We accept

An overview of World Englishes

1. 1 British as an international language

Among thousand dialects on earth, English is becoming an "International English" since this can be a multinational, multicultural and multifunctional terminology. The term, "English as a global vocabulary" (EIL) can be shortened as "International English", highlights the international use of English somewhat than wrongly suggesting that there is one evidently distinguishable, unitary variety called `International English'. Mckay (2002: 132) in her publication entitled "Teaching English as a global language" employs the shorthand term and gives a definition such as this: "International English is employed by local speakers of British and bilingual users of British for cross-cultural communication. International British can be used both in an area sense between speakers of diverse cultures and languages within one country and in a worldwide sense between speakers from different countries. " From her statements, we can easily see that the uses of British internationally include speakers of English as native dialect (ENL)/English as mom tongue in every its dialects, as well as speakers of New Englishes/World Englishes/indigenized/nativized kinds. Chosen as the preferred potion for cross-cultural communication, it could be referred to as EIL. Besides, some other terms can be used pretty much interchangeably with EIL, such as English as a lingua franca, British as a global language, English as a world language, and British as a medium of intercultural communication. Actually, the dramatic development of modern science and technology, the arriving age group of information superhighway, and the shrinking of the world into a worldwide village are all accelerating international exchanges and intercultural communications and, for that matter, the wider spread of English.

Recently, another term for EIL has been unveiled: World English (Brutt-Griffler, 2002:110). She offers a carefully explored and well-argued basis for acknowledging the dynamic role of EIL users as agents in its pass on and in its linguistic development: they are simply not merely at the acquiring end, but donate to the shaping of the language and the functions it fulfils. That is a perspective with appreciable implications for British education all over the world.

1. 1. 1 An overview of World Englishes

There are several studies of varieties of world British, two famous scholars Quirk and Krachu are worthy of mentioning. Quirk divides the varieties of British into three kinds: British as native words (ENL); British as second dialect (ESL); English as spanish (EFL). He maintains that the types of world British should starting on the established rules of English English or American English. He is the typical rep who suggests the only real criterion for the types of English in the world. However, with the fast development of the modern culture, with the quick trend of internationalization of English, it is neither possible nor practical to carry on the only real criterion for different varieties of English all over the world. Being a very popular pioneer of the ideas for the internationalization of English, a promoter insisting on the pluralistic criterions of English and a variationist, Krachu submit the idea of World Englishes in 1970s. And in 1985 he proposed the three concentric circles to see the varieties of English that act like Quirk's section. The inner group refers to the traditional culture and linguistic bases of British. It includes the united states, UK, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The outer or expanded circle symbolizes the institutionalized non-native varieties. It involves the sooner intervals of the spread of English in non-native adjustments, where English has become part of your country's institutions, and performs an important `Second Terms' role in a multilingual setting up. The countries are Singapore, India, Malawi, plus more than fifty other parts on the planet. The expanding group includes the regions where the performance varieties of the language are used essentially in EFL contexts, such as China, Japan, Greece, Iran, etc. China English belongs to the circle. There are a few seventy-five territories where English has held or continues to carry a particular place, as a member of either the interior or exterior circles (Crystal, 2001: 53).

Crystal (2001: 54) gives the following estimations for the speakers of English in conditions of Kachru's (1985, 1992) `concentric circles': the internal circle, first terminology, 320-380 million; the external circle, additional/second words, 150-300 million; the expanding circle, foreign language, 100-1000 million. Kachru (1996: 241) himself retains "Nowadays there are at least four non-native speakers of British for every local speaker. " McArthur (1992: 355) has a far more conservative estimate, specifically "a 2-to-1 percentage of non-natives to natives. " And to cite a speech from what Kachru calling the expanding circle, the German author Gnutzmann (2000: 357) offers other ways of looking as of this: " It's been approximated that about 80% of verbal exchanges where English can be used as second or spanish do not require local speakers of English. " The figures show us its power and impact in cross-cultural, cross-lingual communications during the worldwide development of British. Besides the studies done by all these scholars, many other linguists likewise have done the similar researches about the internationalization of English, such as Smith (1983), Platt (1985), Stevens (1992), Graddol (1997) and so on. The common noticeable trait of their researches is that they all go against linguistic chauvinism.

