Posted at 12.30.2018
The framework offered in Fig. 1 below, supplies the backbone where concepts of the study flow. The mark respondents will be the chemistry educators of Sarangani Division. The study will examine their performance level and coaching competence because of the following parameters: understanding of the different chemistry content in a diagnostic test in relation to their self-assessment in the NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit under site 4 - curriculum and their over-all coaching competence as referred to in every other domains of the NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit.
An intervention program by way of educators' training will be made by the researcher predicated on the recognized least discovered competencies and least scored items in the NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit, at the mercy of the acceptability of the respondents. The proposed training curriculum will allow chemistry teachers to eradicate or at least decrease some misconceptions in chemistry and gain better understanding of some difficult concepts in chemistry. In the same way, the proposed training curriculum shall contain diverse teaching skills and strategies to address the needs of different kinds of learners.
Related articles and studies from other studies are included herein to provide the researcher insights thus, providing a better basis where to follow this research.
Khine, Lourdsamy, Lang and Wong (2005) declare that enhancing understanding of self applied as a tutor may be accomplished through quantity of approaches as shown below:
Knowledge of Self
Knowledge is increasing swiftly. How effectively a teacher shows improvement is a way of measuring teaching quality. A instructor must invest in lifelong learning through trainings, skills development and personal upgrading. Mr. Goh Chok Tong (1998), past Perfect Minister of Singapore said:
" We must make learning a national culture. . . We should set up thorough mechanisms to regularly retrain our labor force and encourage every individual to engage in learning as a matter of necessity. . . professors and principals will constantly consider new ideas and techniques, and continually renew their own knowledge. Teaching will itself be a learning job like any other knowledge-based occupation into the future".
Self-evaluation and re-evaluation with regards to a teacher's over-all progress and self-worth can be an important tool in knowing oneself. Believing in one's value, skills and self-worth will earn self-esteem, which enables a educator to connect with others. A teacher must also routinely evaluate his/her own frame of mind which can affect his/her perceptions in relating with others. Peers and students diagnosis can provide some objectivity to check one's examination of self.
The mentor-mentee system can help enhance home. A mentor provides the lifeline to new educators "tossed in tumultuous normal water" of your uncertain environment. Mentors provide non judgemental opinions and the "modelling result".
Knowledge of processes
A instructor must be a reflective practitioner. In reflecting, the tutor look inwards to judge own teaching behaviour, discover new ideas and observe how certain tactics can translate into own teaching to improve performance. Knowledge on problem dealing with is also important as the school environment constantly reveals problems to be fixed. Knowing the problem solving process will generate alternative alternatives. Research on the other palm, provides sensible rationale to a variety of options of the best teaching practices. The knowledge of search operations will hook up the teacher to the most up to date materials to the best use of the learners.
Knowledge of Content
Content is essential and a energetic knowledge. For just a teacher to teach the topic well she or he will need an understanding associated with an extensive and up to date knowledge, be able to anchor the knowledge with everyday program and be ready to answer all types of questions highly relevant to what he or she teaches.
Delivery of the required content and skills in technology to the learners greatly rely upon how much a particular science teacher have in store for these people, e. g. educational record, major portion of specialization, related trainings and instructing experience. Though, the group of desired learning competencies provide teachers with path, it is extensive in opportunity and can be interpreted in various ways with regards to the teacher's track record and experience. A professor must have the right understanding of the different contents and skills in the BEC competency before he/she can exactly translate it to the learners. The wide scope of knowledge demands that professors must possess the specific knowledge and skills of a particular branch of knowledge and not from related track record and experience. Physics, Chemistry and Biology professors should not only be one webpage ahead of their students; however, they must be experts, because that is exactly what the learners expect them to be.
Knowledge of Coaching Pedagogy
Teaching for better learning is about how exactly to teach effectively. The procedure is associated with terms like, instructional strategies, instructing knowledge, teaching strategies, educating methods, teaching ideas or coaching models.
Teaching for thinking is a decision making process of making meanings. The thinking process is from the following conditions: analytical thinking, analogical thinking, reflective thinking, critical thinking, creative thinking, inductive thinking and lateral thinking. Though, there will vary terms for pondering but there's a common thread through them; it is a process with three components- procedures, knowledge, and dispositions.
