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American And Philippine Electoral Systems

Election is the bedrock of republicanism. It's the heart that pushes blood to be able to preserve our democratic life. Election will serve as a crevice in the democratic field where voters, for themselves and the public good, herb the seeds of the ideals and freedoms.

In a republic undergirded by the social contract, the threshold consent of equal people to form a administration that will rule them is restored atlanta divorce attorneys election where people exercise their fundamental right to vote to the end that their chosen associates will protect their natural privileges to life, liberty and property. It is this sacred agreement which makes reliable the government's exercise of its capabilities and the chosen associates' performance of their duties and functions.

Primarily, the study aims to discuss the election system of america of America coupled with the assessment and review of the Automated Election System in the Philippines. An election system is a concept imbued with several vantage points; hence, the analysis will explore only those tips of North american election system which has a bearing on the Philippines first-ever poll programmed election.

In particular, the first area of the study will present a brief history of the American system focusing on the national levels substantiated through registration and participation in the electoral process, the Electoral College, the role of the marketing and the machine which they used in casting their votes, which is electronic digital.

The second part will make a review and study of the 2010 Philippine Automated Election and make comments or recommendations for its improvement.

The North american Election System: An Overview

Election is a fundamental part of the American system of federal government founded on the rule that the power to govern resides in the individuals. Elections provide the means by which the individuals delegate this power to elected reps.

The chance to choose a particular candidate serves as an opportunity for the general public to make alternatives about the plans and programs while promoting accountability at the same time.

Election in the United States is presented at regular intervals. Presidential elections take place every four years while congressional elections arise every 2 yrs. Elections for state and local office usually coincide with national elections.

In most countries, political party leaders select prospects for office in an over-all election. AMERICA is one of the few nations to carry primary elections prior to the general election plan. In these elections, voters select the party's applicants for office.

Electoral School is the institution through which Us citizens elect the leader and vice chief executive. Many American voters are not aware of the role of the Electoral School because they thought they choose the chief executive and vice directly. Actually, when they cast their votes, they may be voting for officials called electors who are assigned to each presidential prospect.

Each condition is allotted lots of electors add up to the number of its associates and senators in the U. S. Congress. Through its electric power of apportioning representatives among the areas, Congress determines the amount of presidential electors to which each status is entitled.

The elector's principal responsibility is to elect the president and the vice. Each presidential candidate has a slate of electors given to that applicant. When the candidate wins the favorite vote in a specific property, the electors given to that prospect will be the ones who shall vote in the Electoral College. The electors vote for the presidential applicant who received the best variety of votes in their point out. In turn, the Electoral University only ratifies the results of the favorite vote.

In most cases, the prospect who wins the popular vote also is victorious the Electoral College or university vote. If the election is close, however, as was the election of 2000, the Electoral University may end up picking a prospect who didn't receive the majority of the favorite vote. The candidate who wins the presidency is the main one who wins a majority of the Electoral School votes, rather than majority of the favorite vote. On four occasions in U. S. history-in 1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000-the prospect with the most popular votes did not earn the presidency because he didn't win the most Electoral University votes. This is because Americans do in a roundabout way elect their chief executive and vice chief executive. If Americans immediately elected their chief executive, then the prospect with votes would automatically get.

Voter Participation

The contribution of citizen in U. S election is relatively low. Relating to my readings, just a bit more than 50 percent of these eligible take part in countrywide presidential elections. Only 30 percent of entitled voters take part in congressional elections during nonpresidential election years. Turnout plummets even further in condition and local races that do not coincide with nationwide contests.

In 19th century, machineries of politics party boosted contribution rates by using thousands of personnel to organize and mobilize voters and influence them to participate in the polls. Politics machines started out to weaken and then disappeared in the early 20th century. Voters will not participate minus the presence of get together workers that will cause them to become go to polls. Inside the lack of strong and stable parties, contribution rates have fell dramatically among less-educated individuals.

Voter Registration

Aside from politics party power, the national differences in voter involvement result from variance in the registration guidelines. Voters must register with election planks of each point out before they can vote. Towards the finish of 19th hundred years with the purpose of reducing fraudulence and other election abuses, requirements of sign up was made even more difficult. In urban areas, registration guidelines discouraged immigrant and working school voters from going to the polls.

