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QUALITY

An exploratory investigation into qualitative research

Due to insufficient research in this field this can be an exploratory investigation. The qualitative method may very well be the most appropriate to explore the aims and objectives of the research as it is vital in areas where there is certainly little knowledge and starts up new regions of research (May and Pope, 1995). Experimental and quantitative methods are less suitable to answer these research questions as they do not examine the activities and actions of people's life activities in much depth (Gribich, 1999). Qualitative research is often prerequisite to quantitative research, particularly within an area that has received little if any previous investigation as it could generate new concepts and ideas of practice (Carpenter, 1997).

Qualitative research methodology focuses on individuals' lived activities as they are provided in thoughts, ideas, feelings, attitudes and perceptions. Furthermore, the research procedure emphasizes human behavior and social relationship. It explores the grade of a occurrence, not the quantity. The purpose of qualitative methodology is to build up new knowledge predicated on members' own values and experience, not on pre-dened, testable hypotheses. It really is inductive somewhat than deductive, which is interpretative rather than predictive.

The design is exible, iterative and emergent and for that reason requires of the researcher an potential to improve and adapt the study process in accordance with rising results. Qualitative research is thus not the same as quantitative research as it allows for exibility throughout the study process. Several data collection methods can be used, such as individual interviews, focus group conversations, or participant observations, in order to gain a deeper understanding of health, health problems and rehabilitation. It could be used in blend with quantitative studies, but also as a study method of its.

In health research, the qualitative methodology has gained increasing trustworthiness over the last decade. However, it is not yet frequently used in treatment research. As treatment, outcomes are dependent on people's behaviour, thoughts and inspiration regarding the treatment process, and as the rehabilitation process in itself builds on interpersonal connections, studies with a qualitative design could become useful tools in the development and improvement of rehabilitation.

Creswell (15) denes qualitative research in the following manner:

Qualitative research can be an inquiry procedure for understanding

based on unique methodological practices of inquiry that

explore social individual problems. The researcher develops a

complex, alternative picture, analyses words, studies detaileviews

of informants and conducts the study in an all natural setting.

(15: p. 15).

Morse (16) identifies the research methodology as a traditions that is interpretative and which deals with the public world and how this world is interpreted, realized, experienced and made by human beings. She also emphasizes that qualitative

methodology uses research designs that are exible and hypersensitive to the public context in which the study is performed.

In accordance with Creswell, Morse suggests that qualitative methodology involves methods of analyses and explanations that are sophisticated, specific and contextual. THE PLANET Health Company (4) argues that it's important to spell it out culture and behavior of men and women and groups of men and women and that the analysis should concentrate on the viewpoints dealt with by those being examined.

One basic assumption in qualitative technique is that realities are multiple and socially made (17). Which means that they will fluctuate between different communities of people and in various social settings. They are really time and framework bound. That is a social constructionist perspective (6). Realities are experienced in another way depending on who's experiencing and judging them. Therefore, it's the researcher's responsibility to nd these dissimilarities, not to nd an individual fact. The view of fact as multiple and changing can be an ontological assumption.

Another essential assumption honored the qualitative traditions is the view that the researcher and the informants (i. e. people put through investigation) interact with the other person (17). The study process continues on between your two and they will inuence each other. This is not the same as, and contradictory to, the idea of a natural and distanced observer stated in the positivistic custom.

A third assumption is the fact qualitative research is inductive, time and framework destined and requires an emergent study design. The emergent design means that the researcher should be exible and delicate to expanding ideas, styles, questions and theories throughout the whole research process (17). This is a methodological assumption. Embracing this assumption makes it difcult for the researcher to compare and estimate associations between different public contexts. The researcher looks alternatively for the uniqueness of a public process or occurrence.