Knowledge of Students and Their learning Styles
An aspect of individuality essential to pedagogical decisions is "learning styles" or personal preferences. It places emphasis on how students learn and not on what they learn. Ahead of teaching, the instructor must learn how students learn through interviews, everyday relationships, students' personal profile and learning style examination.
Science and Technology III (Chemistry), in the light of 2002 Basic Education Curriculum seeks to help the Filipino learners' gain an operating understanding of scientific concepts and rules linked with real life situations and acquire scientific skills, attitudes, and values necessary to analyze and solve daily problems.
The goals of the research program give attention to conceptual understanding, acquisition of knowledge processes or thinking skills, particularly critical and creative thinking skills and development of methodical values and attitudes. Thus, science professors must evenly posses the same conceptual understanding and competence because it is through them that the goals and aims of the department education are being carried out. They are the ultimate means to realize the visions of education. Nevertheless, based on the latest review (DOST-SEI, 2005) and (DEPED, 2006) the amounts of teachers teaching knowledge and mathematics with no history have exceeded the number of those with background by 14, 153 (Ogena, Ester, 2006). This study shows too many unqualified science instructors in the section of education.
Thus, results of the Country wide Diagnostic Test administered to students in 2002 and 2003 are no surprising. It demonstrates only 10% of students in technology approved the competency level. Likewise the results of the Tendencies in Mathematics and Knowledge Analysis (TIMSS, 2003) show that the national Mathematics and Science mean scores in 1999 and 2003 were very much less than the international mean credit score (underlying part 25% of students); and, one of the recommended solutions given by TIMSS was tutor training.
According to Ibe and Ogena (1998), tutor education does not draw in the best or the highly intellectually in a position high school graduates. It's the least expensive program that is accessible to the center and low income family members that desires higher education for their children. This generalization resulted from a report conducted by Ibe (1979), that more students from the lower 30 percentiles portrayed preference for instructor education. This is because, education program especially for non science majors are least expensive and requires less laboratory fees. However, when they'll join the teaching profession, these educators will be forced to teach research when there is no available science tutor to teach the topic.
Proficiency in the English words is another learning hurdle for students as well as professors. Science books are written in British, class instructions are made in British, yet teachers maybe fluent British speakers but taking a native accent. In 1925, one significant finding created by the Philippine Education System was that, Filipino children were two and a half years behind than American children in reading skills. This distance is simply understandable because, to the People in america English is their indigenous language while for the Filipinos, it is their second terms (Gonzales, 2004). British language is educated by Filipino teachers who as well are not spontaneous British speakers. Using accurate American accent matters because this is of the term differs with how it is being pronounced.
Smithers and Robinsons (2005) said that rich countries like USA and Canada are also experiencing great difficulty in bringing in their own race to get into chemistry and physics teaching. They also experience serious lack of competent chemistry and physics teachers and as a result of this; they recruit instructors from the Philippines offering attractive salaries and other benefits; and who are able to refuse this very enticing offer? Hence, best teachers in chemistry and physics 're going out of the country in look for greener pasture.
What is the implication of all these accounts to the educational system of the united states? This leaves no choice for the section of education than to permit misfits to teach chemistry and physics especially in far flung areas.
The recommended learning competencies present the group of desired learning goals specifically in chemistry by which instructors shall abide and structure their lessons consequently. Chemistry is a wide subject and includes different regions of specializations. Here are two models of competencies in Chemistry- BEC and the CEM competencies by which their diagnostic assessment shall be based. Both competencies created for high school chemistry are grouped as Standard Chemistry. Thus, they include basic topics appropriate for the level of understanding of high school students that will prepare them for tertiary education.
The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) of the Division of Education lays down the next desired learning goals:
Introduction to chemistry - learners are anticipated to appreciate the value of chemistry, appreciate the accomplishments of Filipino and foreign chemists, appreciate and understand the use of different lab equipment and demonstrate understanding on the mathematical ideas of chemistry.
Classifying Matter - the learners are anticipated to demonstrate skills in figuring out chemical systems show understanding on the elements and ingredients present in daily life and demonstrate knowledge of simple techniques in getting ready, separating and purifying matter.