Registration requirements have eased generally in most states since the 1960s. An entitled specific may now enroll to vote simply by mailing a postcard to the state of hawaii election plank. The 1993 federal government "Motor-Voter" Act required states to make such postcards available in automobile, general population assistance, and armed forces recruitment office buildings. Legislators hoped that easing burdens on voters might change fads in voting involvement.

Role of Multimedia in the Electoral Process

The multimedia, especially tv set, have played a role in the increase of cost in political advertisements in order to promote ones candidacy and the defeat of the opponent. Individual applicants spend more income on mass media advertising than any else. To offer from my source, "in 1860 the Republicans spent only $100, 000 on Abraham Lincoln's presidential campaign and on those of most Republican House and Senate individuals. In 1988 Republican applicant George H. W. Bush put in $70 million, just on the presidential competition. Through the 1998 elections, a 60-second spot on prime-time tv cost just as much as $100, 000 whenever it ran. " In place, prospects ponder more on fund-raising rather than debating and talking about issues into the constituents.

The media also have made its impact in the dilapidating need for political parties because it allows candidates to portray themselves to the electorate with no the help of their political gatherings. They use the advertising to gain popularity. These candidates erode the authoritative influence of political gatherings by attractive to the general public through the marketing. National party conventions, which officially nominate applicants for president and vice chief executive, used to be stirring meetings where leaders determine who would have the nomination. Lately, presidentiables have grown to be independent political business people who appeal to the people alternatively than to get together leaders. This has made personal campaign organizations more efficient moneymaking tools than the countrywide parties. This problem tends to destabilize devotion to the powerful institution of political parties.

Electronic Voting

United Claims has been using a system because the middle of 70's which allows votes to be entered electronically, otherwise known as digital voting. Corresponding to my source, this balloting system is generally known as e-voting or direct-recording electric systems (DREs). The voter uses an admittance device to join up vote choices, and the entries are transferred to electronic recording press, such as hard drive or a storage card. The direct accessibility device may be electric, as with a touch-screen, or electromechanical, such as pushbuttons.

The earliest electric system is the Video recording Voter, an electromechanical device. That is designed to make voting more accessible and comfortable especially to the disabled.

The selection created by the voter comprises a ballot. After the polls close, the articles of the ballots are tabulated and reported by the voting system as vote totals. These totals are usually provided in a printed out paper format that may be read by the personnel at the individual precinct locations.

There was a poor reaction of e-voting systems in the United States. THE ASSISTANCE America Vote Function of 2002 provided vast amounts of federal funds for towns and towns to replace the existing punch-card systems. Several systems were substituted with DRE systems.

From E-voting of the Western to Philippines

The insufficient an independent proof or audit path for the vote data gathered by DREs led experts to consider the necessity that all electronic equipment should provide a printed version of the ballot that the voter could study and review for reliability and authenticity.

DRE-printed ballots are known as voter confirmed newspaper ballots or voter confirmed paper audit paths, VVPB or VVPAT for brevity respectively. VVPBs or VVPATs may also be made by equipment that will not electronically track record the ballot image or vote data such as devices used by disabled citizens that print or prepare a ballot to be optically scanned.

Recently, computer expert David Dill published a petition about e-voting at Stanford University stating that procedure of new voting machines that do not give a voter-verifiable audit trail should be ceased and existing machines should be revised to produce ballots that can be checked separately by the voter before being published and can't be changed after distribution. The ballots thus published shall be thought to be actual votes taking primacy over any digital counts.

As one of the forerunners of e-voting, Philippines implemented using what has been employed by modern democracies worldwide. Automation was supposed to address the condition of too much human being treatment which made the system vulnerable to real human error or scams. The Comelec made the decision that the antidote was automation since it assured more accuracy than manual count number and was faster which would unburden folks especially the instructors, from the drudgery of the manualized system.

Philippine Automated Election System

Pursuant to Poll Modernization Laws as amended by Republic Work 9369, the keeping track of, tallying, transmitting and loan consolidation of votes under automated election system-AES will be achieved by computers. Based on the Philippine Legend, the Comelec has purchased 82, 200 voting machines from the foreign company Smartmatic, that your Comelec message or calls Precinct Matter Optical Scan (PCOS) machines.

The excruciating and tedious keeping track of process under the manual system which can take days, weeks or even calendar months before the results are finally known will no longer be followed. All votes cast at every precinct will automatically be counted by the PCOS machine at the closing of polls and the results will be transmitted electronically to the correct canvassing/consolidation centers.

