Posted at 11.16.2018
A topology is thought as the layout of the network i. e. the way the nodes are connected. This describes how the network physically looks or the way the network is physically designed. The concept of a topology is important because each network card was created to work with a specific topology. Conversely, if your network cable is already installed and you simply want to use existing wiring, you must select your network cards predicated on the preexisting physical topology. Ideally, you can design your network from scratch. Then you can choose your topology, cabling, and network cards based on what best meets your preferences.
Physically, a bus topology uses a linear segment of cable to hook up all network devices. Devices typically hook up to the bus (the cable) through T-connectors. At each end of the bus are terminators. Each terminator absorbs the signal when it reaches the end of the cable. Without a terminator, a sign would bounce back and cause network errors.
The physical bus topology runs on the logical bus to transmit data on the cable in both directions. In a logical bus topology, only 1 transmission can occur at any given moment. Otherwise, two transmissions would collide and cause network errors. Termination means that the signal is taken off the cable when it reaches either end, preventing possible network errors.
The benefits of a bus topology are the following:
1. That is less costly topology since it requires less cable for networking
because using only one cable it is possible to hook up many computers.
2. It is a fairly easy way to network a tiny number of computers.
The drawbacks of the bus topology are the following:
1. One break in cable cause entire failure in network.
2. It is very difficult to correct the errors because the cable is not related to only
3. On the medium-sized to large network, reconfiguration is more difficult than the
cable Management of any star topology.
The star topology looks like a star. The hub is at the center of the star, and all devices attach to the hub with a cable. Logically, the physical star topology operates as a logical bus topology by sending the data signal to all or any nodes at once. The hub at the guts of the star works as a sign splitter, this means the signal is split and delivered to all computers at the same time, with one exception-it is not repaid to the computer from which the signal sent. The signal is terminated at each network card, thereby preventing the signal from accidentally reentering the network. If this were to happen, data packets would travel the network endlessly-seriously slowing down network performance.
The benefits of a star topology are the following:
1. A star topology is more fault tolerant than other topologies, because a cable
break will not bring down the complete network.
2. Reconfiguring the network, or adding nodes, is simple because each node
connects to the central hub independent of other nodes.
3. Isolating cable failures is simple because each node connects independently to the
The disadvantages of an star topology are:
1. In the event the central hub fails, the complete network becomes unavailable.
2. This topology is more expensive than others to set up due to additional
cable and equipment involved.
Physically, the ring topology is shaped in a ring. Cables pass from computer to computer before ring is complete. When data is transmitted, each workstation receives the signal and then passes it on when the workstation is done with the info. Other than Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), no current networks use a physical ring topology, just because a break in the ring makes the complete network unavailable. Logically, a ring topology works by passing the signal, traditionally called a token, from one node to another until it reaches completely across the ring. Token-passing schemes use the logical ring topology.
A logical ring topology ensures access to the network without the risk of collisions, which can occur in logical star or bus topologies.
The drawbacks of the ring topology are the following:
1. When there is a rest in the cable of your physical ring topology, the network becomes
2. Physical ring topologies are difficult to troubleshoot.
3. Physical ring topologies are hard to reconfigure.
4. There is limited support for ring networks.
5. The costs for a ring network are significantly higher than for star or bus.
Also known as a hierarchy network, The sort of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top degree of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i. e. , the second level) with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the very best level central 'root' node,
While each one of the second level nodes that are connected to the very best level central 'root' node will likewise have a number of other nodes that are one level reduced the hierarchy (i. e. , the 3rd level) linked to it, also with a point-to-point link, the most notable level central 'root' node being really the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy (The hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical. ) Each node in the network having a particular fixed number, of nodes connected to it at another lower level in the hierarchy, the number, being known as the 'branching factor' of the hierarchical tree. This tree has individual peripheral nodes.
1. ) A network that is based after the physical hierarchical topology will need to have at least three levels in the hierarchy of the tree, since a network with a central 'root' node and only 1 hierarchical level below it could exhibit the physical topology of your star.
2. ) A network that is situated after the physical hierarchical topology and with a branching factor of 1 1 would be classified as a physical linear topology.
3. ) The branching factor, f, is independent of the final number of nodes in the network and, therefore, if the nodes in the network require ports for link with other nodes the full total amount of ports per node may be kept low even though the total number of nodes is large " this makes the result of the price tag on adding ports to each node totally dependent after the branching factor and could therefore be kept only required without the effect upon the full total range of nodes that are possible.
4. ) The total range of point-to-point links in a network that is based after the physical hierarchical topology will be one less than the total amount of nodes in the network.
5. ) When the nodes in a network that is based after the physical hierarchical topology are required to perform any processing after the data that is transmitted between nodes in the network, the nodes that are in higher levels in the hierarchy will be asked to perform more processing businesses with respect to other nodes than the nodes that are lower in the hierarchy. Such a type of network topology is very helpful and highly recommended
The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers, assuming that communicating groups of any two endpoints, up to all the endpoints, is approximated by Reed's Law.
The quantity of connections in a complete mesh = n(n - 1) / 2
Note: The physical fully linked mesh topology is normally too costly and complex for practical networks, but the topology can be used whenever there are only a little variety of nodes to be interconnected.
The kind of network topology where a few of the nodes of the network are linked to more than one other node in the network with a point-to-point link " this can help you take advantage of a few of the redundancy that is provided by way of a physical fully linked mesh topology without the expense and complexity required for a connection between every node in the network.
In most practical networks that are based after the physical partially linked mesh topology, all the data that is transmitted between nodes in the network takes the shortest path (or an approximation of the shortest path) between nodes, except regarding a failure or break in one of the links, in which particular case the data takes an alternative path to the destination. This requires that the nodes of the network possess some type of logical 'routing' algorithm to look for the correct way to use at any particular time.