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An Intro To Freudian Psychoanalytic Therapy English Books Essay


The reason for this article is to look at and examine Freud's declare that his theories are backed by his case histories.

Introduction to Psychoanalytic Therapy

Prior to Psychoanalysis it was presumed that subconscious disturbances and even behavior were simply 'just just how we were', and that there was little, if anything that could be achieved about it.

Freud's concepts were that there are unconscious factors that impact our thought operations and behaviour.

Freud theorised that positive results could be obtained with a better understanding of how our minds function and in doing this we have to accept certain theories about how exactly these issues originated.

According to Freud, there are three levels of consciousness.

Conscious, this is the area of the mind that holds what we're aware of. We are able to verbalise about our conscious activities and can consider it in logical ways.

Preconscious, this is standard recollection. Although things stored here aren't in the mindful, they can be readily helped bring into conscious recognition.

Unconscious, Freud noticed that this area of the mind had not been directly accessible to recognition. In part, he found it as a covering place for urges, feelings and ideas that are associated with anxiety, discord and pain. These thoughts and thoughts have not disappeared and according to Freud, they are there, exerting effect on our actions and our conscious awareness.

Material passes easily backwards and forwards between the conscious and the preconscious. Materials from these two areas can slip into the unconscious.

Freud theorised that unconscious materials can't be offered voluntarily, but could be coaxed by analysing dreams and through techniques within Psychoanalysis such as free relationship.

Freud used the metaphor of the iceberg to assist in understanding his topographical hypothesis.

Only a tiny proportion of the iceberg is obvious (conscious) whereas the others is under the water (preconscious and unconscious).

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In An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949), clarifies his principles, firstly with a conclusion of the tripartite structure of your brain.


The id gets the quality of being unconscious possesses anything that is inherited, anything that exists at beginning, and the intuition (Freud, 1949, p. 14).

The key features of The Id will be the sexual and intense desires along with the Pleasure Primary, a demand for instant gratification of basic needs but with no factor for morality. The energy of the Id does not start to subside until the child recognises the necessity for patience and develops far better ways of gratifying basic urges and needs.

In Freud's own words the Identification is ". . . the dark, inaccessible part in our personality; what little we know of it we've learnt from our research of dreamwork and the building of neurotic symptoms, and most of that is of a negative persona and can be identified only as a contrast to the Ego. . . we call it a chaos, a cauldron packed with seething excitations" Freud (1933).


". . . we may say that the Ego means reason and good sense, while the id means the untamed passions. . . The Ego's relationship to the identification might be weighed against that of a rider to his horses" Freud (1933).

The Ego produces through the first yr of life and does indeed so in order to find more sensible and effective ways of fulfilling the urges of the Id.

No longer governed because of the Pleasure Theory of early on life, the Ego obeys THE TRUTH Principle and begins to learn the necessity to endure pain and also to defer gratification as a result of obstacles of truth.

The Ego functions as a go between not only with the Identification and real life, but also the Id and the Superego.

In striving to achieve pleasure and steer clear of pain the Ego may develop defence mechanisms, processes that in the end become unconscious that are designed to maintain the status quo by satisfying the Superego.


Developing from the age of 5 or 6 the Superego is representative of our morals.

It discovers from the exterior world what is good and bad and what's expected of us. In doing this it grows 2 components, Conscience and Ego-Ideal.

The Conscience regulates might know about not do, often in the value of the urges of the Id, but also in respect of what our parents ideas of bad behaviour is.

The Ego-Ideal handles might know about do, founded usually on the parents ideas in regards to what is deemed good.

Adherence to the rules of the Superego can ensure feelings of pride and self esteem, but inability to adhere can create guilt and shame.

Defence mechanisms

As the Identification, Ego and Superego often issue it can lead to anxiety, also to protect the Ego from experiencing stress Defence mechanisms are deployed.

These can be either Primary or Extra or Behaviour channelling defence mechanisms.

Primary defence mechanisms would make the person unacquainted with the threat to be able to completely hide anxiety from awareness and Secondary defence mechanisms disguise the feelings that anxiousness brings with an alternative.

Behaviour channelling defence mechanisms offer an alternative solution behaviour to fulfill the need.