Paper-Based System and Pre-Election Procedures

Paper ballots are still used through the voting process since voting is done through optical make reader-type machine, in accordance with the mandate of the law. The ballot provides the names of applicants for every position from national right down to local aspirants and the parties under the party-list system as well. You can find ovals opposite each name and get together. The ballot will be used front and again.

Three days prior to the day of election, the Comelec conducted a dried up run of the PCOS machines by inviting members of the general public to accomplish test ballots. These ballots were counted by hand and election profits showing the results will be prepared. Then the same group of ballots will be counted by the PCOS machines and the results will be compared with that of the manual keeping track of. If the email address details are the same, the individuals will certify the truthfulness of the results by putting your signature on on the printed elections earnings.

According further to my source, the PCOS machines was delivered to the 80, 136 clustered precincts around the country albeit with some delays where they'll be stored and sealed until Election Day. During this time period, the machines are not allowed yet to be linked to any transmitting lines to avoid hackers from access them. The general public can secure the region where the machines will be stored.

The Voting Process and Transmitting of Results

The machine can still read a marking even if the voter fails to fully tone the ovals opposite the candidates of his choice. The PCOS machine has an LCD screen that may indicate if the ballot is accepted or rejected to prevent 'spoiled' votes.

9In compare with manual voting, the voter has to write the titles of applicants and celebrations which she or he will vote. This is system is prone to errors and misunderstandings such as when a name is misspelled, there are similar titles or the titles are confusingly similar. Under the automated system, these problems are immediately fixed because the voter has to draw only the labels of the applicants of his choice whose titles have already been printed out on the ballot.

The transmission cable tv is connected to the PCOS machine for the transmission of results from a specific precinct after the printing of the election comes back. The results are transmitted electronically to the town or Municipal Board of Canvassers (BOC) via canvassing or loan consolidation machines that will combine the results from all precincts within metropolis or municipality. From then, it is to be sent electronically to the Comelec central office.

'Two-faced' media

The aftereffect of broadcast media varies accordingly with regards to the candidate's political progress prior to election and towards the credibility of the poll automation.

Firstly, with the advancement of Penera 2 Supreme Court docket Decision, premature campaigning has lost its relevance in the modern world. In place, even before the start of campaign period, infomercials are rampant in Television screens, radio, Internet and others anywhere. These infomercials or advertisements, which may last from fifteen to sixty mere seconds, emphasize issues and personal qualities that look important in the poll data. They attempt to establish applicant name recognition, create a favorable image of the prospect and negative image of the opponent. These advertising often make use of 'sound bites', brief and punchy claims from the applicant made for voters to remember in any other case known as the 'last song syndrome'.

In effect, there's a radical shifting of the equilibrium which tends to favor those prospects with deep storage compartments despite the presence of limitations approved for legal reasons.

Secondly, mass media exposes those controversies and anomalies bordering the poll automation e. g. overpricing of election paraphernalia, the validity of the agreement between Comelec and Smartmatic-TIM, the authenticity of the foundation code, the probability of machine failing and hacking and the wants. This scenario sets off the relentless thoughts of Filipinos, but not all, to question and to doubt the result of the automated election. Pessimism about the automation's credibility is popular as we've been hypnotized by the 'wicked spells' of past elections. In some way or another, marketing has succeeded in negativizing the legitimate image of that which was supposed to be a 'big jump' from primitivism of manual matter to modernity via electronic digital count.

The role of press is controversial considering that journalists, after all, are not elected by the people. They are not even appointed or conformed by elected representatives. One might ask if what gives these private residents, working typically for private companies, the to an important role on how the united states is governed. This review aims never to criticize the multimedia because on the far side of the variety, they play a essential role in keeping the government's integrity because press act as a disinfectant in exposing flaws in the government on the idea that it helps to correct those flaws if it's exposed. But sadly, this is not an issue included in this academic newspaper.

Pros and Cons of the System

Several days prior to the day of the election, several personalities made a finish that there surely is probability that the automated election this year 2010 can result in cheating or inability of election. A couple of legitimate anxieties about the authenticity and stability of the foundation code for the Precinct Counting Optical Scanners (PCOS), a tightly-guarded real human readable set of rules or commands that will enable the machine to operate.

The chaotic manner where the Comelec tested and finally given the deal was becoming clear from a odd failure to keep up enough time-and-motion studies, an awful percentage of two custom-made pens per voting precinct and including the lapses and mishaps through the Election Day. Experts opined as well that machines are susceptible to jamming or hacking. Even the printing of the recognized ballots is loaded with security concerns.