Solutions - students shall be in a position to understand the solution process and its own regards to energy changes and molecular connections, identify types of alternatives, relate colligative properties of solutions, be able to solve problems in relation to concentration of alternatives and relate solutions to the environment.
Colloids- Students are anticipated to demonstrate understanding on the properties and uses of colloids and its own importance in lifestyle.
Gases- Learners shall illustrate understanding on the properties and behaviour of gases in relation to different gas laws and equations, show problem solving skills using numerical equations and associate gas regulations and principles involved in some solutions.
Inside the Atom - this chapter talks about the contributions of early experts in the development of the atomic theory, demonstrate understanding on the framework of the atom and appreciate how these subatomic particles and radioactivity are used in technology specifically in drugs.
Order Among Elements - the learners are expected to demonstrate knowledge of the properties of elements with regards to their positions or locations in the periodic table, and appreciate the importance of knowing the elements and exactly how they are used in technology.
Ties That Chemically Bind - students shall be able to know how atoms incorporate, identify the types of chemical bond and associate the properties and uses of substances with the type of chemical connection.
Changes In Matter - appreciate the functional of period/chemical changes, demonstrate knowledge of the laws regulating changes, and show the ability to use symbols, formulas and chemical equations in describing chemical type reactions.
Change, Energy and Time - demonstrate understanding of how chemical substance reactions happen and appreciate the value of managing rates of reactions in technology.
The competencies designed by the Center for Educational Way of measuring contains exactly the same in conditions of quite happy with the BEC version but in several agreement. For chemistry, the next competencies are enumerated below:
Introduction to Chemistry: Demonstrates knowledge and knowledge of concepts: discusses clinical method; determines variety of significant results; makes heat range conversions; enumerates safeness safety measures in the lab; distinguishes: chemicals/mixtures, homogeneous/heterogeneous systems, physical/chemical substance changes, exothermic/endothermic reactions, and heat/temperature.
Symbols, Formulas, and Equations: Demonstrates knowledge, understanding, and software of principles: writes chemical substance symbols; balances chemical substance equations; translates verbal statements to chemical equations; uses mole concept to execute mole-mole, mass-mass calculations; solves problems relating molar mass/ ratio composition by weight/quantity of moles given the formulation of a substance.
Phases of Subject: Demonstrates knowledge, understanding, and application of principles: represents/compares the properties of the says of matter; says the Kinetic Molecular Theory, structure of the atmosphere, and the function of your calorimeter; solves problems involving the gas laws; explains the partnership between temp and vapor pressure.
The Atom: Demonstrates knowledge, understanding, and program of ideas: observes electronic nature of subject; infers the foundation of agreement of elements in the periodic stand; predicts the group number of elements using number of valence electrons; can determine electronic configurations; interprets from a stand the partnership between atomic mass and comparative great quantity of isotopes.
Chemical Bonding: Demonstrates knowledge, understanding, and request of principles: claims and explains formation of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds; decides oxidation number of elements in a mixture; relates molecular shape, polarity, intermolecular makes of appeal, and boiling factors of molecules to one another.
Types of Chemical Reactions: Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of concepts: labels/identifies four general types of chemical substance reactions; recognizes reactants and products of your reaction; uses the activity group of elements to find out whether an individual displacement effect will continue as written.
The Chemistry of Alternatives: Demonstrates knowledge and knowledge of the concepts: details the dynamics/types of alternatives; identifies solute and solvent; recognizes saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated alternatives; calculates solution concentrations; defines/talks about solubility and the factors influencing it; expresses colligative properties of alternatives.
Chemical Kinetics and Substance Equilibrium: Demonstrates knowledge and knowledge of the principles: defines kinetics and rates of chemical reactions, identifies and talks about factors affecting rates of reactions; differentiates organic and inorganic catalysts; clarifies how a chemical substance response occurs; defines and clarifies chemical equilibrium and just what a reversible reaction is.
Ions and Equilibrium: Acids and Bases: Demonstrates knowledge and knowledge of ideas: defines and gives examples of acids and bases; points out how pH is related to the acidity of a solution; clarifies buffers and buffer alternatives and describes functions and restrictions of acid-base indicators.
