Posted at 10.08.2018
This article will seek to describe the issue of women in sports, and discuss the reason why for this, with relevance for some of the concepts covered in this course. It will also go on to discuss the advancements and positives observed in modern times, and explore various other possible options to increase the situation in the foreseeable future.
In Old Olympics, competitive sports activities were masculine affairs. While guys compete showing their prowess, women were prohibited to even watch competitions, significantly less compete.
Quite simply, even in this point in time of intended equality and meritocracy, sport still remains a male domain name, especially on the community level. Despite having much better opportunities and treatment, there is still an invisible hurdle between sport and the day-to-day woman. In the next section, this article shall explore a few of the reasons because of this situation.
3. 1 Benefits to Gender Ideology in sports
The idea of ideology is one that we neglect, or somewhat, something we do not even think about. It identifies the ideas and explanations we have been given since young, to describe personal and cultural life. We've been using our ingrained ideologies to make decisions and judgments since we're able to, without ever questioning or knowing them. In addition, Taylor (1994) brought up our identities are created predicated on dialogical relations with this significant others. In other words, the complexities of your identities are not formed through social identification alone (monologic model) but through the relationships with folks who are important to us.
Gender, even way more than race or course, is a pivotal arranging factor in social life. While someone's sex is decided by physical characteristics such as genitalia, gender is a social construct formed and shaped by the culture (James A. Banks). It is the fundamental way humans classify one another. Thus, we are specially reliant on gender ideology and it is extremely influential on how we coordinate our thoughts, activities and lives, and how parents bring up their offspring. The deep-rootedness of gender ideology means that everyone makes decisions predicated on it, from children, teenagers, parents to people in electricity.
Gender ideology plays a big role in how sport has been completed throughout the age groups. The idea that men are said to be strong, competitive, fast and competitive is reproduced in many activities. Conversely, women aren't encouraged that can be played sports because these traits aren't associated with women (women's athletics: coping with controversy). Thus, a woman exhibiting these features would be heading from the gender ideology that a lot of people submit to, which would make her an anomaly. A woman would need to cope not only with her community discovering her as 'not female', she also offers to deal with lack of resources and financial support because her politicians also have the same ideology and do not support ladies in sport. Fortunately, the problem has considerably increased from days gone by.
3. 2 Gender Ideology: dominance and stereotypes
The idea that males will be the dominant group is also accepted by most as part of their knowledge of gender ideologies. This is correspondent to John Clammer's point that sociable inequalities have emerged as 'natural' and therefore never to be tampered with.
Thus, sport has also suffered because of the dominant group tugging the strings and the subordinate group accepting it as it is.
In the catalogue of marginality as discussed in Tatum (1997), gender is one of the categories of dominance and subordination. The dominant group, in cases like this male, have emerged as typical for activities. This element of id is therefore taken for granted, giving males the energy and authority to 'control' females, who are customers of the subordinate group. Because of this, the inequities go unnoticed by the males. Furthermore, the stereotypical representations of the men may lead females to give attention to their difference from the 'norm' and lose notion in their own capabilities and equal protection under the law to activities.
Tatum's point about the catalogue of marginality is also highly relevant to the situation. Associates of the dominant group, in this case men, take it for granted and do not spot the inequities. Whereas Tatum says that customers of the subordinate categories, in this case females, further concentrate on their difference from the 'norm' and lose perception in their abilities and equal privileges to athletics.
People's submission to gender ideologies has led to the persistence of certain stereotypes. A straightforward example would be the main one where girls are likely to like red and boys aren't supposed to. This can be seen from the fact that most young ladies' schoolbags can be purchased in red color, and boys' handbags can maintain some other color but pink. This may seem to be safe enough, but contemplate it that individuals also send to the theory that 'children prefer to do sports, ladies do not'. Or worse still, 'guys should do sports to become manly, but females need not, thus they don't need to do sports'. This is one common idea perpetuated by many, unknowingly, because of their deep-rooted gender ideologies. As parents provide a football to their sons and a doll with their daughters, they may be again passing on the wrong message with their children. Although some may claim that parents are presenting these gifts based on their child's passions, research shows that girls and boys between the age groups of six and nine are in reality equally thinking about sports. (XXX, intro section)
The ideas that girls are weak, prone and susceptible also have led to other myths avoiding women from getting involved in sport. The mass media, another institution handled by the dominant group in contemporary society, males, have assisted in perpetuating the following myths about women who play athletics - that they become unfeminine, develop eating disorders, suffer from more knee traumas because of weaker feminine anatomy, and be lesbians. (XXX, intro section) These myths may appear ridiculous to the ladies of today, but we were holding real reasons ladies in days gone by were avoided from taking part in sport. And definitely, there are individuals around today who aren't supporting their daughters' sporting interests due to the fact that 'women are vulnerable' and really should not be partaking in strenuous activity. Even within the wearing arena, less harsh and less demanding sports were created for women e. g. netball and softball. In the case of netball, field hockey was considered too competitive and manly, thus, a non-contact sport where players weren't allowed to touch one another and leave their boundaries was created for women.