A Primary defence mechanism that is totally unconscious, undesirable urges or encounters that lead to severe trauma or nervousness become completely concealed from consciousness.


A main defence device where a precise perception of the unacceptable event is obstructed from consciousness.


A Behaviour channelling defence system that redirects the mark of the impulse to a safer solution, a typical example would be shouting at a partner instead of shouting at the supervisor.


A Behaviour channelling defence mechanism in which a socially unacceptable desire is redirected into behaviour that is more socially suitable, such as hostility into sport.


A Extra defence system that combines denial and displacement. Whenever a person struggles to recognise their own behavior and projects their faults onto another.


A Supplementary defence device that will see an acceptable reason for unacceptable behavior.

Psychosexual phases of development

Originally written as "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" and reproduced and translated by making use of Peter Gay in "The Freud Reader", Freud suggested that sexuality was visible from a very early get older, even from delivery, and that 3 specific parts of the body became particularly hypersensitive at different age range as the child grows.

He assumed that treatment of the child at each specific stage of the life was vital. Both over-gratification at a level and under-gratification would lead to a fixation on that stage, creating a guide point to go back to in times of stress.


During the first 12 months of life the kid affiliates gratification with the mouth, from sucking nipples and teats to growing pearly whites and biting.

It is suggested that a fixation at this stage would lead to gullibility and oral dependency, such as smoking.


Following the Mouth level it coincides with potty training and endures until around age 3. Freud suggested that it's at this point where the child seems that love from parents is no longer unconditional. The child becomes obsessed by the retention or expulsion of faeces. Fixation on expulsion at this stage is often associated with individuals who are disorganised, reckless or anti cultural, while those who are retentive tend to be linked to compulsively newly made adults.


Between the age ranges of 3 and 6 the emphasis of pleasure is moved to the genitals, and masturbation becomes a source of gratification.

The child becomes increasingly alert to gender differences and Freud proposed this led to a issue in guys that he labelled The Oedipus organic, Jung later proposed a similar complex in ladies that he labelled the Electra complex.

Oedipus complex

Named after the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex, where Oedipus unknowingly kills his own Dad and marries his mother, it begins with the discord of the boy's attraction to his mother and hostility towards his Daddy anticipated to jealousy. Fearing punishment from his Dad, which Freud suggested was a concern with castration, the desire to have his mom is repressed and instead the young man begins to recognize with the Father.

In doing so the boy acquires his Superego, comprising of values introjected from parents.

Electra organic.

In the same manner that the Oedipus complex begins with an attraction to the mom and hostility towards the daddy, so does the Electra complex.

But due to the insufficient a penis the girl feels already punished and blames her mom. Manhood envy develops and due to this an attraction to the Father increases until to be able to identify with the mom the girl must quit her Dad as a love thing, and in doing this acquires her Superego.

Latency period and Genital Stage

The latency period takes place between 6 and puberty, where no new needs happen and prior urges are either repressed or redirected into the development of new skills.

Once the physiological changes of puberty get started so develops the Genital level, this is the final level of psychosexual development and leads to a breaking from parents and a desire to have a romance with the contrary sex.

Free Association and Wish Analysis

As dreams occur whenever we are asleep the conscious mind is commonly in a comfortable state allowing us to peek at the unconscious mind. Both different says of mind also cause two different areas of aspiration content.

The manifest content is the part of the fantasy that is consciously remembered and the latent content, the part of the dream that is not consciously kept in mind.

The latent area of the desire is often regarded as the important area of the dream as it contains the real concealed meanings of the aspiration comprising of repressed needs that are unacceptable to the Ego.

In The Interpretation Of Dreams Freud said that, "the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind" (1900 / 1953).

For some time Freud used Hypnosis in is practice to encourage conscious relaxation, so as to glance at the unconscious.

He got little success and one concern in particular was difficult for Freud. His patients would refuse the things among the spoken about during hypnosis professing not to keep in mind them therefore disabling the opportunity for rational dialogue afterwards. Which explains why he is quoted in Seven Psychologies by Edna Heidbreder as saying that true psychoanalysis began only once hypnosis have been discarded (1933).