STRENGTHS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative methods are useful when the issues of interests do not appear amenable to quantification (Skyes et al. 1992). Kitzinger (1994) argued that qualitative research features the respondents' attitudes and priorities and can encourage open up conversation and aid the manifestation of ideas and experience that might be left undeveloped in an interview. Skyes et al. (1992) argued that qualitative research methods will provide a sign of the number of health need in the region, the relative importance individuals attached to them and ideas about how exactly they could be satisfied. They further state that qualitative research can offer an opportunity for folks to express views about services available and contribute ideas on the type of services they might like. As qualitative research is responsive to individual situations, qualitative research can help local people to feel actively mixed up in purchasing process rather then the unaggressive providers of the info (Skyes et al. , 1992). They further mentioned that medical need and priorities of less accessible categories within an area or of minority organizations can also be most effectively tackled through qualitative methods.

WEAKNESSES OF QUALITATIVE METHODS

One drawback is, of course, that it's a much youthful research custom than the quantitative one, at least within the eld of health and medicine. It is therefore not as analyzed as quantitative methods. It is sometimes thought to be very time-consuming, which is another downside.

In qualitative research methods the interviewer may dismiss important nonverbal communication or may admit remarks at their face value, delivering narrative instead of interpretative analytical reporting (Dodds et al. 1996). Britten et al. (1995) argued that qualitative methods cannot be use for statistical romantic relationships between factors. Dodds et al. (1996) argued that translation, transcription and procedure for sifting and digesting the info can be frustrating.

RESEARCH APPROACHES

Semi structured comprehensive interviews were chosen as the utmost appropriate approach to data collection because of this review. Smith (2001) identifies the 'natural fit' that is out there between qualitative research and semi set up interviews, since this method allows much more flexibility then your more conventional organised interview, questionnaire or market research.

This method was chosen in place of other qualitative techniques such as concentration groups because feminine Muslim participants may be unwilling to talk about their personal experience of accessing to physiotherapy services. In the concentrate group situation they might be uneasy with a merged group, where their anonymity and confidentiality cannot be guaranteed. It could lead to increased understanding into people's thoughts, feelings, and behavior on important issues (Bowling, 2002). The open ended character of the question defines this issue under investigation and opportunities for both interviewer and interviewee to discuss some topics in detail. Inside a semi organized interview, the interviewer also offers the independence to probe the interviewee to elaborate on a genuine response or to follow a line of inquiry launched by the interviewee.

There are disadvantages of using interviews as data collection methods. Interviewing is very frustrating and it could be difficult to control the length of the interview (Denscombe, 1998). To be able to maintain the composition of the interview, the researcher took time to build up interviewing skills, such as keeping the questions clear and targeted prior to the interview took place. This is because an interview is an activity demanding careful prep, much patience, and extensive practice if the eventual rewards are to be worth it (Cohen and Manion, 2000).

Bowling (2002) shows the potential risk of interview bias and the importance of minimizing this through acceptance of the actual researcher effect. Interview bias includes the use of leading, dual or biased questions. To avoid this natural probes and prompts will be used.

SAMPLE

The test selection found in a study affects the dependability and external validity of the research therefore, it's important that the most likely test method is chosen from the wide range available. Robson (2000) states, " Sampling is meticulously from the exterior validity or generaliseability of the conclusions in an enquiry".

Sampling in qualitative strategy differs from sampling in quantitative research (4). Whereas probabilistic, random sampling is a rare metal standard in quantitative studies, non- probabilistic examples are preferred in qualitative research.

This means that the decision of study subject matter is purposive and tactical. As the design is growing along with data collection and research, the purposive sample allows for exibility and changing sampling strategies throughout the study process. The test should theoretically be representative of the study population, but it is not representative from a statistical viewpoint (17, 22, 23).

The World Health Company (4) has advised several sampling approaches for qualitative methodology, of which I will talk about 4. Maximum variant means that the chosen informants are different from one another in as much aspects as is possible. It is important to choose the inclusion standards so that the variation is captured.

