We accept

Analysis of Michael Porters tactical models

This report points out about examination of Porters strategic models. Michael E Porter determined the techniques to be employed to a business to get competitive advantage. He also identified the value string that may be put on increase value at each stage of a business. The worthiness string has been defined in detail so as to explain what sort of company profits competitive advantage when followed correctly. The strategy is fairly simple but possesses great durability.

The key points have been applied to an engineering structured industry-3M, to find out and analyse their competitive advantages. The organization managed to preserve in the competitive environment. 3M has been selected because the organization has achieved a strong position on the market and possesses competitive benefits in conditions of Porter's strategic models.


A competitive industry offers its own technique to hold a competitive position. To truly have a competitive edge, one must create and advantage over competitors. An organization requires strategic planning and intensive research to get competitive advantage. The thought of strategy formulation is to understand and handle competition. Based on its competitive benefits, the company contributes to failure or success. Hence it is very important to work with strategic planning and does not matter if the company produces product or provides service.

The plan includes consideration of four key areas. Areas that are the service or product to be sold, the ways of result to be promoted, pricing of goods or services and place strategy. Structure of a business drives competition and therefore results to success. It is vital for one to analyze the establishments underlying framework in terms of Porter's five forces in order to find yourself in competition.

One step to include in strategic planning is to analyze the group of consumers at which a company is designed its products and services, then identify competition. A company with visible of proper planning will have the ability to attract the consumers or customers. The business must acquire the common characteristics or be aware of the needs of customers so the company holds a solid position.

There are mechanisms where an organization can obtain competitive advantage. The competition within a market will reflect its performance and its own competitive position. It is vital for a competitive company to distinguish themselves from other competitors and plan consequently, discover challengers' talents and weaknesses - learn their talents and imitate them, use their weaknesses to the company's advantage.

Competitive Strategy

The depth of competition for any industry is determined by five basic makes. Porter's five makes is a framework that is utilized for industry examination and business strategy development. Evaluation of these five forces may be used to determine the competitiveness within an organization and therefore find out the entire profitability of market. Applying the five forces brings about good industries structure and for that reason lead to competitive connection within an industry. The work on strong calculation of an organization in terms of the five forces will determine the potentiality of the industry. The construction below shows the causes that condition industry.

Porter's five forces that shape strategy

Competitive Rivalry




Threat of New Entrants

Bargaining Power

of Buyers


Bargaining Power

of Suppliers

Threat of Substitutes

It is useful to make use of Porter's five forces for advantages, weakness, opportunities and threat examination, in other words known as the SWOT analysis.

Threat of replacement products, established rivals and new entrants are considered as the three forces from horizontal competition, therefore, offering a product for the same price, whereas bargaining electricity of suppliers and customers are considered as both forces from vertical competition, therefore offering the same product but also for different price.

This analysis of five pushes is a part of the complete Porter strategic models. The other parts are value chain and the common strategies.

Value Chain

The value chain is an idea from business management which is defined as the string of activities functioning in a particular industry. Value String Analysis describes the activities that happen within the business and accordingly relate these to the competitive power of the business.

The value string has been recognized by Michael E Porter and is utilized to increase value to business. A firm will lead to success if analysed properly before company has competition that are fiscally strong and also have competitive advantage on the market share. In order to do the value chain evaluation, all costs are evaluated to find a value of income. This is actually the difference between your price that customer pays and the total costs incurred with the creation and delivery of the product.

A value chain analysis can be performed by analyzing the worthiness string itself, the customer's value chains, discovering cost advantages in comparison to competitors and determining the potential value added for a customer.

http://enduragement. wordpress. com/2008/06/17/value-chain-as-a-basis-of-critical-success-factor-analysis/

Concept of Value Chain

Products pass through all activities of the chain and profits value at each level. The end product tends to have good cost as a task may have low priced however the activity contributes much value to the finish product.

The value chain framework is employed as a tool for proper planning and for defining company's competencies. The concept of value streams makes account. The procedure of using and producing goods, services or information may be shared by the two parties to attain to the principal end, accompanied by the delivery of a product to a person and is known as end to get rid of business process

Value chain is part of something. A value system is the hyperlink between other value chains, like the supplier, firm, route and buyer value string. Thus it's important to manage the whole value system.

. . .



Value Chain



Value Chain



Value Chain



Value Chain

Porter's Value System

http://www. netmba. com/strategy/value-chain/

Activities within the worthiness Chain

This includes the primary activities, the Support activities and gross sales.

Primary Activities: You will find five activities involved with it. The actions start from creating a product to delivering the merchandise.

Inbound Logistics

In this activity, the products, including the raw materials are received from the suppliers and are stored on the development lines till they are prepared to be used. These goods are then transferred around the business that happen to be then sent out and ready for manufacturing process.


