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An Analysis of Change management models

In this article, we have centered on change management within an company or a project. Change management is now so important that nowadays increasingly more companies utilize this method to increase the performance. Lots of change management models are used; they have got made earnings to the firms. However, not absolutely all the models are ideal to all the assignments or all the types of companies; they may have disadvantages as well as advantages when working with them. On this report, we will discuss three models as good examples: Kotter's Eight Step Change Model, Lewin's Change Management Model and McKinsey 7-S Model.


Change management is a methodical method of managing with change, not only from the position of a business but on the average person level. A rather hazy term, change management has more than three different measurements, adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change included. A proactive method of managing with change reaches the central part of most three aspects. For a business, change management means making this is and execution of steps and/or technologies to handle with changes available environment also to profit from changing opportunities.

Triumphant adaptation to improve is as vital within an group as it is in the natural world. Just similar to plants and pets or animals, organizations and the individuals in them unavoidably run into changing conditions they are incapable to regulate. The more effectively you take care of with change, the greater possible you are to flourish. Building organized methods for handling changes in the business environment or building coping mechanisms for dealing with changes in the workplace might be involved in adaptation.

As a result, a lot of change management models are built to make the change management far better. There are many of change management models. We will discuss three and determine which the best fit an organization needing many changes is. We will discuss both advantages and disadvantages of these three change management models. Once we discuss them further, we will have differences to each of these models. There are also a lot of similarities among these models. It really is vital that people have a organized indulgent of each of the three change management models presented.

It usually doesn't matter how well designed a project is at the start, change is an unavoidable part of the project execution process. Just about everyone has a tendency to think about change in terms of problems or negative consequences. Though it's true that change could be bad or could be good. There are quite a few of aspects that are viewed when the changes are made and a correct course should be followed in order to attain the required concentrate on. Our scope of the report focuses on the following:

  • How to spell it out change management system
  • What are the ideas of change management and the guidelines which needs to be regarded when changes are required
  • Elements of change management systems
  • Most effective models of change management

Although there are several models present in the marketplace today but only that model which suits the profile of the job should be adopted or whose execution is not vague to all of those other project team. With this study report we have primarily focused on following three types of change management:

  • Kotter Model
  • McKinsey 7-S Model
  • Lewin's Change Management Model

Additional more our statement highlights:

  • Characteristics of Each Model
  • Methodology of their usage.
  • The major constraints that may come across are slated below:
  • Uncertainty between people putting into action change management models
  • Communication space between top management and lower level.
  • Time
  • Uncertainty of the functions and responsibilities


Our research was employed on the analysis of Change Management, principles & the latest models of of change management models were obtained by doing the following set of activities:

Topic Selection and Planning of Study

We had a brainstorming reaching where we members got agreed to work on Conflict handling in Project Management and with the aid of the study targets and necessities that have been stated by our course instructor (Erika Bellander), then your study was divided into the pursuing tasks: intro, problems, scope area, theories & models related to different turmoil situations in projects, conflict image resolution strategies, methods used in the study, consistency, validity, results, conversations and recommendations. They were followed by the forming of a responsibility matrix and time arranging. The position or progress of each task were reported and usually submitted on bilda at least per day before our regular meetings on every Tuesdays.

Online Discussions

The IMPACT'S group people who had been working along on some deliverables possessed online conversations and difficulties experienced during the responsibilities executing were also frequently discuss on line. We also helped each other by providing clues/inputs to one another by emails and we found that this works more effectively way of communication.


Due to enough time constraints, the IMPACT group cannot obtain any key data for the analysis from the companies/ Sectors because of this our review was predicated on secondary sources which consists of lectures notes, literature and the internet were combine with working connection with our team people.


Now a day's every administrator or market leaders in education must lead and control changes. It is significant as nevertheless the survey has discovered that change is occurring at an evergrowing tempo, the confirmation shows that most change initiatives doesn't not make the class e. g. current research advised that significantly less than 65% of re-organizations achieved their stated aims that happen to be usually important thing enhancement. The impact of failures to generate effective change could also be lofty e. g. lack of market position, eradication of senior management, loss of stakeholder trustworthiness, loss of key employees. To avoid such failures you can find need of acquaintance with the change management basic principle and models and its own consequences. In this section we will express the basic change management guidelines and some models for the change management.

