Posted at 11.29.2018
This article was commissioned to stand for comparative research of leadership styles of two presidents of america of America that is one ex-president George W. Bush and current chief executive Barack H. Obama. The object of talk is to compare leadership qualities of both presidents predicated on basic leadership ideas that were presented in literature review: Great Man theory, traits theory, and behavioral procedure, contingency, transformational and transactional ideas.
As per requirements it was done the launch of the backdrop of two personalities including their youth, school years and job. It had been done overview of leadership qualities of these where B. Obama is represented as a political innovator with good politics skills, great potential to general public communication, organizational capacity and mental cleverness and G. W. Bush as a leader with prominent politics eyesight and skills. Except that it was portrayed my own opinion about two market leaders where is the most excellent politician is George W. Bush who's top-down, no-nonsense, decisive, macho head who sets his attention on the even horizon and doesn't "go wobbly" getting there.
In a realization it is vital to say the fact that President of america of America is granted significant power by the Constitution and exercises others by tradition and precedent. He must inspire the self confidence of the people. Every President must become a innovator, and to be a leader he must appeal to individuals who are willing to check out him.
"Leadership can be an influence romance among leaders and their collaborators who want real changes that mirror their mutual purposes"( Komives, Woodard, 2003).
Leader are somebody whom people follow and guide people. Leaders are the mind of the nation, political get together, legislative body or military services product. A "type" of Leader is determined and recognized by the central characteristic that is emphasized and by the mix of other core features that are shown and used to gain the trust of folks and Lead them to carry out the major task facing the organization(www. scribd. com)
Some characteristics of market leaders:
Leaders are crucial for setting the company vision, assessing where the company stands and making difficult choices. Leaders must be able to take a team together, solve problems and develop strategies.
Leaders Challenge people.
Leaders build their people's Self confidence.
Leaders Coach the people they lead.
Leaders challenge people by taking them out of their "comfort areas", enabling visitors to reach successes that they never thought they could achieve.
Leaders boost self-assurance and put their trust in their visitors to deliver the target.
Leaders reward brilliant failures, or the honest effort to achieve, even if the effort may fail.
Leaders communicate a definite and compelling perspective to challenge people to think and react diversely as they go after a new plan.
Obama is really of mixed traditions. He was born in 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii. His dad Barack Obama Senior was from Kenya and Obama's mother, Ann Durham, was at first from Kansas. The marriage between Obama's parents was a short-lived one, however. In the first 1960s, interracial interactions were still quite unusual in many elements of America, and even theoretically illegal in some says. When Obama was 2 yrs old they divorced, and his dad kept Hawaii to enter Harvard University or college to earn a Ph. D. in economics. The two Baracks met again only one time, when Obama was ten, though they do write once in a while. Barack Sr. eventually returned to Kenya and died in a vehicle accident there in the early 1980s. Obama's mom remarried a man from Indonesia who proved helpful in the oil industry, so when Obama was six they relocated there. The family lived near to the capital of Jakarta, where his half-sister Maya was born. At the age of ten, Obama returned to Hawaii and resided along with his maternal grandparents.
Obama inserted in kindergarten level in Noelani Elementary college located at Honolulu, Hawaii and then from first to fourth grade he done education in Jakarta, Indonesia. Fifth through twelfth quality he done education again in Honolulu, Hawaii. Obama received Senior high school diploma from Punahou and went on to Occidental College in LA, where he decided to get seriously interested in his studies. Midway through, he transferred to the renowned Columbia College or university in New York City. After he received his undergraduate level in political research, he became a community organizer in Harlem-but quickly noticed he cannot afford to reside in metropolis with employment that paid so little. Instead, he transferred to Chicago to work for a church-based social-services group there. Obama put on and was accepted at Harvard Law School. In 1990, he was elected leader of the Harvard Legislations Review journal (http://www. notablebiographies. com). Also during his law school years, Obama spent eight days in Los Angeles taking a nationwide program on Alinsky ways of organizing(Lizza, Ryan, 2007). Barack Hussein Obama was elected the 44th chief executive of the United States on November 2008(http://www. nytimes. com).