This is procedure for the production of goods, to change the inputs into completed products and services. Individual operations can have specific places for operation.

Outbound Logistics

This is the activity in which the completed goods are passed along the supply chain to the consumer.

Marketing and Sales

This can be an activity where a business focuses on figuring out and get together the customers' needs to get sales. Marketing communication stands as a key point in this process.


The activity includes set up, after-sales service, managing complains, training and many more. Therefore, the support provided to customers after sales.

Support Activities: These activities are related to aid. They aren't directly involved in production but increase efficiency.


This activity is described the duty for the purchase of highest possible quality of goods and services at the lowest possible price. They may be in charge of outsourcing.

Technology Development

Technology is an important factor for getting competitive advantages. Costs can be reduced to sustain competitive advantage and this includes creation technology, online marketing and all the technology that support value creating activities.

Human Reference Management

Employees are costly resources. A business would manage recruitment, training and development, and rewarding workforce of an business.

Firm Infrastructure

This activity is done by strategic likely to control systems such as Management Information System and other mechanisms that control the organizational framework.

There are linkages between the value string activities, whether we refer to the principal activities itself or the principal and support activities. Changes in a single activity of the value chain will lead to changes in cost or changes in performance for other activitites. These linkages are important for corporate and business success. If marketing and sales functions properly, procurement will need place in time and front information's to inbound logistics leading to appropriate time of delivery of creation via procedures.

Competitive Gain and their Strategies

The company's earnings depends upon the efficiency of an company, in a way that the cost the customer pays off is more than the total costs incurred in the worthiness chain.

On analysing the competitive pushes in an industry, it is found that there are three generic strategies to gain competitive advantage to accomplish good performance in an industry. They are really cost management, differentiation, and focus which is sub-divided into cost target and differentiation focus

Porter says that a company must acquire at least one of the common strategies to gain competitive advantages, otherwise it is recognized as substandard competitive.

The differentiation and cost control strategies look for competitive benefit in a broad range of market where as the differentiations concentrate and cost concentrate are based on thin market or industries.

Source: http://tutor2u. net/business/strategy/competitive_advantage. htm

Strategy - Cost Command/Cost Advantage

This strategy involves in being the cheapest cost producer in the industry, and having their selling price identical or average in comparison with the market to be able to really have the best profits. This plan offers products with little differentiation so that they are satisfactory to a lot of the customers. Sometimes, the low cost leader offers discounts to increase its sales to get significant cost benefit and eventually increase its market share.

Competitive advantage can also be achieved by reconfiguring the worthiness string, that is by lowering the price of individual value chain activities to provide less expensive. Reconfiguration can even be done by changing the structure, such as creation process or using a different sales approach and thus restructuring the firm's cost.

Thus an expense advantage is attained by offering lower prices on products or giving better services to customers. It is important to understand cost dynamics to own cost management strategy.

A firm gains cost advantage by handling 10 Cost Motorists for value chain activities:

'Economies of Scale': This refers to the companies with low costs per device to perform activities more successfully at large production volumes.


'Capacity Utilization': This refers to the design of capacity utilization.

'Linkages among activities': How alternative activities are performed. This identifies the linkages within the worthiness string and vertical linkages.

'Interrelations among business units': Refers to the interactions with other business units within a company.

'Degree of vertical integration': This identifies the degree of performance of upstream and downstream activities, that is, the company being specialized in a few activities and outsourcing all of those other activities.

'Timing of Market Entry'

'Firm's insurance plan of cost or differentiation': These policies echo the firm's strategy.

'Geographic Location'

'Institutional factors': Cases are government regulations, financial bonuses, unionization.

http://www. netmba. com/strategy/value-chain/


Differentiation is referred to working in a unique way on criteria's that are used by purchasers and charging reduced price for the merchandise. This would include the additional creation costs and point out on reasons to why the client should choose the differentiated product.

Differentiation is performed by focusing on activities to execute better than rivals, either by procuring inputs that are not easily available to competition or by increasing service levels.

Likewise, differentiation can improve Buyer's value. This is done by cutting down buyer cost and increasing buyer performance. The organization can also choose the activities that create the most effective differentiation for the buyer in accordance with cost of differentiation and consequently select the technique for sustainability.

Focus on individuals related to differentiation:

'Policies and Decisions'

'Linkages among activities': This refers to linkages within the worthiness chain, supplier and route linkages.



'Interrelations': Writing activities with sister business units.


'Integration': This identifies integration of online systems to current purchasing systems.

'Scale': Large scale results to better service.

'Institutional factors'

http://www. netmba. com/strategy/value-chain/

Differentiation can be obtained by reconfiguring the worthiness chain via frontward integrate in order to perform functions which may have been performed by its customers, backward incorporate so as to control inputs, implementing new process systems and utilizing new syndication channels.