Definition of Change Management

Change management is a plan of action in which whole system is changed regarding to any pre-defined platform or modelled by following it.

Principle of Change Management

There are some key points adopted to make change management. By pursuing these ideas as a organized, framework, team market leaders can learn that how to control their own personal change and the way to appoint the whole organization in the process. Although there are extensive Guidelines of change management but few of the Principles are following:

Adopting a principled method that presents consistency and engenders openness and opinion will dsicover your change program throughout the crisis. Listed below are five key ideas of successful change managementЇј


The change program provides the visible support of key decision-makers within the business as well as resources are ready to this program.


Planning is carried out systematically before program execution and committed to writing. Ideas are enumerated relative to predominant stakeholders and resources, goals, dangers and other relevant participants.


Program targets are written in assessable conditions and program progress is managed and intercommunicated to major stakeholders.


Stakeholders are involved in an genuine bilateral communication on the basis of openness, reciprocal trust and esteem.

Support structures

Program executors and change recipients are given with the resources and promoting systems required during the process of the implementation and the aftermath.


Change Management Guidelines

In our research of this change management model rule we have found the next important suggestions for the change management:

Address the individual side systematically: All the time engage and recognize support from individual within system as every change creates individuals personal issues. When new leaders are asked to improve then work will be altered and employees usually create confrontation which will lead to risk of rate of work, spirits and results. There's a common methodology of change management that start with the very best management team and then engage the stakeholders which concept should start in early stage of change itself.

Start at the top: When changes in firm system occurs then everyone talks about the very best management as the decisions comes from them who that how this should be along with its protocols. Top management should interact by planning and dedication and they must talk to each other.

Involve every part: When the course of action of change starts off then we makes the strategy then designs its way and in implementation period starts which have an impact on all degrees of the organization. Leadership at every level is must required with know-how in knowledge.

Communicate the note: One must retain in head that there should not be any communication space through the change management. There is a big blunder which is generally seen that some managers believe that all people in the team understand the issues. There is usually need of regular and timely messages which should be inspirational and suitable. Communication must be from lower part to up and from up to down also so that employees may get information at right time. There is also need of right meaning to right person to avoid bad consequences.

Prepare for surprising: Whenever change is manufactured according to plan then one usually has many problems faced during change management process. There are some unforeseen ways of reaction shown by some people. The reason why of reaction could be anything. There must be prolonged reassessment of the impact of change is necessary and we should be capable of adopt any rapid change into the organization.

Change Management Models

The change management should include the organizational change management strategies along with the individual's development in line with the change to avoid the conflicts and to have healthy environment in the organization. There are lots of strategies/models for the change management but following three models are defined here:

  • McKinsey 7-S Model
  • Lewin's Change Management Model
  • John P. Kotter's Eight Steps of Change Management

4. 5. 1 McKinsey 7-S Model

McKinsey 7-S Model is developed by McKinsey and Company in 1981. The 7-S model is employed to analyze the organization and their performance. This model illustrate that an firm is consist of seven elements. This model is widely being employed by many experts and academics to analyse different organizations.

The seven models are recognized in the hard S's and the very soft S's. Strategy, framework and system are considers as the Hard S's and Style, Staff, Skills and shared values will be the Soft S's.

McKinsey 7-S model helps the organization to control and formulate the change management for all these seven models. Checklist can be developed for each and every model to analyze if any change is necessary and then necessary steps can be studied to attain the desired changes.

The amount above shows the integration of every model in a manner that all Models have discussion with each other's looked after shows that Shared Ideals have common connection with left over 6-S models. The information and use of every model is described bellow and categorised as the Hard S's and the Soft S's.

The Hard S's:


Strategy is the set of strategies for the action required to restructure the organization for the changes in its exterior environment. Organizations goals and decision and action of achieving the desired changes will be the major factor for the strategy development.