Another technique is named snowball or string sampling. This can be used whenever we do not know how to attain the people that you want to include in a study. We are able to then start by interviewing 1 person and by the end of the interview, ask the informant to indicate another person who's similar or different from him and whom he is convinced will provide more info. A homogeneous test is used when we search for folks who are similar using aspects.

Sample size in qualitative research is necessarily small due, partly, to the complexity of the info. Bowling (2000) supports this and highlights that sufficient size is reached when, after the judgement of the researcher, concurrent designs and issues are emerging from the participant. Size is therefore adaptable, though guided by enough time and resources available (Silverman, 2001).

Participants were selected using a non-probability purposive sampling strategy (Hudson, 2003). This was seen as best suited for this review as it entails selecting a test from a population which matches the inclusion conditions of the research study. This sample will be a non-probability sample because you will see no intention to make a statistical generalisation on any populace beyond the test interviewed. Purposive sampling entails the researcher using their own judgement to achieve a particular goal, to meet the needs of the analysis and make the test theoretically representative (Robson, 2000). Recruitment of individuals will be via posters in four different mosques in girls and gents places of prayers.

The inclusion and exclusion standards for the sample are in stand below

INCLUSION CRITERIA

EXCLUSION CRITERIA

Pakistani source migrated to the united kingdom post world conflict II

Born in the UK

Live in north-east of England

Live other then north-east of England

Age between 60-80 years

Age below 60 years

Can speak urdu and English

Can not speak urdu

Have knee joint pain for 3 or more years not scheduled to damage, road traffic accident or any trauma

Knee joint pain scheduled to injury street traffic automobile accident or truma

Experience physiotherapy treatment in Pakistan and the UK

Never have physiotherapy in Pakistan

In reaction to the poster in the mosques, seven men and four women approached researcher by phone. Out of eleven people, two women and two men meet the inclusion standards and decided to take part in study.

DATA COLLECTION TOOL

Aide memoir re. Interviews can be found in appendix 3. The suggested method for data collection is a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews as this technique pays to and relevant tool in qualitative research (Bailey, 1997). Research interviews make abundant data about perceptions, emotions, experiences, motives, attitudes and knowledge among individuals. The qualitative research interview is usually performed on a conversational basis, meaning that the researcher uses alternatively loose, broad and available- concluded questions or interview topics in a thematic interview guide. The aim is to encourage the informant to speak. Kvale (23) expresses that a good qualitative research interview is one where in fact the informant discussions and the researcher is silently hearing most of enough time and only probes on things she/he hears during the interview. Sometimes the qualitative researcher may use a semi-structured interview form with an increase of or less finished questions. It is however, not common to use only structured and closed down format of questions very much like questions in a questionnaire.

The respondents received an option in the environment of the interview to make them feel as comfortable as you possibly can, two participants find the community centre and two thought we would be interviewed in their own home for reasons of privateness. Some open up questions will be used to ensure the discussions stay within the entire aims of the analysis. These will be especially useful, as a amateur researcher with no expertise to steer free discourse will carry out the interviews (Harvey-Jordan and Long 2001).

The decision to tape record the interviews was taken in order that the interviewer could concentrate on listening and responding to the interviewees somewhat than be sidetracked by trying to write down what had been said. Saving the interview can help the discussion circulation because the interviewer does not have to write down the response to one question before shifting to another. In note-taking there can be an increased threat of interviewer bias because the interviewer will probably makes records of the reviews which make immediate sense or are regarded as being especially relevant or interesting. Tape saving ensured that the complete interview was captured and complete data for evaluation so cues that were missed the very first time can be recognised when hearing the taking.

TRUSTWORTHINESS

Reliability and validity are the notions of quantitative studies instead of qualitative research. Regarding to Silverman (2000) qualitative research does not aim to produce reliable data but aims to be consistent and dependable and also to be representative of the info. Credibility, transferability, stability and confirmability will be the criteria frequently used to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative research (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).