Refining his techniques Freud found he could replicate any successes of Hypnosis but with full conscious awareness by asking his patients to simply lay down to encourage relaxation also to ramble, with the theory that repressed information becomes more and more accessible through the succession of associated thoughts.

Freud recorded records on very few of his patients, in truth only 12 patients are reported about in any great information (Stevens, 1995), so there may be little evidence to support his ideas. But we do have information regarding a small number of them.

Little Hans (Herbert Graf)

The full subject of Freud's publication was 'Research of a Phobia in a Five-year-old Youngster', first released in 1909 and recently within the 'Wolfman' and also other Cases. The evaluation lasted for about 8 weeks (March-May 1908).

Hans developed a fear of horses, specifically being bitten and around once began creating fantasies on which he was committed to his Mom.

Little Hans' Father was a follower of Freud's and conducted the majority of the research himself under Freud's supervision.

Freud had recently been following Hans' development from an early age as Hans' Dad had been assisting Freud in developing his sexual development ideas.

Hans possessed made commentary about specific horses with black around their mouths, not unlike Hans' Fathers moustache, and so Freud interpreted Hans' fear of being bitten with a horse as part of the Oedipal complex with a repression of the thoughts towards his Dad leading him to displace the thoughts onto something that may be prevented, such as horses, with being bitten a representation of castration stress.


Ida Bauer (named as Dora in Freud's research study Fragments associated with an Analysis of your Circumstance of Hysteria and republished within the Penguin Freud Library) began expanding problems as a woman of 15; a serious coughing and a lack of words, but refused to see Freud until she was 18 in 1900 when her thoughts experienced transformed suicidal.

Freud's first identification was "only a case of petit hysteria not worthwhile recording".

Ida's parents were very close to another couple known as as Frau and Herr K, and regarding to Ida, Frau K began an affair with Ida's Daddy. Shortly afterwards and at around the same time that she started losing her tone of voice, Herr K had sexually propositioned her on a number of events.

During some simple evaluation, of only 11 weeks, Freud proposed that her hysteria was therefore of a mixture of her being jealous of her father's romance with Frau K and of her baffled thoughts towards Herr K's improvements.

Ida broke off her remedy, much to Freud's disappointment, and fixed the issue herself after confronting her daddy and the K's.

Freud was disappointed with the results at first, but considered the circumstance to be important as it brought up his knowing of transference.

Daniel Schreber

Published inside the 'Wolfman' and also other Cases Freud writes about Daniel Paul Schreber, a German Judge who started out to see schizophrenia during middle age group, and published about his experience in a e book, Memoirs of My Stressed Health issues. Freud never achieved Judge Schreber, but drew his conclusions from reading his memoirs.

Schreber awoke 1 day with thoughts of experiencing sexual intercourse as a woman, he soon became psychotic blaming at first his doctor and then God.

Freud's summary was that Schreber will need to have wanted to be considered a woman to become the sole subject of God's desires, with God representing Schrebers dad.

Wolf Man

Sergei Pankejeff was battling with severe depression when he came up to Freud. Freud's treatment centred over a dream that Sergei got as a child where 6 or 7 white wolves were outside his bedroom home window prepared to eat him. Freud's interpretation of computer was that he had witnessed his parents having sex from behind one afternoon, although down the road Freud changes his theory to presenting seen sheepdogs copulating whilst visiting a farm along with his father and therefore transposing the sheepdogs for his parents. Although Sergei complained to be worse than ever before despite over 50 years of remedy, with various Freudian disciples Freud used The Wolf Man as his main case to show the validity of psychoanalysis. (Trans. Louise Adey Huish), (2002)

Rat Man

Rat Man was the name given by Freud to Ernst Lanzer in a research study printed in 1909 under the name 'Notes Upon A Case Of Obsessional Neurosis' and again in The 'Wolfman' and also other Cases.