When planning any changes, the business needs to be organized in a manner that that the structure of organization will stay controlled. When the organizational structure is affected due to changes require without managing the factors like tasks, the system can be completely disturbed and it can cause serious problems


In any company, people are working systematically for performing their jobs and tasks. While making changes it's important to manage the machine that the standard routines of staff shall not be affected in a way that they'll not be able to perform their careers.

The Soft S's:


Every organization has their personal goals and aims which gives the main reason to all staff and management to go forward to execute their daily jobs. These goals and object have the same principles for each and everyone in the business. While making the changes in the organization, the shared ideals should not be changed otherwise it will take the organization into failure of its goal.


Organization produces and retains their culture and design of management. Organization's style does mean that the way managers connect to their staff and the way they spend their time. Changing the organization's culture and style is difficult task as it involves individuals personal behaviour


Organization's success always depends upon their employees and teams focusing on the assigned tasks to achieve their goals. The organization's now a days are paying more attention to their human resources to really have the right and active competences. The necessity and need for Human learning resource management became essential for almost all of organizations now a day. Changing in staff can really result into a huge success or big failure depending on right decisions by HR management.


Staff without the right skills to perform any responsibilities can create several problems for the operations and May results into big disasters. Technology is enhancing our working environment and new skills would have to be developed into existing staff to fulfil their spaces. Skill development through trainings can help the personnel to really have the right skills to execute their responsibilities.

4. 5. 2 Lewin's Change Management Model

Change is a common thread that occurs in all businesses irrespective of size, organization and get older; even in our individual lives. There's a common saying that "change is the only real permanent part of life". Depends upon is changing fast; hence organizations must change quickly as well. The primary organizations are those that manage change well. As for the ones that do not, they have got continued to battle to survive.

Developed in 1950s, Kurt Lewin's Change Management Model is one of the very most popular cornerstone models for understanding organizational change. His model is popularly known as Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze which refers to the three-stages of change he described. Lewin explained organizational change applying the analogy-changing the condition of an ice block.

  • First stage: Unfreezing

This is possibly one of the very most critical stages to understand in the region of change we find ourselves today. The stage is about making preparations for the change that is going to happen. Within this stage, we should recognize that change is essential and we should anticipate to move from our present comfort zone. The greater we perceive the necessity for a change, a lot more urgent it becomes and a lot more our motivation to help make the change. You could compare this with having a job to be delivered in just a deadline. The deeper the deadline, the much more likely you are to hurriedly get the job began. The deadline for employment is usually linked around some kind of rewards or punishment. Without a deadline, the desire to change is lower set alongside the need to change. The motivation to make the change, and get on with it also becomes lower.

It is important to consider the 'pro's' and 'con's' and then make certain that the 'pro's' outnumbers the 'con's' before you take off. This leads us from what Lewin termed the Make field Analysis.

Force Field Examination shows us that there are different facets (makes) that we need to observe when coming up with change. Some are for while some are against. If, the factors for change is more than the factors beside change we can make change. Otherwise, there is low motivation in case we force an alteration we're likely to be heading for a hazard.

The first stage of unfreezing is moving our selves, or a department, or a whole organization towards inspiration for change and one great way to do this is to apply The Kurt Lewin Push Field Examination.

  • Second Level: Change or Transition

The second level called change or changeover takes place even as formulate the changes that are required. Matching to Kurt Lewin, change is really as a process and not an event. The procedure is what he called changeover. He then detailed move as the inner movements we make in response to a big change.

This level is often the hardest because people are uncertain and fearful. The time is more difficult as people are studying the change which requires some understanding to work with. It is therefore very important to provide them all the necessary support in the form of training and training and to have it in mind that faults are area of the change process. It is more helpful using role models and giving people room to build up their own solution towards making the change. It is also essential to let people have an understandable image of the required change and the usual benefits. By so doing, they stay centered, and this can only be performed through effective communication.

  • Third Stage: Freezing or Refreezing

This stage centered on establishing stability after the changes are made. The changes end up being the new way of doing things. Though it takes time for individuals to get accustomed to the new norms as they have to form new human relationships, but in the future they become designed and comfortable with their exercises.