He was created in New Haven, Connecticut on 1946. Bush was the first child of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush. He was raised in Midland and Houston, Texas, with his four siblings. Bush's grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut. Bush's daddy, George H. W. Bush, dished up as U. S. Vice Leader from 1981 to 1989 and U. S. Chief executive from 1989 to 1993 ( Clarita, CalBoyer, 1995). As a kid, Bush attended open public colleges in Midland, Texas before family transferred to Houston after he completed seventh quality. He then visited The Kinkaid Institution, a prep college in Houston, for two years (http://www. lib. utexas. edul). Bush completed his senior high school years at Phillips Academy. Bush went to Yale College or university from 1964 to 1968, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history. During this time, he was an associate of Delta Kappa Epsilon, being elected the fraternity's president during his mature year. He characterized himself as an average student. Beginning in nov 1973, Bush went to the Harvard Business Institution, where he earned an MBA. He was the only U. S. Chief executive to have earned an MBA(http://www. americanthinker. com). IN-MAY 1968, Bush was commissioned in to the Texas Air Country wide Guard. After two years of active-duty service while training, he was assigned to Houston, traveling Convair F-102s out of Ellington Air Push Platform. In October 1973, Bush was discharged from the Tx Air National Shield and transferred to inactive duty in the Air Push Reserve. He was honorably discharged from the Air Force Reserve on November 21, 1974, at the end of his six-year service obligation (http://www. dod. mil). He committed on November 1977. In 1982 he would have a twin girl. George W. Bush served as the 43rd chief executive of the United States from 2001-2009.
Leadership has different interpretation to different authors. Harry Truman, the American Leader, said that leadership is the ability to get men (women) to do what they don't prefer to do and like it (Greenstein, 1989).
Leadership is thought as influence, this is the art or procedure for influencing people in order that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically into the achievements of group goals(Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
So a good head is a machine of men, developer of subordinates and inventor of valuable lieutenants.
The activities of successful & effective leaders:
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John Adair has an extended pedigree in the world of management. The Adair model would be that the action-centered innovator gets the work done through the task team and associations with fellow professionals and staff. Regarding to Adair's description an action-centered leader must:
direct the work to be achieved (activity structuring)
support and review the individual people doing it
co-ordinate and foster the work team as a whole
The task for the first choice is to manage all industries of the diagram:
define the task
make the plan
allocate work and resources
control quality and rate of work
check performance against plan
adjust the plan
build team spirit
encourage, motivate, provide a sense of purpose
ensure communication within group
develop the group
attend to personal problems
recognise and use individual abilities
develop the individual
A review of the leadership literature discloses an evolving group of 'schools of thought' from "Great Man" and "Trait" theories to "Transformational" command (see table). Whilst early theories tend to focus upon the characteristics and behaviors of successful leaders, later theories get started to consider the role of enthusiasts and the contextual dynamics of management (Gronn, 1995).
Based on the fact that leaders are exceptional people, created with innate features, destined to lead. The use of the word 'man' was intentional since before latter part of the twentieth century control was thought of as a thought which is primarily male, military services and Traditional western. This led to the next university of Characteristic Theories
The lists of features or features associated with management exist in abundance and continue being produced. They bring on virtually all the adjectives in the dictionary which summarize some positive or virtuous individual feature, from ambition to zest for life
These focus on what leaders actually do rather than on their qualities. Different patterns of behavior are found and classified as 'styles of authority'. This area has probably drawn most attention from rehearsing managers
This is a refinement of the situational point of view and targets figuring out the situational factors which best anticipate the most likely or effective authority style to fit the particular circumstances
This approach emphasizes the value of the relationship between head and followers, concentrating on the common benefits derived from a kind of 'agreement' by which the leader provides specific things like rewards or identification in substitution for the commitment or devotion of the followers
The central principle here is change and the role of management in envisioning and utilizing the change of organisational performance
From 'Great Man' to 'Transformational' Leadership
Each of the theories requires a rather individualistic point of view of the first choice, although a school of thought gaining increasing identification is that of "dispersed" authority. This approach, using its foundations in sociology, mindset and politics alternatively than management research, views control as a process that is diffuse throughout an organisation rather than resting solely with the formally designated 'head'. The emphasis thus shifts from producing 'leaders' to expanding 'leaderful' organisations with a collective responsibility for leadership.
Trait ideas of leadership desired personality, cultural, physical or intellectual characteristics that differentiate leaders from non market leaders. Characteristic view has little analytical or predictive value. Tech, conceptual and human skills (Katz, 1974). People are delivered with inherited characteristics. Some features are particularly suited to leadership. People who make good leaders have right combo of characteristics.
Adaptable to situations
Alert to sociable environment
Ambitious and achievement-orientated
Dominant (want to influence others)
Full of energy (high activity level)
Tolerant of stress
Eager to assume responsibility
Diplomatic and tactful
Fluent in speaking
Educated about group task
Organized administrative capability)
Behavioral ideas of control do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Alternatively, they look at what market leaders do. If success can be defined in conditions of describable actions, then it should be not too difficult for other folks to act in the same way. This is simpler to teach and find out then to adopt a lot more ephemeral 'qualities' or 'features'.
Trait theory: Leaders are created, not made.
Behavioral theory: Leadership characteristics can be trained.
The scope to which a leader is likely to identify and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment.
The level to which a innovator is likely to have job human relationships characterized by common trust, esteem for subordinate's ideas, and respect for their feelings.