Electrochemistry: Demonstrates knowledge, understanding, and software of ideas: clarifies oxidation and lowering reactions in conditions of gain or loss of electrons; describes ways of preventing/controlling redox reactions; describes and points out electrolytic reactions and applies Faraday's Law of Electrolysis to determine states of metal/metal ions produced.
Carbon and Ingredients: Demonstrates knowledge and knowledge of basic ideas: recognizes classes of organic compounds using their examples; describes natural processes for your body to use energy from sugars, fats, and proteins. (http://www. cem-inc. org. ph).
Comparing between two units of competencies - BEC and CEM, both contains exactly the same topics as of the first seven competencies however the latter are more advanced within the next four topics. Nevertheless, a specialist chemistry instructor is likely to be more educated than his / her learners. These advanced chemistry content areas will provide record information for the teacher as he or she must understand the concepts well so that he / she can effectively impart these concepts to the learners.
The National Competency-Based Educator Standard (NCBTS) is an integrated theoretical platform that defines the different measurements of effective teaching in all respects of an teacher's professional life and in every phases of instructor development. This is an offshoot of the Basic Reform Agenda (BESRA) of the Division of Education, under Key Reform Thrust 2- Training and Development. BESRA, is a reform effort of the section to provide basic competencies to everyone to accomplish functional literacy for all Filipinos, in support to EFA this means, "Education FOR MANY"; a global activity led by UNESCO to realize useful literacy by 2015.
The NCBTS -TSNA Toolkit is a modified version of the NCBTS that may enable teachers to find out their talents and weaknesses with regards to the set of specifications that defines the overall competence of the instructor. This toolkit is composed of 270 knowledge, skills, and behaviour (KSA) items, under 80 signals, 3 strands and seven NCBTS domains. Thus, the professor will periodically evaluate his teaching performance thru this toolkit to be able to consistently improve and raise his/her teaching competence towards standard. Least obtained items in the toolkit shall also serve as basis of the Division of Education to add these items in their INSET. Thus, the following domains completely summarize an effective and efficient educator in the department of education, as follows:
Domain 1 - Public Respect for Learning
This comprises two stands and five indicators of knowledge, skills and attitudes describing the teacher as role model to the learners. Thus the instructor demonstrates the following signals: adherence to institution policies and laws, punctuality, appropriate appearance and behaviour.
Domain 2 - Learning Environment
This is contain 5 strands and 17 indications that describes the power of the educator to make a advantageous physical and sociable environment where students are reputed, regardless of gender, religious beliefs, socio-economic track record, ethnicity, and where students are safe and learning is conducive given the physical environment. It also describes the ability of the teacher to create a social environment where students actively engage in learning activities without prejudice and fear.
Domain 3 - Variety of Learners
This domain name is defined by the teacher's capability to determines, understands,
and accepts the learners' diverse backdrop and experience. This includes his or capability to choose learning activities suitable for different types of learners.
Domain 4 - Curriculum
Domain 4 is focused on mastery of content and teaching pedagogy. Thus, the educator is likely to deliver accurate and kept up to date content knowledge to the learners with appropriate methodologies, methods and strategies suitable for the various types and intelligences of learners. The instructor is also viewed to posses' language literacy skills, conversing evidently to the understandable level of learners. Moreover, this also refers to the teacher's capacity to make and use teaching materials specifically in the use of information and communication technology in teaching and learning.
Domain 5 - Planning, Assessing and Reporting
This domain measures the capability of the educator to build up and use instructional plans, the utilization of a variety of appropriate assessment ways of enhance the teaching-learning process.
Domain 6 -Community Linkages
The teacher is able to make lessons and teaching-learning activities relevant to the experiences, principles, and aspirations of the city. The teacher demonstrates involvement in community undertakings that promote learning.
Domain 7 - Personal Expansion and Professional Development
This is the last domain which speaks about the dignity of the coaching profession and his or her professional expansion and development. The educator should uphold the dignity of the coaching profession by preparing the best standard of ethical and moral prices and always looks for ongoing improvement in his / her teaching career (NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit, Department of Education, TEDP, TWG).