Credibility in qualitative research pertains to the term interior validity. This is more regularly associated with quantitative research where causal associations between parameters are looked for, and it relates the reality of the study (Krefting, 1991). In qualitative research, where the values that multiple realities can be found, the reality of a report pertains to how effectively the phenomena being studied is represented. This is reflected in the researcher's willingness to add contradictory statements rather then to provide a one sided argument from the info (Silverman, 2000). Reliability is the term used in qualitative methodology to answer questions about the reality value. Among the basic assumptions in qualitative methodology is the fact that realities are multiple, reliability identifies the researcher's capacity to fully capture these realities. Has she or he really comprehended and identified the informants well enough? Would it be easy for other people to recognize themselves, or the framework that we describe? Several techniques have been developed to be able to increase credibility in a qualitative research, which the most regularly used are long term engagement, triangulation, peer debrieng and member checking. Extended engagement identifies our efforts to really understand and become acquainted with the social framework under review and the individuals in this framework. When writing the statement, researchers can describe the way they made these initiatives.

The job of the researcher is to accurately stand for the multiple realities unveiled by the members (Koch, 1994). Krefting (1991) shows that more sensitive information may be offered as a rapport is developed over time. The participants should become more honest in their answers with the guarantee of anonymity from the analysts (Rubin and Rubin, 1995).

Researcher bias can be reduced by peer assessment, this is the research results and process can be talked about with impartial acquaintances that could also check the categories developed from the info to enhance the truth of the research (Krefting, 1997).

A further strategy used to ensure the reliability was triangulation (May and Pope, 1995) by the author's field and the researcher's interviewer records and from a thorough literature review (Carpenter, 1997). Triangulation means that people make an effort to view the research problem from different perspectives, for example by engaging several data collection methods, a team of analysts with different professional record or the utilization of different theories to "mirror" the producing results. Throughout the review, the researcher also involved in continual self-reflection to keep an awareness of how existing assumptions about the trend might conceal new encounters of the happening or prejudice my conclusions.

Peer debrieng refers to a technique where in fact the emerging concepts, themes or model are presented to colleagues beyond your project, for instance in a seminar debate. Do they nd the results relevant, acceptable and logical? We are able to also check the growing results by requesting our informants, i. e. member checking. Do they recognize themselves in the explanations? Sometimes we write a summary of the interviews and send it to the informants or we get back to them and present elements of the interpretations of the material (17).

Transferability means the capability to generalise from the findings of the analysis. Insufficient generalisability is one of the criticisms of qualitative enquiry as, due to the uniqueness of every qualitative research situation, it is impossible to replicate results (Holloway and Wheeler, 1996). Shepard et. al. (1993) suggests that within phenomenological research, generalising is not the work of the researcher; instead the reader must evaluate how well the analysis pertains to other situations familiar to them. The work of the researcher is to attempt to describe this phenomenon in that depth concerning enable the audience to generalise.

As qualitative samples are small, non- probabilistic and since the research handles thorough, in-depth analyses rather than large-scale population-based studies, it is not possible to generalize the ndings using traditional statistical inference.

There are mainly two different stances here within the qualitative paradigm. The rst says that the qualitative researcher aims at obtaining analytical generalization. Qualitative technique strives to capture real human life, thought, inter- action and social contexts. Therefore, the data extracted from these studies should be transferable to other similar communal contexts (17). The developed theory should t and become applicable beyond the analysis people from a theoretical perspective. Theory competence is therefore a prerequisite in qualitative technique (23). The next stance promises that qualitative researchers never offer with the question of generalizability. They claim that the specific, in-depth and small-scale explanations are good enough and can exclusively present a view of the world. The readers of qualitative publications will be the ones judging the value and the applicability of the ndings (17).

