Forsyth 91982), issue is brought on by differences between your individual and group and can be divided into ;
Social Dilemma - various people go after their own hobbies and disregard the welfare of the others:
The Prisoner's issue - arises when 2 suspects are questioned separately by a prosecutor. Incentives are given to start to see the outcome.
The Tragedy of the Commons - occurs when the effect is largely the result of large scale devastation of the surroundings -former mate: polluting of the environment, forest, water air pollution, etc.
Conflict Between Organizations - occurs in any way levels of social organizations. Discord between teams is a occurrence that social scientists find difficult to review, although there is an obvious must foster better mutual understanding and unity of purpose among mankind. The causes of conflict between categories are;
Competition - occurs when you can find competition over limited resources; things that are valued by people, materials riches, prestige, natural resources etc - warfare starts, have difficulty, racial unrest.
Social categorization - is by classifying items into categories. Ex lover like "my" group, "your" group, "his" group, "our" group. Being in various groupings may later develop into conflict.
Intergroup hostility - the life of 2 groups that are different, and competition between them may bring about conflict. Negative discussion between these organizations such as insinuations, insult and devastation of personal property are elements that can lead to hostility.
Examples of Discord and Types of Resolution :
Socrates' Ethical Thinking Conflict - we will discuss this alongside one another in class (web page 120 - 123)
Strategies in Resolving Conflicts :
Fundamental beliefs of ethics and communal philosophy bring about tensions or tense situations. Just how do we take care of tensions rationally? Sometimes we fix tensions irrationally by;
ignoring the issue altogether
using dishonest, underhand means like bribery
being persuasive and emotional
resorting to aggression
Carl Rogers says that a person is activated by a tendency towards home actualization; whereas dysfunctional behavior, triggered by environmental conditions, prevents or distorts that tendency. Rogers believes that, given the right environment, the average person will activate the inclination towards self-actualization and be able to resolve internal conflicts, overcome problematic behaviour, and attain a coherent and rational identity.
To deal with issues, many strategies have been suggested by moral philosophers, psychologists and sociologists. Some strategies are ;
Value Research Strategy - created by JR Fraenkel and Coomb to solve the issue of moral issue.
2 approaches to Franenkel and Coomb.
1 part of common; they both deal with conflicts analytically by determining beforehand the values elements and facts
They study the professionals and negatives of the actions that may be used - think rationally and logically about the facts relevant to a discord before he makes a value judgement.
The Fraenkel Approach Procedures :-
A - Conflict
B - selection of action
D - results
E - Judgement
F - Decision of action
The Comb Approach :-
A - conflict
B - identification
C - Fact-gathering
D - truth- evaluating
E - relevance of facts
F - decision
G - test moral principles
Read up - Cognitive Moral Development on the several levels/ levels i. e phases 1 to 6.
Strategy of Hierarchy Building - refers to justice and interpersonal stability.
2 or more values can't be achieved together. Which value should be considered ? a lot more important one of cause. Hence, from the hierarchical rating of values, a choice is manufactured.
Utilitarianism - it's better to have a individuals satisfied than an canine satisfied. The best action is one which benefits the utmost amount of people.
The strategy of Dissolution - the strategy of dissolving a issue can be utilized/ used when creating a hierarchy is not effective or is difficult to handle. Some limitations of this strategy could it be cannot package effectively in some cases. Some conflicts appear unavoidable, particularly when we've no power in the circumstances that cause them and we are pressured to live with them. Illustrations ; human rights
The strategy of Bargain : 3 levels
everyone should get something or that every value should be mentioned in some degree.
No logical hierarchy is obtainable either of the prices that are conflict or of persons whose interest must take concern.
The tensions between your values can't be dissolved.
The Environment : are tightly related to human's morality because individual is the foremost destroyer of the wonder of the environment
Some of the environment issues are ;
efforts to revive the environment consists of world leaders in meetings such as ;
The Stockholm Meeting, 1972(Sweden) - the American-vietnam war - damage of jungle in Vietnam.
The Environment and Development of Developing countries achieving 1992 (KL) - thoughts of 3rd world countries on the environment
The Rio World Summit, 1992 (Brazil) - How exactly to save the planet - Chernobyl Nuclear Explosion, Ozone covering, global warming, extreme rainfall, extreme sunshine, dumping throw away in water
A. Euthanasia - in Greek methods to expire in comport, without pain.
Today euthanasia is equated with mercy eliminating i. e. to hasten loss of life to get rid of a patient's hurting. Motivated by the desire and sympathy to alleviate the patient's agony. For a lot of, euthanasia is considered proper if the patient of the action is dying in great pain.
B. Suicide - Most faith considers suicide as a great sin, however, many religions and societies respect certain suicides as courageous and honourable deeds. In India, the practice of "suttee" - whenever a widow commits suicide by leaping in to the burning hearth of her man corpse and in
Japan, hara-kiri; whenever a samurai eliminates himself with a sword, were considered respectable and praiseworthy deeds. .
C. Abortion - make reference to diagram 6. 2 webpage 157. Can be carried out up to its 12 week, abortion can be carried out by suction or by D&C (to scrape out) historical and legal history pertaining to abortion implies that many societies have considered abortion morally right. Greeks and Romans abandoned abnormal infants or female infants to die on their own. . Some people support abortion because they feels that the mom who conceives the foetus is more important than the foetus.
In Malaysia the law that forbids abortion includes ;
Section 312 - functions that lead to abortion
Section 313 - serves of abortion minus the consent of the ladies concerned
Section 314 - fatality caused by deliberate functions of abortion
D. The Fatality Charges- or capital abuse is the heaviest punishment imposed on the criminal. Some helps it as a means of enforcing justice and stopping crime, some oppose as it is inhumane, unjust and needless.
Methods of execution are
Sexuality and Family
Population increase - speedy demographic development of world society. Is a natural phenomenon.
Sex outside matrimony - almost all major religions of the world do not enable extra-marital or non-marital making love. This is to protect the institution of the family and encourage people to get wedded and stayed married. It also aims at strengthening the marriage between a man and a female. .
Pre-marital sex - is a kind of sex outside relationship. Usually practiced by young addicts either casually or on a more steady basis. Increase chances of contracting diseases among the young, unwanted pregnancy.
Contraception - the catholic cathedral goes against the use of unnatural methods of preventing pregnancy. The natural function of the gender organs, relating to Catholic doctrine, is duplication, hence it is incorrect to work with any contraceptive solutions to prevent motherhood.
Homosexuality - in a few societies regard homosexual works (guy to male /guy. . female/ girl) as normal. Some societies even encourage homosexual relationships. Homosexual was openly accepted in historic Greece. However these culture is condemned in Islamic and Religious cultures. There are now sodomy laws which make some sexual methods like anal and dental sex illegal.
Abnormal sexual behavior - homosexuality & pet sex is known as abnormal. 4% males are homosexuals, 10% at least for three years, and 37% have involved in homosexual relationship.
Discrimination - in culture - minority organizations felt they have been oppressed and demand for equality.
Sexual discrimination and competition discrimination - refer to site 175-176.
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IT and the to obtain information
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