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; going for a personal interest in the needs of employees and taking individual differences among members.
One who stresses technical or activity aspects of the work. H:\College data file\college data file\Semester 5\MLS\Project\behaviour. jpg
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The theory that effective groupings depend on a proper match between a leader's style of getting together with subordinates and the amount to which the situation offers control and effect to the leader (Brooks, 2007).
An instrument that purports to measure whether one is task- or relationship-oriented.
The amount of self confidence, trust, and admiration subordinates have in their leader.
The degree to which the job tasks are procedurized.
Influence produced from one's formal structural position in the business; includes capacity to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and present salary rises.
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Transactional control models treat the process of leading as a cross between a public and business deal. There are particular hierarchies and structures in which some people are leaders while others are fans. A innovator and follower agree to a agreement. The last mentioned is accountable for following requests to execute a job, and the former provides rewards for proper execution of tasks. The difficulty in transactional leadership is that the concept doesn't apply well to all or any circumstances or cultures. For instance, job-performance-and-reward model doesn't pertain to volunteer work, where the prize is usually something apart from what the first choice can directly provide (http://www. everything. com).
Transactional leadership looks for to motivate enthusiasts by appealing to their own self-interest. Transactional leaders use conventional reward and punishment to gain compliance of their followers.
James MacGregor Burns first launched the concept of transformational management in his publication Command (1978), but this term is now used in organizational psychology as well. He identified it much less a set of specific behaviours, but instead an ongoing process where "leaders and fans raise one another to higher degrees of morality and motivation". Transformational leaders offer a goal that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order intrinsic needs. Transformational market leaders raise the club by appealing to higher ideals and values of fans. In doing so, they could model the principles themselves and use charismatic solutions to attract visitors to the values and also to the leader.
There are four components of transformational leadership, that happen to be:
President Barack Obama has obtained the attention of American's and foreigners as well as a consequence to his charismatic mother nature. A charismatic procedure is transformational if it invokes a long term change in individuals who accept the leader's perspective. Thus far, Chief executive Obama has woed many to his eyesight which has the potential to produce a massive difference in both domestic and foreign affairs.
Peter Northouse (2004) wrote that transformational authority is "the procedure whereby a person engages with others and creates a interconnection that raises the amount of determination and morality in both head and the follower. "
Obama has benefited from skilled oratory, personal attraction and charisma. He has merged old and new mass media strategies to preserve and build popular support. Obama and his communications team have been clever at devising novel ways to present Obama in a sympathetic light. In confronting the modern-day time of fragmented media of communication, the leader has shown a savvy ability to 'find the audience, ' instead of anticipating the audience to come to him (Woolley, Peters, 2009).
George W. Bush loves to consider himself a transformational leader. His supporters prefer to compare him to Reagan and Truman with the implicit idea that record will also treat him kindly after a harsh spell in the polls but in fact he's not like that. He highly religious and moralistic but at the same time he's poor manager, failing to organize diverse information flows in his supervision, and he's resilient to new ideas. George W. Bush is failed as a transformational innovator since he was jogging against the odds (Bass, Riggio, 2006).
The basic guarantee of contingency theory is the fact that "effective control is contingent upon corresponding leader's style to the right setting". Barak Obama exhibited a distinct ability to alter his control style to match a predicament on at least three situations.
First, while presiding more than a town hall getting together with in Fort Meyer, Florida, Chief executive Obama shown the tender side of control by delivering a genuine kiss of compassion to a woman struggling to get over economic crisis and the uncomfortable stigma to be homeless.
Secondly, on his first trip to the G20 summit in European countries. President Obama discerned that the Leading Minister of France and the Leading of China were at an impasse more than a certain deal at which time he exhibited a feeling of cross ethnic leadership by delicately calling the two away to a part and brokering a package between them.
Third, as aforementioned, Chief executive Obama flexed his presidential biceps to push Chrysler into personal bankruptcy, both Chrysler and GM out of NASCAR, and both Chrysler and GM agree to new MPG gas specifications (Coggins, 2009).
In contrast with B. Obama G. W. Bush leads "by classification". His authority posture has probably set a fresh standard in immunizing the presidency from the risks of today's hyper-politicized, media-exposed environment. His success is tracked to several factors: his personal political experiences, the imperative of defining politics issues and opponents during the revitalization of the conservative activity, and the GOP's control of American national federal government. G. W. Bush is one of an extended type of "orthodox innovators" in American presidential history. Like other presidents who led by tying themselves to their political platform while wanting to go beyond orthodoxy--including Wayne Polk, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson--President Bush encounters the task of redeeming "old assures while responding to the demand for something new"( Skowronek, 2005).