The Country wide Competency-Based Educators Standard (NCBTS) is the teacher's development guide towards personal and professional development. It really is a self-assessment guide that helps teachers identify their professional and training needs as well as their specific strengths good seven domains of the Country wide Competency-Based Teachers Standard (NCBTS) and as summarized in the Professor Strengths and Needs (TSNA) Toolkit. This NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit is a modified version of the National Competency-Based Teacher's Standard initiated by Project BEAM which is more localized, comprehensible to the amount of teachers, and the majority of all, quantitative. This altered toolkit was created to help instructors determine their professional development and training needs. Nevertheless, the info produced from this toolkit shall not be utilized to rate them; rather, they will give exact information about the teacher's competencies in the next domains and strands so that, appropriate interventions on the part of the educator and the management shall be effected to help professors in their professional progress and development.
Nonetheless, teachers may possess the trend to over rate themselves in a few of the things because of man's innate inclination to "self-preservation" (Freud Sigmund, 1910). The term self-preservation in its simplest term details both the set of behaviors where individuals attempt to protect their own life and the physical processes that set up these behaviors. Hence, the inclination of not experiencing their weaknesses can also be supported by the cognitive-psychological test created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1995 in america. That is known as the "Johari Window". In this theory, it is said that we now have blind spots in some areas of man's life that's not known to self applied but are known to others.
To sum everything, the NCBTS-TSNA toolkit might not exactly be a highly effective tool towards instructors' personal and professional development if it's left only to the teacher to see his / her own talents and weaknesses. As most teachers tend to rate themselves maximum in conditions of content and pedagogy, but their genuine performance within an administered and standardized test will tell the truth about their content competency particularly for chemistry professors in the section of Sarangani Province.
Thus, this review will be best achieved if results of the instructors' diagnostic test will be correlated with their NCBTS-TSNA results especially in content and pedagogy.
In-Service Trainings (INSET) tend to be given to instructors before the starting of classes to prepare teachers for the returning school season. However, most in-service trainings are done in mass, non subject specific but instead a combo of teaching strategies and managerial or supervisory solutions.
Thus, a good training curriculum to answer specific problems re- chemistry content and pedagogy may cover the following areas:
Misconceptions in some difficult concepts are the most typical error committed by non specialist chemistry professors or if not, escaped by some.
Teaching pedagogy entails the strategies or methodologies of teaching and how educators deliver the products to the learners. Thus, some of the topics can include the following: questioning approach, test building, and interactive learning activities.
Effective teachers have the ability to conduct teaching that will keep students actively involved in the lesson. The very best educators are skilled in questioning, in helping students come to a understanding of this content, and in monitoring understanding (Cruickshank, Jenkins, Metcaff, 2006).
The most reliable teachers establish and keep maintaining highly interactive classrooms- classrooms seen as a student-student and teacher-student dialogue rather than simply, educator talk (Feden, 1994; Lock and Priggue, 2002; Marzano, 2002).
Bellon, Bellon, and Dark (1992) declare that questioning is the instructional process that is central to verbal connection in the classroom. The question professors ask serve as the interface between teacher's prospects and students' response. This program in interactive teaching is critical since it shifts the focus from the tutor to the students.
Effective questions require students to positively process information and create a remedy. Good questions increase students engagements, raise the level of thoughts, help students coordinate their thoughts, guide students more effectively through academic responsibilities and allow educator to monitor understanding and provide feedback. In spite the apparent value of good questions, it would appear that teachers rarely use questions as effectively as they could (Alexander, Jetton, & Kulikowich, 1994; Orstein and Lastery, 2000).
Most professors' questioning patters includes presenting information that unneeded or challenging, posing more than one question at a time, or failing woefully to specify the nature of the expected answer (Sigel, 1990; Traver, 1998).
Good and Brophy (2000) examined research on questioning and figured students find out more when instructors ask frequent questions you need to include a number of questions in their lessons.
Wilen and Clegy (1986) also reported that tutor questioning is also related to increase successes among students. Further, research on questioning shows that teacher's use of higher order questions promotes higher order thinking skills.