However there's been a great deal of criticism and folks argue that pretty much there exists never time for the so called 'freezing' stage. The earth is so dynamic now and it could just take a week or two for another change to occur. Hence, there is no time to settle into comfortable regimens. The 'freezing' may seem too rigid and will not fit with the modern idea of change which really is a ongoing and sometimes a disorderly process in which greater overall flexibility is demanded. For this reason, it is recommended that we consider this final stage to be more flexible, rather than a rigid frozen block. As a result, unfreezing for the next change becomes easier.

4. 5. 3 John P. Kotter's Eight Steps of Change Management

In today environment change becomes natural part to do business, whether be change in consumers' behavior, competitive landscape, resource chains, financial market, labour market. Not many organizations can adapt to changes approaching to them effectively and in most cases can bankrupt the business.

One of the key management expert is John P. Kotter who created idea of eight steps to firm change management to help company modify and prepare to various changes that affecting business. Kotter has written several bestseller books. The most understand an example may be Leading Change, which discusses functional 8-step process for the business to follow when facing changes. The procedure describes useful understanding on how to manage change for business group which key principles taking into people participation and assignments in id and employing strategies.

Kotter's eight steps are being reviewed briefly the following:

Establish a Sense of Urgency

It is vey essential for an organization to be ready and attentive to changes that happen on the market. The simplest way is designed for management to generate sense of urgency for change and engagement staff at all level to be aware and adaptive for changes that company may come across. The management should evaluate the market panorama and evaluate impact or potential menace and possibility to the company. This will also be distributed among key personnel to form a strategic plan.

Form a robust Guiding Coalition

In order to apply change effectively, key staff should get together to form an operating group or steering committee to lead the effort.

Create a Vision

Establish sensible vision for change. The eyesight should represent value and reason that change need to occur. It must be associated with workable strategies not really a wishful one.

Communicate the Vision

Once the vision is made, management need to connect it effectively as it is a guiding concept for change. Tools of communication and concentrate on group must be carefully crafted to ensure most effective effort and utilization of resources.

Empower Others to Act on the Vision

In order to create change, management must eliminate hurdles or system/process that gets in ways of applying the vision and strategies. Management should encourage personnel to take determined risk and breakout of existing safe place to embracing new perspective and strategies.

Plan for and Create Short-Term Wins

In actuality, for an organization to attain its vision might take long time frame and encounters many road blocks and setbacks. Management should arranged a series of achievable short-term goal that link to strategy and vision so staff can have a reachable goal to attain and feel attain. It is also the opportunity to identify improvement in process to better achieve the vision as goal being reviewed periodically.

Consolidate Improvements and Produce Still More Change

Continue improvement in work process and system is important key to ensure that corporation continue toward reaching the eyesight. This also includes the improvement in recruiting practices from hiring, advertising and personal development.

Institutionalize New Approaches

To create long lasting change, the new way of thinking should be part of organizational culture, process, composition and recruiting development.

The above provide standard home elevators Kotter's 8 steps procedure for which offers good framework for an organization in getting close change. Corresponding to him only 15% of businesses will successfully implement and adapt to change that arriving to them. One of the reasons may be that a lot of management does not take the intricacy of human the bond. Some of professionals would probably summarize the right business strategy but unable to put into action it effectively scheduled to internal amount of resistance to improve within its firm as well as inadequately communicate to the staff of the changes and the ideal solution forward in managing it and cause misunderstanding or fear among employee. To summarize, Kotter's principle is very helpful and actionable, nevertheless, the company chose also be mindful of its staff culture and personality and revise plan to converse effectively.


Analyzing the three models referred to above McKinsey 7-S Model, Lewin's Change Management model and John P. Kotter's Eight Steps pf Change Management can be viewed that all model have their own particularities and focus in the Change Management Subject.

In the truth of the first model, McKinsey 7-S Model M, is more targeted in the areas that should be considered during an organisational change and created in the very beginning of the 80's. This model has been categorized by INMPACT group in two parts as Organisational Main Aspects as Strategy, Framework and systems which can be categorised as the vertebrae; and in the RECRUITING aspects where are believed worth, management style, authority, connection, skills and competences.