From behavioral perspective of leadership Obama successes as a innovator. He is:
Knows how to make the best use of any opportunity give.
He does not lose hope after he lost the election US congress and then acquired in the senate elections by a sizable margin.
He is a personal aware and most importantly has the capacity to connect his own experience into a politics speech in which he portrays himself as a typical citizen, speaking for the general public. As a administrator it could not impact whether you portray yourself as one common man or not but as a innovator it is vital to relate the normal man (http://www. slideshare. net).
From behavioural point of view of control B. Obama shows himself as a democratic leader. Obama touted his talents to solve problems in a bipartisan way, to defend myself against special interest groupings, and to rebuild America's standing internationally, while supplying average residents a tone of voice. "This dates back to my background as a community organizer and my opinion that if ordinary people participate we get better outcomes, " he said. "Temperamentally, I'm someone who tries to get common floor, " he said. "I usually do not demonize people who don't agree with me, but try to find areas of overlap. I'm not an ideological person; I try to make decisions predicated on facts, what works and what doesn't. " (http://www. concordmonitor. com).
G. W. Bush in contrast to Obama is autocratic innovator. Bush is resolute in his decisions and finally does not look for, or good care to truly consider ideas that run counter to his wishes. He needs to propagate liberty without seeming to understand the basics of liberty. It isn't all about bombs and tanks and diplomacy from the working end of your gun. It is about unrestricted exchange. It is about occupying real estate where affordable people publicly tussle over rough ideas. It is view given unadorned somewhat than offered with ginned up cleverness or invisible behind professional privilege and presidential clemency or warrant-less wiretaps. Liberty -- as trite as it noises -- requires vigilance and oversight.
George Bush has embraced a command-and-control style that sharply troubles a lot of today's conventional wisdom about control.
There are some features which i consider as excellent for me. Bush is a top-down, no-nonsense, decisive, macho leader who sets his eyeball on the even horizon and doesn't "go wobbly" getting there. He is crisp and can be confrontational, wanting others to follow or get out of just how. He asks questions and positively listens before he determines, but he doesn't agonize, and once the decision is manufactured, he doesn't brook internal dissent. He gladly delegates details, but he screens his team directly. If indeed they swerve off course, he snaps them back to line.
Once he models a course, he might try his hands at general public persuasion. But if people don't swing behind him, he plunges forward anyway, trusting that they will get up later. Far more important to him than the fine art of persuasion, or so it appears, is self-control of note. He has learned through experience that if he and his team repeat a, simple subject matter long enough, the general public is much more likely to give him permission to do something, even if indeed they aren't completely persuaded.
One more admirable quality is the fact as he imposes a challenging physical regime after himself, he also insists that his team stick to a script and drill it home frequently. He is sluggish to trust and has an extended memory for those who mix him or his family, but he's devoted to those who find themselves faithful. Commitment to the person, devotion to the quest, loyalty to the message, you don't stay on his team long unless you get with this program.
Bush also offers nerve. If he believes the quest important enough, he will have a risk even put his presidency on the line. "Just what exactly if no leader since Franklin Roosevelt has picked up congressional seats in his first mid-term election? So what if I risk embarrassment by campaigning hard for Republicans? Let's rev up Air Pressure One and barnstorm the united states. " That is the way Bush operates, and generally as with the 2002 election, he wins his bets (Gergen, 2003).
George W. Bush has shown a natural ability to lead. Through his competent use of timeless management concepts and his powerful people skills, Bush has proven to be a genius at leadership. The Control Genius of George W. Bush unveils the unwavering authority guidelines of the first Leader with an MBA and illustrates how he uses them to use within the arenas of politics, business, and life (Bennis, Thomas, 2002).
The President of america of America is granted significant capabilities by the Constitution and exercises others by tradition and precedent. However, success exercising these forces has varied extensively from one Chief executive to another. Harnessing the capabilities of the presidency and taking care of the sprawling exec branch have a great deal of skill and determination. Indeed Presidents face a host of issues as they attempt to lead the country and its own people. They must work with others in the segregated system of American federal government. They need to constantly package with an array of complex domestic and foreign coverage problems which tend to arise at the worst possible times. They need to try to coordinate and lead an executive branch which often does not want to follow. And they must try to lead a land with an aversion to strong management. That some Presidents are strong and effective leaders regardless of these obstructions is a testament to their talents, skills and conviction.
Every President has to inspire the self-confidence of people. Every President has to become a leader, and to be a leader he must draw in folks who are willing to follow him. Every Chief executive has to develop a moral underpinning to his ability, or he soon discovers that he has no power whatsoever (Jones, 1994).
In conclusion it would be relevant to refer to the words of Dwight D. Eisenhower (previous US President): "Management: the artwork of getting another person to take action you want done because he needs to do it" (http://www. garymotivations. com).