On the complete, World English is the merchandise of the development of a world market and global improvements in the fields of science, technology, culture and the media; World English is discovered by people at various degrees of society, not just by the socio-economic elite; World English tends to create itself alongside local languages rather than exchanging them, therefore plays a part in multilingualism somewhat than jeopardize it; World British spreads due to the fact that lots of people learn it rather than by speakers of British migrating to others; thus two procedures happen concurrently: new varieties are manufactured and unity on the globe language is managed. With the great get spread around and quick rapid internationalization of the English language, it'll lead to nativization of British in different parts of the planet.

1. 1. 2 Nativization of British and English es in Asia

A non-native English situation is basically an innovative situation concerning certain well-known procedures of nativization (Bamgbose, 1998: 1). English has become international in identity, it cannot be destined to any culture. That's, any culture can use English as its vehicle of communication (Smith, 1983: 9). Kachru (1982: 5) has described "once English was adopted in a region, whether for knowledge, technology, literature, prestige, elitism, or `modernization', it went through a reincarnation process, which is exclusive to another culture. " Local English, struggling to adequately express what is unique to another culture, should be reincarnated, altered or varied in order to match the given culture. Such deviation or reincarnation of terms is named "nativization", "indigenization" or "hybridization" (Kachru, 1981; Moag & Moag, 1977; Whinnom, 1971).

Development of British in most parts of Asia was due to contact with native English-speakers through colonialism. Many Asian countries of "the outside group" and "the increasing circle" were past colonies or semi-colonies of countries of "the Interior circle", typically USA, UK and Canada, etc. The English language was first released to these Parts of asia, like India, Singapore, and Pakistan, as the medium of teaching in a american system of education, and was followed as the state vocabulary by some government authorities for easy communication between your rulers and the ruled. The release of the British dialect may have three purposes: spiritual purpose, commercial goal, and political goal.

However, it is for certain that the colonist's arm has not been decisive for pass on and development of British in Asia. There are some other reasons. British has often been learned as a result of status it could confer on the readers and speakers, since it opens gates in modern research, technology, trade, diplomacy, and intercultural communication. In Japan, a country under little colonial influence of your English-speaking electric power, even though British continues to be a performance variety, it includes penetrated deep into the Japanese dialect and culture. In its localized form, English has acquired a stable position in Japanese culture.

Once British was adopted in virtually any region of Asia, whether because of colonialism, or for technology, technology, books, prestige, or modernization, it went through various changes and adaptations, that have been partly linguistic and partly ethnical. The changes were essentially caused by the new bilingual or multilingual configurations, as well as new ethnical contexts where English has to function. Such linguistic and ethnic changes are specially well established in the regions where it has been used as a global terminology, in addition to serving intranational purpose, which is the case of Singapore, India, etc. Establishment of any non-native variety of English in any new culture is well illustrated because of its linguistically deviation from standard native English kinds. It usually distinguishes itself from other non-native or local English varieties in terms of phonology, vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, or discourse. The best conspicuous is the vocabulary, because nativized English varieties have to add some borrowed words from local dialects in order to express some unique phenomena and ideas of local culture that is quite different from that of other cultures. That is also the truth of China British. At present, almost all of the evidences for the identification of China British are mainly from a few of its distinctive vocabulary transporting unique Chinese culture. Besides the above countries brought up, English is participating in its international and intranational tasks in a great many other Asian countries, as well as in other parts of the world.

The fact shows that English types developed in Asia are either performance kinds in the increasing circle or institutionalized kinds in the outside circle. Performance types include those that are being used as spanish, such as in Japan, China, Indonesia and so forth. They have a highly restricted useful range in specific contexts, for example, those of tourism, commerce, and other trades. Institutionalized types are those used as the next language, such as with Singapore, Malaysia, India, and so forth. These varieties have a far more extended selection of uses, registers and style range in the public context of a nation. Corresponding to Kachru (1992), The main characteristics of any institutionalized variety are the following: the length of time used; the extension useful; the emotional connection of second vocabulary users with the variety; practical importance and sociolinguistic status. Under the situation of institutionalized kinds, English isn't just used in the domains of federal government administration, law, military services, education, commerce, advertising religion, etc. , but also in a lot more private domains of family and a friendly relationship.

