Posted at 12.25.2018
Several theories explained adolescent's development behaviours such as psychosexual development stage of Sigmund Freud, psychosocial development stage of Erik Erikson, developmental process theory of Robert Harvighurst, and cognitive development of Jean Piaget.
Psychosexual development levels were developed by Sigmund Freud (Salkind, 2004). Freud's theory assumed that these stages appear universally, for many children all over the place. Psychosexual stages consisted of five phases:
1) The dental stage continues from beginning to 18 months. The target of pleasure is the mouth (mouth, mouth, tongue, gums). Sucking, eating, communicating and biting are favorite activities.
2) The anal level lasts from 1. 5 years to 3 or 4 yrs. old. The
Focus pleasure is the anus. The function here is successful bathroom training.
3) The phallic level will last from three are four to five, six or seven years old. The focus of pleasure is the genitalia. The major function of this level is the healthy development of intimate interest, which is achieved through masturbation and unconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex.
4) The latent level commenced around 7 to puberty around 12 years. During this stage, Freud assumed that the intimate impulse was suppressed in the service of learning. This level is thought to be a period of reserve in preparation for the chaotic and requiring genital level, which follow.
5) The genital level commences at puberty, and presents the resurgence of the libido in adolescence, and the greater specific concentrating of pleasure in sexual activity.
According to Erickson, individual life progresses through a series of eight stages. Each one of these stages is designated by a crisis that should be resolved so that the individual can proceed (Dacey & Travers, 2004; Muuss, 1996). Erickson's eight psychosocial phases consisted of:
1) Basic trust versus mistrust (beginning to the age groups of 18 months). Newborns should develop a sense of basic trust. It is the first essential for later expanding self-confidence, optimism, and a sense of security. If they lack of trust, they could find manifestation in assertions of self-debasement and could impair "capacity to feel equivalent" with others during adolescence.
2) Autonomy versus shame and question (between the ages of 18 months and 3 years old). Children develop motor ability and commence to gain control over their bodies. The children can develop a feeling of mastery for a job well done and a feeling of autonomy of choice in regard to toilet training. The autonomy is one of the fundamental ingredients for the introduction of identity. Shame and self-doubt resulted from way too many restrictions, unfair abuse, and the parents' failure to handle the budding. Children could become so self-conscious and lacking in autonomy. They might be unable to form a proper identity.
3) Effort versus guilt (3 to 6 yrs. old). Building on the ability to control themselves, children now acquire some effect over others in the family and start o successfully manipulate their surroundings. Along the way of developing initiative, goal setting emerges and activities become significantly guided by a purpose. Children will also explore and change their own physiques as well as those of friends because they may have curiosity about making love organs. Sociable criticism and punishment may foster the development of guilt feelings in regard to erotic exploration. The intimate self-image and differentiation between masculine-making and feminine-catching effort become important prerequisites for the erotic identity problems during adolescence. If parents restrain, withstand, and punish the recently developing initiative too much, the result may be a more everlasting immobilization by guilt, inhibition by dread, role inhibition, role fixation, and over-dependence on parents. The negative end result would contribute to emergence of personal information diffusion in adolescence.
4) Industry versus inferiority (6 to 11 years old). This is actually the amount of learning and mastering the more basic skills need in contemporary society. The children learn to win approval, acceptance, and a sense of success by producing things and doing a job well. The free play of the sooner period now becomes subordinated to rules and regulations and more organised activities. If the sense of industry is set up successfully, the kids will develop a sense of duty, a feeling for craftsmanship and work involvement, and an frame of mind of attempting to prosper that is dependant on industriousness and desire to have success. If indeed they fail in the task, they have a lack of industriousness and a sense of effectiveness.
5) Individuality versus identity confusion (12 to 18 years old). The primary task of the adolescent is to achieve a stage of identity. The adolescent starts to select, specify a job and prepares to handle the chosen position. Erickson feels that several cultural and behavioral problems children encounter, for case, drug abuse, suicide attempts, eating disorder and teenage pregnancy, can be viewed as reflecting earlier problems with mistrust, pity and doubt, guilt, and/or inferiority thoughts. The successful way of coping with the problems of adolescence, for example, academic mastery, going out with, individuation, renegotiating interactions with parents, build on previous experiences of trust, autonomy, effort, and industriousness. If adolescents are unsuccessful in the seek out an identity, they'll experience self-doubt, role diffusion, and role confusion. They will continue being morbidly preoccupied with the view of others or may turn to drugs or alcohols in order to relieve the stress that role diffusion creates.
6) Intimacy versus isolation (18 to 35 years old). The average person faces new goals and tasks that directly require other people, and during this period the average person is expected not and then develop and meet profession goals, but also to get started the developmental procedure for forming intimate romantic relationships with others. The intimacy includes erotic intimacy, genuine friendship, secure love, and long lasting marriage. If intimacy is not predicated on a permanent individuality, divorce and separation may result.
7) Generativity versus stagnation (35 to 65 years of age). On this level many people become mentors to youthful individuals, writing their knowledge and philosophy of life. Marriage, having a baby to children and guiding their growth are such creative, productive activities. If failure should occur at this time, there would be no further development. The individual becomes egotistical, self-absorbed, and self-indulgent.
8) Integrity versus despair (65 years of age and older). Ego integrity is based on self-discipline and brings about the wisdom that can provide later years its positive quality. Adults who have a sense of integrity accept their lives as having been well put in. They feel a kinship with people of other ethnicities and of earlier and future generations. The negative results is bafflement, helplessness, and a feeling that one's life was squandered of being done.
Both the latent stage of Freud's theory and the industry versus inferiority of Erikson's theory are essential durations for children because they're forming their personal information. In those levels, children are learning about sex roles and sexuality that are significant personal information issues because reproductively mature sex drive emerges during puberty and makes sexuality an identification issue. Additionally, children are developing in physical form. The researcher thought that both levels are a proper time to teach adolescents to understand their erotic role and make themselves for the next phase as a teenager. Therefore, adolescent young boys 10-13 years of age were selected to take part in the prevention program.