If professors want their questioning to work, they must be certain to phrase their questions clearly and concisely. Too often, professors ask questions that are almost impossible for students to answer effectively.
Tayko and Sunga (2004) said that, for questions to work, clear questions use natural, unambiguous language appropriate to the amount of students. They are also concise, including only the words, conditions and information, students found in order to answer the question. They describe the precise points should focus on, nevertheless they do not include unneeded words or parenthetical expressions. Finally, they are simply directed towards educational content, or the goals of the lessons.
"Will you coach to the test?" This was the introduction made by an unknown writer in the materials, "Developing Higher-level Teacher-Made Tests". The monitoring and evaluation group during the pilot implementation of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) found out that professors were found, indeed, to "teach to the test", and the students "study to the test". This identifies how teachers created their test questions. The accounts showed that questions like simple recall and recognition which are low level questions remain predominant. They are types of traditional assessments that do not enhance the higher order considering skills of students. More impressive range questions like analysis, synthesis and evaluation are difficult to create because it requires time and cleverness to create the question logically. Multiple Choice, though it is probably the traditional type of tests, is extremely functional- can measure the higher metal functions. Nevertheless, constructing plausible alternatives is a hard move to make. BEC also urged educators to use alternative forms of analysis like free response or wide open finished questions, group work, laboratory and field observations and many others.
The recent trends in examination do not suggest the traditional assessment strategy that teachers had been using through years should finally be changed. Actually, these types of tests are commonly adopted and are appropriate in periodic and achievements checks. Certainly, properly designed multiple choice tests are great for effectively and objectively evaluating knowledge of a large content of website. What's needed is a balanced approach to evaluation, in which appropriate techniques are administered and found in a credible way for the teacher's decision making. Because the assessment focuses on sophisticated thinking skills or uses portfolios does not mean it is better or more credible. The analysis approach must be matched to purpose and must be conducted matching to quality specifications (McMillan 1997).
Hanna and Peggy (2004) declare that, the major reason for flawed test engineering practice would be that the varieties of test questions that are easiest to write- be they objectives or article- measure rote knowledge, not deep processing. It is natural for taking the easy road and to "crank out" items that "flow easily". However, if occupied teachers do not take part in thoughtful preliminary planning involving balance between recall type questions and items that tap sophisticated thinking, a test will probably give more emphasis than desired on storage area and less on such things as understanding, pondering, and applying learning to other situations.
In the teaching-learning process, two critical factors enter into play- viewpoint of education and psychology of learning a teacher must sign up to. The three philosophies of education as presented by Beach and Reinhartz, are essentialism, progressivism and existentialism.
The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum espouses progressivism as its philosophy and adopts the views of the constructivist theory of learning. The major theoretical point of the constructivist theory of learning is that, individual learners generate their own understanding. Learners construct sets of goals or beliefs about a selection of natural phenomena in the effort to make sense of their every day experiences. These values derive from prior learning and previous experiences. From your constructivist view, knowledge learning means a change in ideas alternatively than taking in a new idea as another, isolated entity. Whenever a learner gets information, he attempts to understand it by fitting it into his existing cognitive framework. . (Josefina L. Pabellon, NISMED, 2002)
WBL or Complete Brain Literacy is an method of learning suggested by Rizalina Tayko and Corazon Letz, which they referred to it as the 3rd literacy. It is due to the studies of Dudley Lynch about how the mind works. They described WBL, that they also called, "Plus Competency", as a reader/learner's ability to utilize the faculty of entire brain working in control information. The brain has its parts and specialised functions. Once the four quadrants of the mind connect, interrelate and interact, the mind is its functional best. (Perla Rizalina M. Tayko, et. al, 2005).
How will WBL exactly work to improve the competency of professors? How would the approach increase the competency of the learners? WBL explores and expands pondering learning process by using the four quadrants of the mind in every step of teaching and learning process. The goals, the types and degrees of activities of the lesson, the types and levels of evaluation and at the end of the lesson- all these must encompass the four performing parts so that learners would be concern to use their entire brain faculty.
The envisioned alternative learning in the Revised Basic Education Curriculum of the Team of Education, says Tayko in her book, "Learning to Read, Reading to Learn", can be facilitated using the WBL strategy.