Dependability refers to the epistemological notion that researcher and review subjects are interrelated and getting together with one another, thus also inuencing each other. And as perceived realities are constantly changing, questions of replicability are not in focus. Stability instead relates to the power of the researcher to be exible and change perspective in accordance with the emerging process. Dependability asks whether the same results would be attainable if the study were repeated, mirroring the term reliability found in quantitative research. However, it was already discussed, that inherent in qualitative research is the assumption that multiple realities can be found in the organic, ever changing context of an individual's life. If this is actually the case it isn't relevant for the qualitative research to create the same results time upon time. Lincoln and Gaba (1985) recognise that instead, the qualitative research process should be rational, traceable and clearly documented. The approach suggested by Lincoln & Guba (17) is named audit path and identifies a technique whereby the study process is documented and described in detail and preserved for eventual audits. It should thus be easy for outsiders to check out all steps and decisions in this process.

The Conrmability identifies the researcher's capacity to be natural to data. Conrmability is also checked by an audit path, this time and therefore the auditor can nd the derived qualitative results well grounded in data (17). Conformability requires the results and interpretations of the study to be explicit within the data (Carpenter, 1987). Finlay (1999) says that important to the process of analysis of your phenomenological research is to remain true to the info, and for themes or templates to arise from the data rather than be enforced onto it.

ETHICAL ISSUES

Informed, written consent to primary participation in the study is necessary and will be gained before commencing the project and prior to each interview (Kvale, 1996). To ensure participants are fully enlightened prior to consent being given, any questions raised need to be answered by the researcher. The interviewees were assured of anonymity and confidentiality. They didn't have to answer a question that made them feel uncomfortable.

The members consented to the interviews being documented, translated and transcribed, before being analysed. Both tracking and transcription will be retained locked away during the project and damaged afterwards to keep up anonymity and confidentiality. Prior to analysis the participants will be allowed to browse the transcript and may clarify meanings of statements, revise the transcripts or completely remove claims so that the transcription is true and exact and the participant is not misquoted (Rubin and Rubin, 1995).

DATA ANALYSIS

In the interviews individuals spoke in Urdu as well as in British. The tapes would be given to an unbiased translator for the transcription and translation of the replies that have been in Urdu. Transcripts would then be given to participants to read. They could change or erase anything they don't want to include, before researcher read them. Research calls for the engineering of themes exploring the values, experience and meanings within the info (Sarantakos, 1988). The analysis process is strong with topics and key ideas due to the data, rather then being imposed onto it (Carpenter, 1997).

The initial part of qualitative data research is designed for the researcher to familiarise themselves with the info. The transcript will be read frequently and primary ideas around the overall themes and ideas will be made (Finlay, 1999). Relevant and interesting quotes from the texts will be written onto index cards, marked on the back of the index cards there will be marked a clear system to track quotes back again to the original transcript. The purpose of this is to form the data from a complicated whole into workable devices (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). This is a time consuming process but Bailey (1997) highlights that in this technique lays the building blocks for all of those other analysis therefore careful and exact indexing will increase the overall quality of the study.

The index credit cards will then be categorised predicated on their contents. One by one the credit cards will be allocated themes or templates and credit cards with similar topics will be grouped mutually. This technique will continue for all the index credit cards with the creation of initial and hazy categories for all the units of data. Once all the info has been given, the categories will get more rigid game titles or guidelines for inclusion. Each one of the products of data will be then be analyzed in these groups and any overlaps in categories will be taken out (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).

The assigned categories will be used to inform later data collection to establish more data within each of the themes. Links between your categories will be made. The data collection process ends when all the data have been fatigued and the categories have been saturated. The categories and ideas arising from data can then be shown (Pope and Mays, 2000).

Critical Appraisal of Methods

QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE

Due to the descriptive aspect of qualitative research, they have often being criticised to be subjective and for that reason biased (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). Quantitative research explores casual relationships asking how many and exactly how much. This methodical evidence has long been the focus of medical research and Carpenter (1997) features that this medical model of research has created the theory bottom for physiotherapy. Yerxa (1991) argues that although qualitative research is less correct, it is more real. Bailey (1997) facilitates this view stating that therapists can further understand their clients with regards to their disability by using qualitative research.