This refers to the thin competitive scope in a industry. A business that pursues this strategy tends to focus on one portion or several segments that they would like to aim at. A business that uses this plan will aim at its target segments only and not on the overall competitive gain.

Strategy - Differentiation Focus

In this plan, a business targets a small quantity of target market segments. Via this plan there are opportunities to provide products that will vary from competition who may be targeting a broader band of customers. It's important to ensure that the merchandise is satisfactory according to the customers needs.

Strategy - Cost Focus

In this strategy, a business seeks a lower-cost advantage in a little quantity of market segments. The product is similar to the higher listed product but is a basic one and is also acceptable to sufficient customers.

General Options

Other ways of gaining competitive benefit are by lowering costs that not have an effect on the varieties of differentiation. Such as, changing the design of a product may reduce developing costs but may have upsurge in service costs. Thus bringing on world wide web cost increase even though you can find cost reduction.

Sometimes, changes in designs may reduce developing costs which may improve consistency, thus minimizing the service costs. An organization may increase its competitive benefits through such advancements, thus discussing linkages between your activities.

There are ways to cut down costs in the value chain. One example being posting of recycleables between sections. Writing of procurement activities results in expense reduction. However, business units have certain disadvantages such as coordination and some of the organizational practicalities. It's important to analyze the disadvantages when devising or planning a technique to gain the benefits.

Thus a business can buy competitive advantages via value string.

In order to get the strategic functions of 3M, the worthiness chain and Porter's five forces have to be analyzed. There are a variety of reasons why we assume that 3M achieves competitive advantage.

There are five criteria's that influence the sales in a year.

Performance of End Markets

Creation of New Markets

Transient results in supply chain

Gain in Market Share

X factors

Recent analysis has shown that 3M gained an optimistic response in conditions of market talk about gain and new product progress. Transient effect in supply chain is natural thus causing the performance of end market to be natural. X factors are unexplainable but offers a certain value to the Organization.

'The company put up full-year 2009 sales of $23. 1 billion and profits per talk about of $4. 52, down 8. 5 % and 7. 6 %, respectively. Excluding special items, 2009 cash flow dropped 9. 3 % to $4. 69 per show. While there was clearly a contraction in sales, the full-year EPS of $4. 69 per talk about was well within the initial forecast range between one year in the past and has been quite remarkable success'.

http://solutions. 3m. com/3MContentRetrievalAPI/BlobServlet?locale=en_US&lmd=1269529672000&assetId=1180611654372&assetType=MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile

The financial down turn experienced a negative impact on 3M but achieved the best of sales in the entire year 2009. By 2010, 3M has disperse its products whatsoever levels in the market, using technology to distinguish their products from your competition, and by using market-led pricing to catch the attention of customers and increasing service levels up to maintain even better position. 3M has an long lasting reputation for customer support that earns them higher returns than challengers.

3M targets the status of end market segments. They are willing in determining the real buyer. They identify the buyer's value chain and work appropriately to find yourself in a competitive edge. They determine the relative cost of opponents and accordingly lower its cost framework and improve its operation.

The idea of environmental technology is a tool for competitive advantage. Environmental systems offer new management process to reduce ecological impacts of economic production. 3M has a competitive advantage which is differentiation, which is protected by its patents and proprietary technology. The company's research activity generates volume of new and improved products that are covered by the patents and is convinced that brings competitive advantages to the business enterprise. However, the increased loss of patent doesn't have any risk on earnings with the associated product as the business's brand and the creation experience are significant components of the business's competitive gain.

3M not only highlight on products or market segments but also on the foundation of differentiation. 3M is very positive about their creative capacities, self-assured in their operational strength and is the philosophy to improve products every three years so that others cannot duplicate their products plus they tend to stay competitive. 3M means that many of its products are genuine and much more beneficial to customers than its challengers. The brand 3M is strongly recognized and signals this value to potential buyers.

Research and product development has truly been a major drivers of sales growth.

3M is conscious of the timing of the release of a fresh product. Despite of serious pressures from communisation, 3M continues with their creativeness of the new product. They reduce the production costs and work carefully with the customers and lead to success.

The government has provided an important competitive gain to the company. It conferred after the inventor of a fresh product and given privileges to make, use and sell that technology for a certain period of time.

Another benefits is their resource chain management that is linked with the capability of their production and helps them to keep it because of its position. Their logistics systems are taken care of by outsourced firms and is excatly why 3M possesses fantastic management process, thus leading to on-time production process. 3M has highly effective network of suppliers.