Lewin's Change Management model is an over-all model created in the 50's and discusses three different stages during a change management. The three levels pointed out are unfreezing, change and freezing. From our viewpoint this model gives a global view in this issue, but is lacking certain important aspects that are crucial through the planning, implementation of an change inside any type of organisation. Nowadays companies reside in a host where if the company stays at the freeze level exists a higher possibility of failing because of the environment and other players are in constant change that's the reason why companies have a higher degree of overall flexibility in their recruiting, strategy, systems and framework.

Kotter's eight steps Change Model focus on the urgency sense and on a higher degree of responsiveness, authority (powerful guiding coalition) and human resources, vision and structure, communication, empowerment, short term succeed through challenging but also reachable goals, continuous improvement in systems, functions and routines, people planning and development. The eight steps models from our perspective are focused on the continuous environmental changes, consumer's behaviour, source chains, financial marketplaces, etc.

From our viewpoint the Mckinsey model and the Eight Step model can be integrated in a single model in order to have an improved take on the Change Management, it both models can complement one another in both main aspects pointed out by McKinsey model organisational primary areas and Human resources and at the same time the eight steps can be grouped in both areas.


As discussed earlier can be developed one model 8Steps-Mckinsey in where the several aspect pointed out by both models can be identified in a single.

8 STEPS- MckinseyLeadership

  1. Responsiveness
  2. Continuous Improvement
  3. Empowerment
  4. People Planning
  5. Vision
  6. Short Term Goals

As can be perceived in the model control, responsiveness and ongoing improvement should be there in all elements of the model, while in the organisational central part should be integrated the perspective and short term goals that assist to determine new perspectives to the strategy, framework and vision. At exactly the same time the RECRUITING should have the capability to be empowered, and at the same time HR Management should define which competences want to be developed, skills and capacity.


Nowadays Organizational change is required and it is increasing, however the change happens not very efficiently. The high degrees of breakdown signify that proper management of the changes continues to be missing. It shows that there is a lot to learn about the how to deal with change more efficiently. We have found that there is absolutely no solitary style of change management is there which is applicable to almost everywhere and there can't be single solution for it. However we do have some models from our studies which are better and one can apply these as per their applicability.

It has been seen that the management pros aren't always getting the appropriate skills to lead change management and are not keenly included within the change method. However, a lot of such concerns that are discovered concern of the 'people aspects' of change. In such instances human reference management department should take the steps for it and manage it, to obtain healthy implications of the change. To achieve this there's a need of proper skills is needed in the management area as well as the recruiting as well. The change management response should be adaptive.

The key elements of the successful change management are plan for permanent in broad manner, create proper communication solutions to enable fast review and good decision from the managers, empower people to have decision at local functional level, avoid unnecessary changes and time consuming procedures, encourage people to adapt the changes by proper training and revealing its benefits and respect people's emotions and improve the IT systems to help for valuable information management.


Our team advises a deeper analysis of change management models for any our stakeholders, our readers as presently there are so many change management models being utilized by different organizations and their selection requirements depends totally on their own needs and objectives.

In theory we have some models which says that one may have be versatile for his way of change management and one should allows the overall flexibility to act in response the change but such models aren't very practical as it pertains to the results of changes. e. g. capability to share knowledge also to work efficiently, it may have effect on success of communication or individual determination, which itself has implications for change success.

The specific development and training plays the key role in change management process. The real human resource participation in the individual development performs significant role. Pursuing are some important duties of human learning resource team on the employees, which includes significance during the change management process:

  • Participation at the early stage in the task group.
  • Get used to negotiating and hooking up across various individuals.
  • Understanding individuals concerns to anticipate problems.
  • Develop good medium of meaning to reach a number of groups.
  • Serving people package with change, performance management and motivation.
  • Advising project professionals in skills available within the business - examining skills gaps, training requirements and new working observations etc.
  • Harmonizing out the contracted/momentary goals with broader tactical needs.
  • Evaluating the impact of change in one department and its effect on another area of the organization.
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