DATA COLLECTION

Unstructured, or wide open interviews are based on every day dialog, they follow a type of enquiry where in fact the research individuals leads the dialogue within the limitations of the research question (Blaxter et al. , 2001). The open up interview can be used to explore the subjective experience of the participants. Some cons to open interviews are that the researcher won't know how long will be needed to cover everything (Burns, 2000).

Kvale (1996) explains the semi-structured interview as one that has a collection of styles to be protected alongside a question you can use. The researcher can clarify any misinterpretations and inconsistencies in responses, and questions can be repeated and worded differently to elicit a truer response (Bowling, 1997). Rubin and Rubin (1995) state that most types of interviews follow the combination of unstructured and semi-structured stages where at different points this issue of debate is led either by the researcher or the individuals. The designs of the interviews and questions slated in this study have been derived from the literature review. The interview timetable is within the appendix 4.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Due to the type of the job there are numerous ethical things to consider to be made. Participation in a research project should be voluntary and your choice to participate needs to be based on an understanding of the reason and scope of the analysis and the main features of the study design (Kvale, 1996). Uses up (2000) features that if any determent is threatened or compensation offered for non-participation or contribution, then the consent given is not voluntary. Knowledgeable consent will include the participant's to withdraw from the analysis any moment (Burns, 2000). In this study these factors are created explicit within the consent varieties within appendix.

Denscombe (1998) highlights that the data collected is and should be cured as a genuine reflection of the participant's thoughts and thoughts. The opportunity for participants to withdraw any feedback manufactured in the interviews will get as is explained evidently in the consent forms. The individuals will get a duplicate of the transcripts to evidence read and from this, may remove or clarify any claims they made. Rubin & Rubin (1995) advocate this process arguing that, although it may reduce the precision or impact of the final project, the safeguard of the participants ought to be the primary concentration of the researcher

Kvale, (1996) shows that close social relationships in interviews allow a profound exploration of the subject. However, such an in depth romance between researcher and members could bring about a biased method of the demonstration of the results from the researcher. Kvale, (1996) stated that unacknowledged bias in research can invalidate the results of the interview. Because of this the actual bias in this research has been highlighted and steps which will be taken to reduce the bias include keeping a reflective journal regarding the affects of the value and beliefs system of the researcher (Koch, 1994) and a colleague checking of the results (Krefting, 1991).

DATA ANALYSIS

Content examination uses the transcripts of the interviews to develop the themes or templates and concepts so the analysis remains true to the data collected, minimizing the subjective influences of the researcher on the analysis process. Direct estimates can be used and therefore the info is retained in its original form, providing a rich source of information. Continual examination of the info throughout the study process allows designs to be altered and created throughout the analysis (Carpenter, 1997). However, even though the styles are founded in the data they are also to an amount created by their researcher who may exercise their own personal bias when developing these (Koch, 1994). To lessen this bias, an unbiased person with a knowledge of the evaluation process will be asked to review the index cards and derive styles from these, and any discrepancies will be dealt with in debate with the researcher (Carpenter, 1997).

All interviews will be audio-taped. This can improve the quality of the info accumulated in two respects. Plainly an audiotape recording will provide a more appropriate record of what has been then a mere recollection or palm written notes of the author (Sacks, 1992). Second of all and of similar importance, is that the tapes can be replayed and the transcripts increased over time, allowing new themes to emerge from the data that might not exactly have been noticeable from the initial reading. One criticism levelled at the use of audiotapes is that they don't accommodate cosmetic expressions (Silverman, 2001). For the intended purpose of this study, it is not anticipated that will compromise the reliability of the info.

Tapes will get to an independent translator and the individuals asked to read transcriptions of the tapes to be able to raise the validity of the analysis. Transcription of the info and analysis process is also time consuming (Darlington and Scot, 2002). Finlay (1999) shows that the research process for each and every interview can take weeks. A timetable for the task can be found in appendix 6.

During the research and relative to the views of Holloway and Wheeler (1996) the concept of credibility, transferability, stability and confirmability are substituted for the more traditional notions of validity and consistency.

Credibility will be performed by guaranteeing all individuals in interviews fulfil the sampling inclusion criteria discovered in the strategy. This confirms the choice of purposive sampling as the most appropriate approach to this analysis as it will allow rapid recognition of participants that can demonstrate relevant experience. As acknowledged earlier in the technique, only theoretical somewhat than empirical generalisation will derive from this study due to the small number of members. While transferability of potential findings is therefore limited, it must be appreciated that this analysis is only exploratory in mother nature, designed to determine a general picture of the gain access to pf physiotherapy services by older Pakistani people. Dependability, or the rigour with which the technique is conducted, will be increased be allowing an unbiased data analyst to learn a random selection of the transcripts to identify emerging styles. These will be set alongside the author's identified styles and any distinctions or omissions can be discussed and where appropriate amended. Furthermore the data analysis involves the process of respondent validation as a way of enhancing stability.

The writer acknowledges the primary criticism of respondent validation which it is only possible if the analysis findings are appropriate for the home image of the interviewees. In answer it this it is argued that by obtaining verification from the interviewees of the designs identified, the inevitable sacrifice of stability resulting from the use of open up questions and a semi-structured procedure will be less obvious. An audit path detailing each stage of the thematic examination will also be retained as a way of measuring the stability and conformability of the studies. Finally, re-reading the transcript to identify all possible themes or templates and perspectives will verify the legitimacy of the findings as arising directly from the data. Once more this will minimise the impact of the interviewer bias during the analysis of data.

Participants will be recruited via poster (appendix 6). Poster will prepare yourself and affixed by researcher in Urdu and English dialects, with full details of researcher to contact. Two men and two women, who fulfil the conditions, will be preferred. The researcher will contact the individuals by telephone, to explain the research goals and purposes also to notify them of the consents forms (appendix 1) to be delivered. Operationalisation Link to research question can be found in appendix 8.

Since all the research conducted in the Country wide Health Services and relating human things or personal information relating to them require the endorsement of the local ethic committee (Cormack, 1996). The seeks and objectives of the study will be placed plus a stamped addressed envelope and a covering notice and consent form, based on the Central Office of Research Ethics Committees (COREC) advice Researcher will not know exactly how long will this ethical approval process will need?

Two weeks pursuing, interviews will be conducted by researcher. Interview timetable are available in appendix 4. Interviews were conducted by researcher as informally as is feasible, on a one-to-one basis. The interviews were tape noted and reinforced by note-taking. Following the interview, researcher gives the tapes 3rd party translator for translation to British and transcription. Transcripts will get to each participant to learn, change or erase any things they do not want to include. This process will be repeated with all participants.

Two weeks following that data evaluation will commence. To reduce bias, the research will be delivered to participants to check correct interpretation of replies and 3rd party researcher will be asked to follow the data research trail to approve the logic of the trail and reliability of conclusions formed. Set of the resources necessary to conduct the study and an in depth time size for the complete research project can be found in appendices 2 and 7 respectively.

Once adjustments are created and agreement gained from these options, findings will then be written up. The researcher will send this study to blind peer reviewers who make the advice about if the article should be accepted, rejected, revised or reviewed again (Poilt & Hungler, 1997). Since this research is to explore the factors influencing usage of physiotherapy in elderly Pakistani people, therefore, it is thought that the Physiotherapy, Physiotherapy research international, Physical therapy publications may be thinking about publishing the findings. Publication will be targeted at more specifically to physiotherapists but generally speaking to all medical researchers.

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