From 1990s, the vast and fast pass on of English in Asia has aroused the interest of many British scholars worldwide. In the early 1990s, Japan set up a business called "the Japanese Association for Asian Englishes". And in 1999, the connection published a magazine called "Asian Englishes", which is committed to the analysis of varieties of British in Asia. A whole lot of well-known linguists like Kachru (1999), Smith (1999), Kirkpatrick (2000), and McArthur (2002) all printed articles entitled "English as an Asian Language". Each of them have acknowledged the normal features of Asian Englishes, which determine that different varieties of English in Asia participate in the category of World Englishes from the point of view of practical nativeness. In recent years, among western educational circle, there has been a definite change in behaviour towards English types (either institutionalized or performance varieties) developed in Asia, as well as in other areas of the world. Currently most institutionalized varieties have been steadily accepted by native English speakers. However, the development and nativization of institutionalized varieties has been usually unacceptable to most native English sound system. These types have once been considered lacking models of vocabulary acquisition. This frame of mind hasn't only been restricted to speech performance, but reaches lexical and collocational items which are dependant on the new sociable and cultural framework. But, this kind of bad attitude began to improve step by step with the growth of linguistic tolerance after the Second World Conflict. A review (Chen Linhan/, # X, 1996: 46) on remarks from indigenous English loudspeakers on China Daily and Beijing Review implies that even in such important British newspaper and magazine there are a few misuse of article or prepositions. Nevertheless, all the interviewees have recognized the living of China English.

1. 1. 3 China British in EIL context

English in China, when used as a vehicle of Chinese language culture, will also be nativized or sinicized linguistically and culturally. "China British" was first presented by Ge Chuangui(-, 1 'I) in 1980. He used the word to refer to the distinctive vocabulary taking unique Chinese language culture in Chinese-English translation, but he didn't suggest China English as a variety of English. Since that time, this term has aroused great interest of several scholars in China. Wang Rongpei 1991: 1-8) in his paper entitled "China British - an objective English variety" highlights, "provided that English is trusted in a non-native area with certain characteristic of indigenization, whatever its function might be, it can be regarded as an English variety. You will discover no reasons to deny the actual fact that China British can be an objective language sensation in China. " Since then, China British has been popular among scholars home and abroad. Chinese audio speakers or learners' appropriate communication in British has become one of the most heated topics for all your Chinese scholars of British coaching, translation, linguistics and cross-cultural communication. On the whole, the level of popularity of British has pushed onward the nativization of English in China. Using the open-up and reform guidelines, increasingly more foreign people and different institutions flood into China, plus more British expressions that are typically

2. 3. 1 Pidgin British and China English

A Pidgin is a lingua franca that comes up to be able to help in communication between sound system of different dialects who are in sustained contact with each other, e. g. in trade or plantation situations (William, 1992: 224). Although it is not a one's native words, a pidgin usually will involve mixture or compromise between the native dialects of its users; in comparison with these, it is restricted in sociable role, and simplified or reduced in linguistic resources.

Pidgins flourish in areas of economic development all around the globe, and Pidgins are based on English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Actually, Pidgin English in China originated from Pidgin Portuguese that is a hybrid words with the mixture of Portuguese, English, Hindi, Malay and Chinese Cantonese. Evidences in the history show that the Portuguese were the initial Westerners who came to China to undertake the reason for colonial development and activities after the establishment of the new road in the 16`h century. When they first arrived in Macau, they found it was very difficult to communicate with the local people, and the local people, who had been wanting to find ways of livelihood during the contact with the Portuguese and other traditional western people, also thought hard to switch ideas with them. Both needed a distributed language as a tool for communication to start new prospects. Slowly and gradually Canto-Portugue s (j'~, *I-, j iq ) came into being, which was a company term in commercial exchange between China and Portugal. It had been a language utilized by the Portuguese investors and the neighborhood businessmen. Later the terminology became very adult with considerable vocabulary, stable conversation sound, morphology and syntax, which have been used by the local people for 300 years. It didn't fade away until 19`x' century when the English colonists came to South China to increase trade. Using the increase of trade level of Britain in China, a fresh Pidgin, Canton British, emerged as the days demanded. Many English words gradually substituted those Portuguese words. Pidgin Portuguese experienced a great influence on late Canton British, now known technically as Chinese language Pidgin English or China Coast Pidgin.

Chinese Pidgin British was greatly affected by the sooner Cantonese Pidgin Portuguese. But little has been known about how precisely Canton English was reborn from Pidgin Portuguese. Anyhow, it progressed into a lingua franca of the Pacific that inspired the Pidgins of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Queensland, and somewhere else. With regard to its source, the linguist Chin Chuancheng notes: "The Chinese language held the British isles, like all foreign devils, in low esteem, and wouldn't normally stoop to learn the foreign tongue in its full form. The English, on the other hands, regarded as the heathen Chinese as beyond any opportunity of learning, and so began to change their own vocabulary for the natives' `gain" ('Chinese Varieties of British', in B. Kachru (ed. ), the Other Tongue, 1982). Pidgin British with typical Cantonese grammatical structures spread swiftly when the Treaty Jacks were founded in China in 1843, but declined towards the finish of the l9`h century as Standard British commenced to be systematically taught in schools and universities. Before liberation, there is Shanghai Pidgin British too. Pidgin English is now extinct in the People's Republic of China and marginal in Hong Kong.

In fact, Chinese language Pidgin English that were demoted by people was the earliest embryo of China English. People always consider Pidgin English as a term with derogatory sense. But it was the original stage whenever we Chinese people began to speak to English in the precise historical times. What Pidgin British mirrored was how Chinese people learned British at the initial and the most superficial level. Along with the development of the society, it has been discarded. However, the traces left by history can never be removed, and they'll influence our behaviors, thoughts and behaviour unconsciously. So, facing the trend of China English, we should not need the attitudes of evasion towards China Pidgin English.

Both Pidgin English and China British are the merged result of British with China, which are with typical Chinese language models and thought patterns to different certifications. But they can not be equated and thought to be a similar thing. Du Zhengming (* 1998: 6) notes: To Chinese language people, Pidgin British was an imposed English, which was the product of colonial extension. So, that they had no motives or conditions to learn Standard British, they just imposed Chinese speech audio, vocabulary and grammar into British, thus became a mixed terminology. However, China British is a officially learned language. People learn and excel at it positively and systematically through formal education at universities and universities. They can't treat it entirely as they please. Pidgin English was a language by putting British, the so-called super-state terms, together with Chinese, the so-called sub-state one. It had been neither English nor China. It shown the inequality in culture and contemporary society. But there are no such compositions as the so-called super-state and sub-state in China English. It is British with typical Chinese social and ethnical characteristics.

2. 3. 2 China British and Chinglish

As discussed before, China English is employed to refer to special things of China and it is out there objectively possesses three implications: China British can be used only by Chinese language people in China; China British takes normative British as its nucleus English; it has its own characteristics. However the first implication doesn't match practice, because some words are used not only by Chinese people but also by traditional western people. The difference between China British and Chinglish is based on the communicative result with regards to the recognition of Normative British audio system. So, Chinglish can be changed into China English, like "long time no see".

Many teachers and scholars home and in foreign countries have discovered this language happening and studies of Chinglish are spread in literature or articles in the field of English teaching and learning. Nevertheless, due to the unsystematic and unsteady nature of Chinglish, people do not necessarily resonate a specific and unanimous voice on what Chinglish is and hereby present diverse and imperfect meanings from different perspectives in light with their own understanding. Pinkham (2000: 1-) defines it is just a hybrid dialect that is neither British nor Chinese but that might be referred to as `English with Chinese language characteristics'; Deng Yanchang and Liu Runqing ()l Vl)i1f7 1989) views it as conversation or writing that presents the interference of the affect of China; Li Wenzhong ( 1993: 18) considers it as abnormal of deformed English that is produced by Chinese British learners or users when they are influenced by Oriental rules.

The above-cited meanings point out that Chinglish is mainly caused by terms learners' mother tongue interference; it is triggered not only by linguistic interference, but moreover, by the interference of the terms learners' home culture and the idea habits peculiar to the house culture. Whether there is a clear-cut distinction between China British and Chinglish or Chinese English is a heated debate, because people think the word "Chinglish" is derogatory. Actually, Chinese English and China British are at different items on a single continuum of interlanguage between Chinese language and Standard English in the Chinese language context, at different periods of acquisition or skills level. Because of insufficient acquisition or effectiveness level, a few of the English-using Chinese language often make problems in grammar. These errors do not have an root sociolinguistic explanation, and English inflicted with such errors can hardly be named the educated form of British, or teaching model in China. The violation of ethnical norms may be common, however those grammatical mistakes are more or less related with the inadequate acquisition and inadequate proficiency of "Chinglish". In section four, we are going to discuss this issue in detail according to the relevant ideas of SLA TEFL.

3. 2. 1 Lexical level

At the lexical level, Kachru (1982) has pointed out that an integral part of the lexicon is nativized in two ways. Similarly, native items are being used in localized registers and styles in order to contextualize the vocabulary. On the other hand, English lexical items may acquire extended or constrained semantic markers. Through the procedure for the nativization of English in China, the former is called "cultural words", the second option, "semantic shift". There's a great difference between Chinese and English culture, at times we can not find equivalent English expressions to mention peculiar things in Chinese culture. Under this example, people will utilize different translation strategies, such as domesticating and foreignizing translations, literal and free translations, to interpret Chinese language words of materials and spiritual civilizations into British. Domesticating translation refers to the translation strategy when a translucent, fluent style is adopted in order to reduce the strangeness of the international text for goal language viewers, while foreignizing translation designates the kind of translation when a target text intentionally breaks concentrate on conventions by keeping something of the foreignness of the initial. Content in China British are the primary manifestations of the nativization of British in China. They get into English through the next ways.

(i) Transliteration

Many Pinyin words have immediately entered British because of linguistic relativity and intranslatability of the applied terminology. Transliterated expressions in Pinyin can be considered a most conspicuous feature of China English with the approach of literal translation and the strategies of foreignizing translation. Chinese personal and physical labels and even some other China-unique facts can be romanized in Chinese language Pinyin either in completeness (e. g. Wen Jiabao; Shanghai) or in part (e. g. Maotai Liquor).

Actually, transliterated words from Chinese into English started in the early 19`h century. In those days, lots of Chinese language personal brands and geographical titles were translated into British based on the phonetic system called Wade System, something of Romanization of China, trusted in representing Chinese language words and names in British, esp. before the adoption of Pinyin. Additionally it is called Wade-Giles with some characteristics of English spelling, but it didn't adhere to the guidelines of English spelling completely. And in the first times there were some transliterations from Guangdong dialects and Southern Fujian dialects, such as tea (*); chow mei (r); ); won lot (t; Bohea (RA*t, ) ; cheongsam (1> 4) and so on. Something using the Latin alphabet, called Pinyin, has been developed in China since 1950s, which is now in keeping use. Pinyin is the state standard for transliteration of Oriental in the People's Republic of China now. It's been widely used by the international areas and foreign countries since the International Standardization Organization passed IS07098: Documents Service - SOMETHING for Romanizing Chinese Characters into the Roman Alphabet in 1982. So, we can easily see transliteration in China English keeps on developing and advancing with the duration of time. Now let's compare the following different transliterated words: Within the Wade Giles system - Inside the Pinyin system, Mei-kuo - Meiguo, Chung-kuo - Zhongguo, Pei-tai-he - Beidaihe, Mao Tse Tung - Mao Zedong, Peking - Beijing, Chonghwa - Zhonghua, Tsinghwa - Qinghua, Taipei - Taibei

With the fast increasing of publicity and exchange with the exterior world, China has been greatly impacting on the globe in many different areas, like politics, current economic climate, culture, education, knowledge and daily life. In cases like this, more and more Chinese words expressing peculiar things in Chinese language culture have been translated into English through transliteration and have become loanwords of British. They greatly enrich British vocabulary. Let's take a look at some vocabulary in China British. China British words transliterated under specific historical and cultural background:

Confucius (L); Lao-tzu (Z-T); Tao Te Ching (((, t, ));Yamen (Tf1); Xiucai (A. A'); Yin (M); Yang(1IF9); qipao (h4); doufu (J); litchi (k); wushu (A*); quyi(1); gongfu ()i), etc. Some Chinese language brand names stepping into China British through transliteration: Most of them are Pinyin words, however, many of them are translated by using British words similar in pronunciation with Chinese words. For example, Tun Huang (WI), Da FU Gui (111'-foot), E Mei(), Chang Hong(Kt), Maxam (-X. )3116. ), Hisense (I;Haier (CI:), Stone ma), Lucky (ff:01, ), Legend ("it), Growing (AW. ), Transit (lifiY, ) etc, to name but a few.

The above good examples show that the transliterated China English words own different traits in different periods. They expose the significance and vitality of transliteration in the introduction of China English vocabulary. Nevertheless, there exists a great difference between Chinese and English, their pronunciation and spelling are quite different from each other. If we simply replace English words with Chinese language Pinyin words, it will cause misunderstandings in cross-cultural communication. So while transliterating Chinese words and expressions into English, we should pay attention to translatability, readability and understandability.

(ii) Loan translations

When there are no transliterated borrowings, or hybridization, loan translations will be adopted. Many Chinese language words and expressions have been translated into British by borrowing English content directly. You will discover three kinds of loan translations. They are simply compound words, clipped words, and phrases (Zhou & Feng, 1987: 111-125). The substance of the ideas can be summed up the following:

One form of loan translations is chemical substance words. A few examples of this type are loan +English, like Canton ginger (Canton is a transliteration, and ginger is a local expression); teacup (from Chinese term chabei); teahouse (from Chinese word chaguan), etc. Other types of this kind of loan translation will be the British calque, like beancurd (from Chinese language compound phrase doufu; dou=bean or soy, fu - curd); red bean (from Chinese compound expression chidou; chi - red, dou=bean), etc.

The second form of loan translations is some special clipped expression that is produced according to the pattern: a number + Chinese character (phrase translated into British literally). For example, sishuwujing=Four Books, Five Classics ( Sishu identifies four classic Chinese language books, specifically: THE FANTASTIC Learning (da xue); The Doctrine of the Mean(zhong yong); The Analects of Confucius gun yu) and Mencius(meng Wiijing means The Booklet of Music (shi jing); The E book of History (shujing); The Reserve of Changes (yijing); The Booklet of Rites (li ji) along with the Spring and Autumn Annals (chun qiu). Besides Four Catalogs and Five Classics, it also includes Three Cardinals and Five Long lasting Virtues, the Theory of Five Elements and so forth.

The third form of loan translations refers to English phrases translated from Chinese language phrases literally. Each one of these English phrases have got the peculiar characteristics of Chinese language culture that can't be found in English culture. They express the different features of Chinese culture and things through the development of background and society. For example, things originating from the culture of Buddhism, viewpoint and Chinese historical literature: Taoism (i); Buddhism (T9 1); The Analects ( ((itiih )) ); The booklet of Changes ( ((1)) ) etc. Loan translations in specific historical and ethnic developing times of China: red officer (iEJ L); one big pot (ik i^WX); ideological remoulding ( LRR CiA); newspaper tiger (J);); four modernizations (lThi`(tf- ); spiritual civilization material civilization (t1JAX OA); Three Represents (~ IM-M); guideline by virtue (1'i1); laid-off workers (TliIA); two-hundred insurance policy ( (~one country, two systems ( - ~1 IlJ); cross-strait relationships etc. When speaking about Chinese language words and expressions, we will never fail to point out those idioms, mottos, proverbs and established phrases that bring unique Chinese language culture. Some of them possess the similar meanings to British idioms, mottos and proverbs, however when translated into English by applying English versions mechanically, they will be resistant to the natural and original meanings of Chinese language. In this situation the way of measuring loan translations or semantic shift can be implemented to translate Chinese idioms, mottos and proverbs. China British created by the way of loan translations or semantic switch can better retain the features and the specific content of marvelous Chinese civilizations. For instance, to spend money like dirt (ii f) ; to get a snake and add foot to it (i i, ); people mountains and people seas (A W ); like bamboo shoots after rain (C JA# ); seeking real truth from facts (k *RE); no discord, no concord (4T7) x); one arrow, two hawks (- Mj~X), etc. Each one of these arranged phrases and expressions in China English manifest ethnical activities of the several ages in human being society of China. Actually, Chinese people have a preference for four-character phrases both on paper and chat. The lifestyle of a great number of four-character phrases mainly owes to the initial feature of Chinese language itself. Balance in Chinese language is becoming part of cosmetic appraisal since it first appeared as an all natural reflection of human mind. Readers expect a pattern that can economize their work in understanding. Balance is such a design as psychologically satisfying its audiences. From poems to proverbs and four-character phrases, we can find a lot of balanced constructions. For instance, created naturally (i. -t-a); the ends of the planet earth (X it fil); be timid (!fit), etc. From your translation we can easily find that lots of Chinese balanced expressions can't be translated into British with the rhetorical results retained completely. But it is merely these unique things in Chinese language culture that constitute the peculiar characteristics of China British.

All the above mentioned examples and analysis tell that as long as what and expressions are peculiar to Chinese culture, lexical spaces will emerge in English. No matter what measures we take up to translate Chinese language into English, English vocabulary with Chinese language characteristics is the result of integration of Chinese culture with British culture Actually, many Chinese place labels, person brands and article names have become assimilatory with British, and participate in part of Normative British, for example, the fantastic Wall (-I-A); the Summer Palace (Kfrl El), the Forbidden City (#4); Tian An Men Square (gZI-Jr-*) and the like.

3. 2. 2 Syntactic level

Words will be the smallest systems of the dialect. While, sentences will be the grammatical models of the best grade in the dialect, and they're the essential linguistic units for people to exchange ideas and talk to one another. China English at the syntactic level bears the effect from the way of Chinese thinking and Chinese language sentence buildings.

(i) The thinking model and linear sequence

The differences between your way of thinking in English and this in China are clearly manifested in their vocabulary linear (Jia Delin/r4A 1990: 12-16). And he has turned out the acceptability of China British under the problem of nativization of English in China.

The English thinking sequence reflecting genuine elements is: the subject of action the action of subject - the object of action-- the many markings of action. But the actual components of the Chinese language thinking sequences are: the main topic of action - the draw of action - the action of subject - the thing of action or the symbol of action - the subject of action - the action of subject matter - the thing of action. The thinking model shown in British linear collection is: subject - predicate --subject -'various adverbials. As the Chinese linear sequence is: subject matter -adverbial - predicate-- subject or adverbial - subject - predicate - subject.

    1. English natives are used to placing the most crucial part initially of a sentence and add other elements one at a time, thus developing a linear chain with small brain and big body. While, Chinese language people intend to add other elements first, and then supply the central information part, a creation of a word pattern with large head and small body. Now let's compare the next examples:

John had a good evening meal yesterday.

John yesterday acquired a good meal. (CE)

Yesterday John got a good dinner. (CE)

Things were different while i was a child.

When I used to be a child, things were different. (CE)

I will follow you wherever going.

Wherever you go, I'll follow you. (CE)

    1. According to just how of pondering in English, the thing of action in British often has long post modifiers located at the back part of the sentence in order to avoid their heaviness and size. However, in Chinese, a long sentence is divided into short ones, and the long objective is put directly to the action of subject. Look at the examples below:

Robinson creates a raft and will try you should to carry to the shoreline the store of necessities on the ship, which contain breads, rice, barley, planks, business lead and gunpowder, an ax and two saws.

There is a store of requirements on the ship, which consist of bakery, rice, barley, corn, planks, lead and gunpowder, an ax and two saws. Robinson creates a raft and will try you should to carry these to the shore. (CE)

    1. The illustration of the reason and result about a thing in China is in the slow direction to that in English. Generally, the cause English is firstly given and then the cause, which is contrary to Chinese term order. The following phrases can better exemplify this circumstance.

      He didn't go to work yesterday because he was ill.

      Because he was ill, he didn 't go to work yesterday. (CE)

      The isolation of the rural world is compounded because of the paucity of information press.

      Because there aren't enough information mass media, the isolation of the rural world is compounded. (CE)

    2. In English, there are numerous English phrases with pronoun "it" as unfilled subjects, but this type of pronoun does not exist in China. Let's compare several pairs of sentences below in order to identify the characteristics of China English more strongly:

is Monday today.

Today is Monday. (CE)

It struck twelve o'clock just now.

The clock struck twelve o'clock just now (CE)

Who could it be?

Who are you? (CE)

    1. There are some differences existing in the positions of interrogatives, in giving an answer to negative interrogatives.

I don't think you are right doing like this.

I think you are not right doing like that. (CE)

You haven't completed your work, perhaps you have?

No, I haven't completed it.

You haven't done your work, perhaps you have?

Yes, I haven't completed it. (CE)

    1. Different cultural qualifications knowledge in Chinese language and English also leads to different understanding in translation. The good examples are as follows:

Good luck!

Go to work happily, and come back safely! (CE)

He attained with another Waterloo in the talk contest.

He received another defeat in the speech contest. (CE)

From the above mentioned cases, we find the key difference between English and Chinese is the fact English is a language of hypotaxis while Chinese is a words of parataxis. Hypotaxis refers to that the phrases are sorted out by the grammatical relationships. But parataxis means the sentences are organized by the logic relationships. Therefore, English sentences are well knitted, and Chinese language sentences are terse and lucid.

With a view to exposing China to the exterior world, China British is likely to foreignize as much Chinese elements as is feasible to attain both linguistic and ethnical equivalences. By comparing the differences and the similarities between Normative English and China English, we can achieve our goals easier in the cross-cultural communications.

3. 2. 3 Discourse level

Nations of different cultures have their own typical means of thinking, to create thought variations. The differences of thinking reflect the psychological craze of the people who have been utilizing a language for a large number of years. Therefore, each terms manifests peculiar thought features of its cultural group not only in syntactic structures but also in discourse models. (i) Relevant theories of discourse analysis Discourse analysis made an appearance in France in the middle of 1960s. Truck Dijk (1985b) describes how, in america at exactly the same time, Hymes' Dialect in Culture and Contemporary society (1964) marked the beginning of the sociolinguistics, a departure from the transformational grammar of Chomsky, in that it emphasized the social bases of communication and so was a precursor of discourse examination. A comparable time, the systemic grammar of Halliday in Britain focused on relations between phrases and discourse of cohesion. Because of the 1970s, discourse evaluation was an established field of study, with numerous treatments in a number of countries, included in this Enkvist's intro to words linguistics in Finnish (1974); Dressler's introduction to text message linguistics in Germany (1972); Vehicle Dijk' book on wording grammars in the Netherlands (1972); and Halliday and Hansan's grammar of cohesion in British in Britain (1976). The 1980s observed an explosion of discourse studies, which prolonged to build up new theories and apply them in a number of fields such as business, regulation, and medicine. Van Dijk's four-volume Handbook of Discourse Evaluation (1985a) provides a comprehensive overview of the interdisciplinary styles. Major development in discourse examination is examined in a 1990 special issue of the journal, Wording, and in the 1990 issue of the gross annual Review ofApplied Linguistics.

At the same period of the study of discourse analysis, in 1966, Kaplan, the American applied linguist, began the discipline of contrastive rhetoric in neuro-scientific applied linguistics. In his article: Cultural Thought Patterns in Intercultural Education, he points out his contrastive rhetoric hypothesis and assessments it with ESL pupil essays. Contrastive rhetoric sustains that dialect and writing are cultural phenomena. As a primary consequence, each terminology has rhetorical conventions of the first terminology hinder writing in the ESL. Furthermore, he asserted that the linguistic and rhetorical conventions of the first words interfere with writing in the second language. Relating to Kaplan's views, logic and rhetoric are interdependent as well as culture British Semitic Oriental Relationship Russian

Figure 3. 1 Kaplan's famous diagram specific. He views the relationship between terminology and thought just as: "Sequence of thought and grammar are related in confirmed terms (1966: 1-20)". As well as the underlying premise, each terms or culture has rhetorical conventions that are unique to it. Matching to Kaplan, ESL students have to be made aware of rhetorical conventions in British just as other languages. In those days he identified the composition of English exposition as linear, just because a paragraph in English typically starts with a subject statement recognized by good examples that are related to the central theme. Paragraphs in other dialects have different typical constructions, as is shown in Kaplan's famous diagram summarizing five types of paragraph development.

This diagram experienced a great impact partly since it is intuitively captivating and easily remembered. Reproduced in many first-language writing textbooks in america, it has transformed thousands of first terminology students and teachers to distinctions in writing styles across culture.

(ii) The analysis of China British at discourse level

The reason for studying the introduction of China British at discourse level is to make shared understanding between Chinese people and some other English-speaking people (including speakers of British as native language (ENL)/ English as mom tongue in every its dialects, as well as speakers of New Englishes/World Englishes/ indigenized/nativized kinds). It's true that there surely is clear variation between Chinese language culture and every other nation's culture. For instance, the Chinese way of greeting, inviting, apologizing, showing gratitude and the reaction to go with, etc. is far not the same as others. Throughout learning British and communication, we often sacrifice the initial Chinese features and follow the norms and behaviours of traditional western countries to be able to understand so-called "standard English". But, as an English variety in EIL context, China British should bear Chinese language cultural peculiarities and translation of Chinese language concerns, old and new. The Lexis in China English is shown in two ways, an example may be loanwords (Pinyin words), and the other loan translations with the underlying Chinese facets, which are being used to convey Chinese linguistic features and special things in China by Chinese language speakers. Phrases (syntax) will be the grammatical devices of the highest quality in the terminology and they're the basic linguistic units for folks to exchange ideas and communicate with each other. China English at the syntactic level bears the affect from just how of Chinese language thinking and Chinese sentence structures. On the discourse level, an evaluation is manufactured between British discourse and Chinese discourse. China British at the discourse level manifests peculiar thought features of Chinese language people whose pondering ways will vary from English native speakers.

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