Even if girls do persevere in athletics, they often find themselves playing with guys and in the minority (need paraphrase). Predicated on the above circumstances mentioned, young ladies lack opportunities to play and develop motor unit skills. As a result, the rate of young girls (by age 14) dropping away of sports activities is six times greater than boys.
In such situation, boys do not favorably reinforce the involvement of ladies. Clammer (?) hypothesized that reinforcing of the category race as the dominating mode of social classification is a product of the dominating ideology in Singapore. In this case, males are being reinforced
Reinforcing of man as a dominant make in sport reinforces gender as a dominating mode of cultural classification.
The creation and reinforcing of competition as the dominating public method of communal classification is itself something of the dominating ideology or politics culture, which is highly Chinese in its characteristics.
3. 3 Gender ideology: Trivialization of women in sports
The multimedia, as detailed above, is another managing arm of the dominating group in population, and has a huge part that can be played in the trivialization of women's sports. Up till as recent as the 1990s, horses and dogs were accorded more column inches in US sports pages than women. And nonetheless, 90 percent of most sports television time are specialized in men's sports. Women's events are seen as less important and are less inclined to be covered by the press. Only in major competitions including the Olympic Game titles, or 'feminine' situations such as ice-skating and gymnastics, do we see the achievement of feminine athletes. And there is a insufficient inspirational and positive testimonies about the triumph of female athletes. All too often, male reporters sensationalize testimonies of women athletes who issue men, of women athletes being stabbed or abused, or of women runners dying from eating disorders.
Another way both multimedia and spectator trivialize women's sport, is seeing it as second rate because women don't have the same ability and quickness as men. Individuals who persist in such ideas believe that since women cannot perform to the same physical benchmarks as men, they do not deserve the same support. This is a good example of how users of the prominent group dictate what typical for humanity is (Tatum). Although top women runners also have excelled in their sport through willpower, skill and finesse, some remain not matching women with equivalent recognition. Charles Taylor's point of misrecognition comes into focus here. In cases like this, those who are trivializing women's sport are not giving equal esteem and dignity to women, though like men, also, they are human beings. Women's efforts in athletics are being misrecognised as second-rate and not worth appreciation.
3. 4 Gender Ideology: 'New' factors
The gender ideologies that privileged sport as an exclusive male website and resigned women as weak are not as strong as before. However, gender ideologies about the overall role of men and women in society are still hampering the improvement of ladies in sport today. Consider a household in this point in time; typically, both husband and wife would be going after careers. And still, it is the wife who's the one who has to shoulder the duty of childcare and housekeeping. This means, during her limited leisure time, a working mom who may have the eye and inclination towards sports activities has to sacrifice her time on her behalf home instead (Teo, 1999).
The man in the household still has more freedom for athletic and leisure pursuits, because of the longstanding ideology that girls will be the housekeepers.
4. Advancements and positives
As aforementioned in servings of the article, the problem has improved substantially over time. The global women's movements over the past thirty years has helped to test the traditional assignments that women have and weakened male control over women's lives. The activity in addition has emphasized that women's lives are enriched when they develop themselves actually and intellectually. These ideas and changes have aided in emancipating women especially in developed nations, encouraging those to participate in and pursue sports. (sport in society)
Specifically in the athletics arena, there have also been leaps of improvement in the quest for equal rights. In america, since Subject IX was handed in 1972, women have had a legal basis to force towards collateral in college or university and high school sports. Needless to say, equity continues to be not a simple fact in conditions of facilities, programs, money, and media coverage. But there has been encouraging signs; participation, peer, and self-acceptance of women's sports have all increased before 10-15 years. (women, sport and culture).
To cite a recently available example, the Pakistani women's cricket team won Pakistan's first Asian Video games silver medal in eight years - an success that would not need been possible if women in the country did not have decent usage of activities (Chang, 2010). This milestone tips to the necessity for even better reform of ideologies and better opportunities for ladies in expanding countries.
Achieving gender equity by having a multicultural education
Multicultural education is a reform process which features the importance of most students despite gender and other communal categories having identical opportunity to university (Banks). Stereotypical gender variations in sports have denied girls' contribution in activities. In physical education context, a PE professor has to recognize that the dynamics of gender can impact one's understanding of students. Failing woefully to do so may lead to simplistic prescription of pedagogy (Give). Teachers being aware of stereotypical perceptions of females in activities can right the misconception amongst girls that sports is not for them. This can be done through changing their teaching approaches to encourage women in class they can also stand out or gain in athletics.
Although sport contribution and the acceptance and support of female runners has increased exponentially since the late 1970s, future rises are not a given And even now, the reality is that women in some societies still have difficulties against the original gender ideologies that hamper their involvement in sport. In developed countries, gender inequities remain in support, funding, and sport-related jobs. To further impact change, the gender ideologies that are related to sport must be put out onto the desk and examined, before any subsequent action can be taken. (sports in contemporary society).
Multicultural education is a program for achieving higher gender collateral in athletics.