A huge distinguishing factor is to maintain investments in the foreseeable future. 3M maintained investment funds greater than a billion dollars at the same time in research and development when many companies needed to step back again. 3M were able to achieve about 126% of movements of cash into or out of the business. These investments built self-assurance into 3M to really have the best in the future. They are confident with marketing and sales associates and stand a good position available on the market.

With high cashflow, high margins and a powerful balance sheet, 3M generally have more opportunities which others don't have. 3M manages to accelerate key purchases and gain market talk about from other competition. Unlike some of the firms, they are not dependent on exterior resources, which can get quite expensive. Thus they be capable of finance development with internal money.

Their planning included reducing structural costs throughout the business and including the factories to be able to cut down costs and with the addition of those expenditures that are mandatory. They are targeted to accelerate growth in the many businesses.

3M has been restructuring by reducing structural costs since early on 2008 and extended through 2009, lowering about 6, 400 positions, another 200 positions in overdue 2009, 900 positions in the second one fourth and 1, 200 positions in the first 1 / 4, thus reducing net gain by $119 million over the entire year. 3M also announced reductions of 3, 500 positions in 2008, thus reducing $194 million or $0. 28 per diluted show for 12 months 2008.

The firm reduced volume of employments due to restricting actions. The program of the business is very simple. 3M is regular of controlling costs, producing cash and drive sales.

It is a common practice for 3M to perform cost evaluation to the value chain activities. The organization matches its cost composition to the buyer's value chain and accordingly reconfigures the price structure.

The Buyer Bargaining Electric power is reduced because of the strength of the well-known brands such as Post-it, Nexcare and few more. Buyer attentiveness can vary greatly depending on who the products are for sale to. The merchandise are genuine and are of great value, thus minimizing the bargaining electric power of clients.

Inputs such as steel, wood pulp and engine oil derived recycleables can be found from many options and are being used by employees who have a tendency to be very creative. 3M has strong bargaining power with the employees but this will not reduce profitability.

3M products can be purchased through different syndication programs of limited size and hence creating a barrier for a firm wanting to enter into one of the establishments that 3M competes in. They can be purchased under various trademarks, both right to users and through vendors or traders in a multitude of trades all over the world. 3M is growing revenue worldwide.

3M continuously advances services using advanced technology, thus so that it is difficult for the actual substitutes to compete keenly against their products. For most circumstances, products with low prices would mean that customers have low incentive to consider substitutes.

3M possesses good facilities and are highly suitable for the function with their designs that fits the customer's needs. 3M is a global venture. Their properties are used by multiple business segments. 3M's markets increase consistent with global GDP and hence leading to modest rivalry.

'After conducting a thorough analysis of 100 establishments in 10 countries, Michael E Porter found that the success in competition depends upon four broad attributes that determine competitive gain. Factor conditions, demand conditions, related and helping establishments and the surroundings where the firms remain competitive' and can be weighed against that of 3M.

International Business (4th release), Alan M. Rugman and Simon Collinson

The factor conditions include land, labor and capital. 3M generally have highly informed people and the business seeks to produce goods and services that point out the intellectual ability of the people. To keep up this competitive position, 3M constantly upgrades or changes its factor conditions. 3M has strong work force and the success is increased by getting some of the staff to be creative plus some to become more market orientated and sell the merchandise more vigorously across the world.

3M targets the special needs of men and women and work locally depending on areas demand. This provides a number of benefits. It can help 3M to understand what the potential buyers want. If customer desires to change something, the local owner has the ability to respond prior to the distant competition.

3M possesses global existence in many businesses. Economic conditions change from country to country. 3M observes the true sign of demand rises and create according to the local demands of specific markets.

There can be an benefit to the distributor being located close to the producer. The producer can provide low priced inputs. Moreover, the suppliers know the position of the developer and are in a position to forecast and react to changes. By sharing information's with 3M, helps to maintain steadily its competitive advantage.

3M is an industry where permanent development is appreciated more. 3M emphasizes on development process to gratify customer needs, after sales service and a highly disciplined management framework. Comparing with a few of segments offered round the world by 3M, commercial engineering is not popular in america. Commercial construction has had to change its technique to address this market. This includes generating costs down to make the company more price competitive. However, the presence of this market is not large in the United States.

The company's approach to both product development and circulation is very consumer-friendly and market-driven and 's the reason to attain a competitive place today.


3M has generated a strong position over 2009 and has battled to overcome economic difficulties to help protect the near future. It is an extremely successful, stronger and more innovative company now. Products are being developed and kept up to date every 3 years and released in time. The products are unique and highly valued by their customers. Research and development has helped raise the competition. 3M managed to build confidence of their customer's, provides market led rates to attract the customer and also provides good after sales service. It is as a result of organization's capacities, 3M has achieved such competitive benefit. 3M has effectively evaluated and used the simple strategy that has been identified by Michael E Porter and are in a position they may be today.

More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment