Posted at 11.13.2018
Within this article, the key ideas and concepts of the individual centred approach to counselling will be evaluated and discussed how they advise and effect a person centred approach to counselling.
Person centred theory or person centred counselling is the theory of counselling which originated from Carl Rogers. Actually this kind of counselling was also known as a 'nondirective procedure' to therapy or 'customer centred therapy' (Gladding, 2011). Zimring and Raskin (1992, cited in Tudor et al, 2004)) does a review on the history of the person centred strategy and divided the first fifty many years of counselling into four main times of the strategy. However, this essay will consider the first two periods of the history within the Rogers theory of counselling.
Zimring and Raskin (1992, cited in Tudor et al, 2004) declare that the first period starts in 1940 with Rogers showing to a University or college his thoughts on newer principles to psychotherapy; this is subsequently published 2 yrs later. The two characteristics of the first stage to the procedure is the therapist's role which could be the responses towards your client and the clients' feelings which are distinct from this content, and second of all, the acceptance, acceptance and the clarification of thoughts whether they were positive, negative or ambivalent (Tudor et al, 2004, p. 21). This might describe and possible effect one of the three primary conditions of unconditional positive regard that Rogers developed within the restorative relationship, which will be talked about in more depth further on through this good article.
The second phase started out in 1950 where Rogers describes the construction and structure of the client centred approach and his hypothesis for therapy and therapeutic change. More significant within this decade was Rogers' hypothesis of the six 'necessary and sufficient conditions' of the client's personality change and personal progress. Although until recently it was thought that, only the central conditions would have to be present for positive change that occurs (reference). However, before this essay discusses the six 'necessary and sufficient conditions' for change to occur, the three key ideas that will be the underpinning to the person centred approach have to be addressed comprehensive.
The to begin which is the microorganisms. Although Rogers was a careful copy writer, he took the thought of the organism for granted that within his written work it is suggested that he saw no need to establish the organism when authoring the main element theoretical principles or constructs to the individual centred strategy (Tudor et al, 2004). Rogers assumed that the 'interior core of your man's personality is the organism itself, which is essentially both self-preserving and public' (Tudor et al, 2004, p. 25). Rogers also asserted that the feature of the organism has a basic propensity and strives to actualise, maintain, and enhance the connection with the organism (Rogers, 2003).
According to Tudor et al (2004) the actualising tendency or AT is at times conceptualised as something sturdy and distinct to the organism, therefore, to avoid any misconception's through this essay it shall make reference to the actualising trend as the 'organism's trend to actualise' which is regarded as a attribute of the organism.
Rogers has associated the organism's trend to actualise
Incongruence between self-concept and the knowledge of do it yourself is denied and distorted
Through the Rogers' classification of the organism as stated previously, the explanation of the organism is the individual person or customer and is not to be lost with the "self". The "self" is believed to be the personality of the said organism and holds the feelings, views and the beliefs of the average person (Tudor et al, 2004) person.
These are two completely different aspects of the individual centred strategy, however, they can probably be recognized for exactly the same entity, and not two separate entities as Rogers expected. Rogers' understood this and detailed the "self" as taking shape when the organism or individual acknowledges and allows they are who they are which is their personality. This technique regarding to Rogers clearly discovered within the first 2 yrs of an infant's life, (Tudor et al, 2004) and the "conditions of worthy of" that are created at this time in development would be shaped by the parental influence and carried on further in to the individual's mature life as an idea of "self" or the self-concept.
Conditions of well worth are manifested from the positive respect or conditional respect received by the infant from either a parental effect or spouse, thus the conditions of well worth within the 'home' becomes inlayed in the child. When discussing a substantial other it is intended as someone other than the mother or father whom providers look after the infant within this time of development (reference point). In case of the "self" receiving conditions of worth, it embodies the internal or external locus of evaluation.
The individual's internal or external locus of evaluation.
Frame of reference
However, the clients "frame of reference point" can also connote the moment-by-moment awareness that the client experience's (Worsley, 2001).
It is obvious that the individual centred counsellor does not have a model for child development as the easy expression "conditions of well worth" which Rogers' termed, encompass the entirety of the developing child (McLeod, 2009).
The process of counselling has positives, just as equally as almost every other profession does indeed. The function of counselling is targeted at overcoming any negative qualities, which the consumer may have, and highlights all the positive characteristics a customer has. Rogers believed that all people were good and everyone has the to be internal well-being. Also counselling whatever theoretical approach is employed as a basis is to increase a client's responsibility and to allow them to make positive alternatives that assist them to feel, think and action effectively within today's population (Colledge, 2002).
The counsellor's role within your client marriage is to provide psychological warmth where in fact the client can experience a sense of basic safety and can see oneself objectively without any emotional issues. The counsellor provides a genuine alter ego that allows the clients do it yourself as they has known it to be, and accepts the distorted and refused self applied with the same depth of ambiance and respect, thus, your client can equally agree to both areas of the 'home' (Rogers, 2003).
The counsellor provides the client with an empathetic understanding, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. Congruence within the restorative relationship is highly important and good for the therapeutic marriage, however, Colledge (2002) argued, that if counsellors' congruence within themselves is at a low level the counsellor could not trust their own intuition during the counselling session.
However, it is suggested that a restorative marriage that's characterised by the primary conditions (congruence, empathy and unconditional positive respect) help strengthen the client's self applied and encourage clients to discuss openly about emotions as the counsellor is the active listener and principles them and their ideas. Although, very few studies have been conducted to support this, Bachelor (1988 cited in Bozarth & Wilkins, 2001, 3rd Model) conducted a report that recognized this hypothesis. The study showed that the clients who felt comprehended, accepted, non-judged and valued from the counsellor, experienced more self-validation and found it safer to self - disclosure and would explore deeper levels of emotions and perceptions within themselves.
Within the client counsellor relationship, it is suggested that the counsellor's role is to provide among various things, for example, a protected climate and unconditional positive respect. That is one of the three main conditions necessary to give a positive change within the client, furthermore, unconditional positive regard directly disrupts any conditions of worth by the positive respect of parental or significant others: the counsellor values the client irrespective of the customers conforming to any conditions of well worth (Mearns & Thorne, 2010) the client may have.
The core conditions of unconditional positive regard, empathy, congruence and the six necessary and sufficient conditions your client experience within the restorative relationship between your consumer and counsellor has proven invaluable and helps the seven level process to therapeutic motion (Rogers, 2003) within the organism or the organismic home.
Furthermore, Rogers emphasised that the six necessary and sufficient conditions will be the key to establish the counselling romance and for restorative growth to occur successfully. Rogers shared these in 1957 that happen to be that two different people need to be in mental health contact, meaning the people would have to be on the same journey together, the second condition would be that your client would be in the status of incongruence between 'self applied' and the 'self-concept', and be vulnerable and restless. Naturally, this would be the truth as a person only looks for counselling if they're in any form of turmoil.
The third condition explained that the therapist has or for a much better choice of expression, counsellor, is congruent and united within the therapeutic marriage. The fourth and fifth necessary and sufficient condition is the central conditions of unconditional positive respect and an empathic understanding of the clients' frame of reference. Last but not least the 6th condition Rogers mentioned that the therapists empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard will be the little to be communicated to the client.
Although the sixth condition could be argued as it is incompatible with Rogers first statement, that 'the pursuing six fundamental conditions, which he (Rogers) regarded as both necessary and sufficient where therapeutic growth and personality change could take place' (Rogers, 1957, cited in Casemore, 2011). However, it can be said that the first condition performs a pivotal role, as the other five conditions revolve around 'mental health contact' and therefore the counselling voyage is a relationship and not two people being in the same room along. Thus to reiterate, counselling will not be effective if your client does not go through the counsellor's empathy or the unconditional positive regard for the kids.
Although the process of therapeutic development and change seems meek when written down the process is perhaps an agonizing and courageous voyage the client takes and can't be fully understood. However, Rogers wanted to gain some understanding and developed his theory of the seven phases of process. The seven phases of process Rogers observed as a flowing continuum rather than rigid or predetermined but rather a process which will develop but can at any level be relapsed upon.
A brief outline of the process is as follows, the first level the client would get into counselling extremely resilient to improve and defensive, which at this stage, and the client would be highly unlikely to enter into counselling. Level two, the client is perceived as less rigid and would talk about the external happenings or other folks encompassing their lives.
Within stage three, the probably time the client would seek counselling; they would go to town as an subject and prevent any discussions associated with present occasions. Within stage four, your client will develop a rapport with the counsellor and converse deeply about emotions. Stage five the client expresses present thoughts, begins to rely upon their decision-making, and lives their life in the existential way to be. Quite simply, increasingly allows more responsibility because of their own actions.
Stage six your client expansion towards congruence is quick and they begin to develop unconditional positive regard for others. This level may be the sign that formal remedy is concluding, as there is no need for it to keep. Finally stage seven matching to Rogers your client is self-actualising, shows empathy, unconditional positive regard, and is currently living phenomenological.
As mentioned above, existential and phenomenological is from the person centred approach as maybe it's suggested that is the root from what Rogers' was implying when expressing the introduction of the client personally centred therapy also to how they might exist (Casemore, 2011).
To conclude this good article has discussed how Rogers' theory informs and affects the counselling practice within today's society. It has talked about at length the organism and the self and referred to the six necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change and where in fact the link is between existential and the phenomenological rules to the person centred method of counselling.
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