The fears elevated by several areas emulate an over-all distrust and suspicion not only in the Comelec as sentinel of the democratic vote, more so when the process lacks detail or transparency and the implementers lack of enough competence and own little credibility never to talk about the inherent weaknesses such as vote-buying or harassing the Board of Election Inspectors to pay voters so they can fill up ballots themselves and so on.

But on the brighter side, the automatic election is the road to modernizing the Philippine electoral process. To estimate from my source "the technology might just be the equalizing factor against scams that has bugged the machine for a long time. It might not be perfect but it can lessen the impact of cheating up against the results. Speedy counting is urgently needed to be able to ease, if not totally removed, the chances of fraudulence".

Christian Monsod, a well known political number is of the judgment that "there is no failure of elections, no catastrophic failing of technology or logistics and no outrage over its conduct or results. Leader Aquino won by the largest margin ever sold which was accurately monitored by the research and exit polls. There was a peaceful copy of ability on June 30, 2010. The circumstance of a vast and sophisticated conspiracy to help make the elections are unsuccessful so that Madam Arroyo could stay permanently did not seem sensible".

The Comelec's plan to use the PCOS to speed-up the keeping track of, transmitting and canvassing of votes is targeted at protecting against cheating, specifically 'dagdag-bawas' or vote padding through the canvassing of election results. Printed brands on ballots will prevent "misappreciation" of votes as compared to ballots written independently by the voters. Electronic transmission of results can help reduce physical intervention or obstruction and there would be faster counting and consolidation of results. In place, winners could be declared without further delays.

Contrary to what many believe, hacking the machines or tampering with the results while these are being transmitted are not the most controversial issues in poll automation because these would be costly and difficult because of the security features that are carefully and analytically encrypted therein.

Recommendations

Voter's education is the primary key to avoid scam in the new electoral process because election operators would rely upon them to present cheating and scams in the results. Similarly, poll watchers should know which parts of the process are critical so they can guard against cheating.

The printing, broadcast and online mass media will play a essential role in assisting to educate voters and everything stakeholders about the new automated poll system. Everybody must be vigilant in guarding their rights in order not to be disenfranchised.

Due to the loan consolidation of polling precincts and also to avoid disenfranchisement of votes, gleam need for yet another PCOS machines to prevent voters from hurrying and then congesting within the precinct as if there is certainly 'Wowowee', on the verge of stampede, prompting others to wait and eventually acquired discouraged from casting their votes. There

After conducting an information marketing campaign, there has to be a countrywide 'dry-run' of the poll programmed election to be conducted within the last month prior to the Election Day. That is intended to be able to minimize, if not prevent, unwanted and pointless delays and mishaps during the genuine voting.

The Comelec must promote as well the factual information about the automation and examining processes to effectively inform the public, including groups most significant of the automation task and also to de-bunk misinformation and rumors.

To summarize also to quote from what Monsod experienced said in his view regarding the 2010 robotic election, a whole lot of governance problem was came across by Comelec during the poll automation. These includes the overdue promulgation of guidelines, regulations and rules, disenfranchisement from defective voter's lists, delays in delivery or non-deliveries of election paraphernalia, limited training of teachers and Comelec field workers, limited voter education, irregularities of strategies. Many of these involve strategies but since election is a process, procedures partake of the material of suffrage. These problems can all be solved with better management.

Conclusion

The study provided the brief overview of the North american election system in conjunction with the in-depth evaluation, examination and overview of the 2010 Philippine Automated Election System.

Election lies at the heart of every democratic federal government. Guarding the ballot of every individual against scams is the primordial concern of the federal government per se. People are the source of every vitality and specialist that the federal government exercised. It is merely but right to assure them the best safeguard and security the federal government can provide so that free, unwarranted and unhampered choice is achieved.

Despite the problems encountered through the Election Day and despite all the suspicions and uncertainties about the machines' vulnerability to hacking, failing, bug down and so many more, the PCOS machines were able to heed the mandate of the electorate. The use of the automated system did not result in failing of elections as forecasted by many overly critical personalities but that much still must be done to help make the system perfect. We plant seeds to be able to grow. There is absolutely no harm in trying anyway; there is always an area for improvement. Quite simply, the automation of the elections in May had not been perfect however the system itself remains a viable option. The system need only be upgraded.

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