Ernst was battling with a superstitious attitude that avoided him from being happy. He previously obsessive thoughts about people he looked after, specifically Ernst would consider his father or his fiance being put through a kind of torture defined to Ernst whilst in the Military. When a pot is located on the buttocks and rats are put in to the bucket and allowed to burrow into the anus. Ernst's daddy had already passed on by this point but the guilt of the thoughts would continue steadily to haunt Ernst. As would the guilt of the fleeting thought as a 12 12 months old boy in which Ernst wished his dad deceased so that he could inherit his money to win over a girl. Also whilst in the Military Ernst is overwhelmed with guilt when he discovers he owes someone money, getting the intrusive thoughts of rat torture back to his awareness.

Freud believed that a conflict of competitive and loving impulses relating to his fiance and his father were producing the thoughts, and these impulses had begun in infancy through the development of his sexuality.

Evaluation and Conclusion

As previously mentioned Freud left hardly any in terms of patient data, he made no records during sessions therefore any notes made were predicated on his thoughts of that which was said, so there is not much first side evidence that facilitates his ideas.

What we can say for certain though is that the majority of his patients were women from middle income Jewish young families, (Shorter, 1997) which is not representative of the human population. In fact in his work Gender and Repression in Savage Society (1927), the anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski discovered that in the Trobriand Isles they have got an avuncular contemporary society and the guys are disciplined by their maternal uncles somewhat than fathers. As a result of this boys had dreams where in fact the target of their anxieties was their uncle and not their father.

Based upon this, Malinowski suggested that power, rather than sexual jealousy, is the base for the Oedipal organic.

Freud suggested that with out a male role model a guy would become homosexual, yet, in a longitudinal analysis by Fiona Tasker and Susan Golombok they found that children increased by lesbian parents don't differ from those lifted by heterosexual parents in terms of gender role and sexual orientation, simply in their popularity of homosexuality.

Although Little Hans was generally quoted as information for the Oedipal complex, Freud had already developed his theories at least 4 years past, so it could possibly be argued that Freud's interpretation was used to justify his theory not develop it. (Fisher & Greenberg 1996). An unnerving price by Freud released by Eysenck and Wilson in 1973 concerning Little Hans was "It is true that during examination Hans had to be told a lot of things which he cannot say himself that he had to be presented with thoughts which he previously up to now shown no signs or symptoms of possessing and that his attention needed to be transformed in the course that his dad was anticipating something to come. "

Hans was certainly being led, either by Freud or by Hans' daddy.

Behaviourists would definitely dispute that the vision of finding a horses have a coronary attack and fall on someone, getting rid of them, could certainly cause Hans' phobic response. An event that do indeed happen prior to Hans producing his issue.

With respect to Freud's approach of Free Association Gellner (1985) argued that the necessity that patients free associate as the analyst listens alone, is an important component in fostering circumstances of disorientation that triggers the individual to mistrust their own thoughts "The analyst's silence will indeed constitute or engender, not so much sensory, as conceptual deprivation. The individual is prohibited to erect and maintain patterns of his own (that could not be free association), and he's initially denied any habits by the renowned therapist. " Softened-up by a month or two of such treatment, Gellner says the individual becomes so eager for explanations that when finally one is proposed by the analyst, it is grabbed at uncritically. Does free association supply the answers for patients or should it simply create further questions that could normally have been pointless?

Another question that needs answering Personally i think, is how a lot of Freud's theories came from his experiences with his patients and exactly how much originated from his own personal analysis? Through the 1890's Freud commenced recalling his own feelings towards his parents like the sexual emotions for his mom. Was Freud expanding these theories just to explain his own issues or were his theories really about the population all together?

That's not to say that everything Freud said must be incorrect though, there is great evidence to aid Freud's proposal of Mouth and Anal personality features. As well as the development of our Ego and living of Id urges.

Although it does seem inadequately backed that all issues derive from sexual wants.

Freud's revolutionary proposals and the effect he previously on those who implemented him clearly set up that his ideas have had a huge impact in the field of Psychotherapy. However, with the way we understand clinical, empirical information today I must agree with Adolf Grunbaum, (1984) that although there are elements of research in Freud's method of his theories there is absolutely no evidence to support it as being the truth.

After reading through Freud's circumstance studies I really do not feel that you can find significant data in them to determine his theories as wholly correct. But as Stephen Frosh (1997) says in regards to to psychoanalysis "It includes nothing at all, but at least it does not try to escape. "

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