Our anthology of Renaissance poetry focuses on the Elizabethan period and in particular the sonnet as a genre. Furthermore, we have focused on the theme of love as a dominant development through the sonnets of this time as it'll give a familiar yet central introduction to the Renaissance period for first calendar year college students. Under the guidelines of the theme of the love sonnet we've chosen to focus on love as an instrument for courtship, the poet's attempt to immortalise his much loved through verse, love conquering depression and the hyperlink between love, gender and sexuality which is clear in the Renaissance period. Using sonnets from Shakespeare, Sidney, Donne and Spenser, we aim to provide a clear rationale as to the reasons the love sonnet actually was representative of the Elizabethan era and of the British Literary Renaissance over a broader scale.
Along with the progression of Renaissance Italian poetry emerged the intro of the love sonnet, a genre which developed through the British Literary Renaissance from Sidney's time and reached its peak with Shakespeare. "You will discover periods in the history of any literature when what poets need most is a formal convention that will enable them to review the demands of the medium quite objectively, with a craftsman's vision, preventing them from merely splashing about in a dialect that is not tempered to meet up with the precise curve of the meaning. The sonnet form fulfilled this dependence on English poets in the sixteenth century". (Daiches, 1960, 150) Even though the British Literary Renaissance developed further following the Elizabethan period, we feel that the sonnet is representative of Renaissance.
The sonnet as a genre presents the development in the ethnical in Elizabethan time spanning from which range from Sidney to Shakespeare. Sir Philip Sidney first introduces the sonnet to Elizabethan Great britain, demonstrating a rigid adherence to the Petrarchan sonnet, both in form and content. This can be seen in the use of unrequited love in Sidney's collection of sonnets Astrophil and Stella carrying on to the later periods of the Elizabethan era with Shakespeare and his interpretation of the sonnet, the Shakespearean sonnet. The difference mainly revolves around the poet's ideas of love and exactly how it should be defined. In Shakespeare's Sonnet 130, the poet symbolizes the move from traditional views of the definition of idyllic love, where beauty is identified by way of a woman's perfect outward beauty. "My mistress' eye are nothing beats sunlight; Coral is far more red than her lip area' red; If snow be white, why her breasts are dun" which is within direct turmoil with the unrequited love or chivalric love provided in the earlier Sidney sonnets. In this way it can be argued that Shakespeare symbolizes the development of the sonnet within the course of the Elizabethan period and as such gives a great introductory insight into how love was cured in the Renaissance all together.
Similarly, although Spenser's Sonnet 54 will not flatter the thing of his passion in the most common Renaissance manner, it is clear his love is for the girl is strong. A typical use of Elizabethan love sonnets is really as a courting mechanism for the poet; a tool for which they can woo his beloved. While Sonnet 54 is unflattering on a surface level, Spenser attaches with the thing of his devotion over a deeper level, a way which might have made a more powerful impression on her.
Another aspect of Elizabethan love sonnets is the poet's try to immortalise his beloved's beauty and the love he had for the topic through verse. Edmund Spenser's Sonnet 75 and Sonnet 79 are perfect types of this. Sonnet 75 has a reflective, pensive tone as although it celebrates the wonder of his fan, it laments the transience of the human being condition, something is quality of Renaissance poetry. Likewise, Sonnet 79 is a party of the poet's much loved, but unlike Sonnet 75, Spenser desires to immortalise her inner beauty. We noticed that this was important as it is not representative of Elizabethan poetry, yet demonstrates the poets have the capacity to delve deeper than the special event of physical beauty.
Often we have been presented with a graphic of the Elizabethan poet in a transitory talk about of depression which he understands will dissipate with time because his better half in the end makes him the happiest nowadays. Sonnet 34 by Spenser likens the poet to a ship lost at sea during a storm at the most detrimental of times. "The Amoretti explains the development of the poet's love, moving from lust, the desire for ownership of the favorite, to charity, the "experience of the Not-self. " The type of the lady in the collection is static because her virtue is ideal right from the start. " (Benson, 1972, 185)
"In an interval where gender personality is so important, where being truly a man (or girl) has such profound meanings, and where these roles were heavily mentioned, it appears improbable that there is not a sense of sexual consciousness. " (Hattaway, 2000, 685) This improbability is confirmed by the love sonnets of William Shakespeare.
Shakespeare sonnets can be split into three different areas. Sonnets 1 - 126 are thought to own been dealt with to a young guy, whom in Shakespeare's eye has remarkable physical and intellectual attributes.
Although requited love was a theme of Elizabethan love poetry, many poems have been focused on unrequited love. Sonnet 30 from Spenser's Amoretti explains the struggle of a poet who courts a woman who's not deeply in love with him. Making use of the familiar metaphor of fireplace and ice and exactly how they are really incompatible, he describes his heated fire-like affection and longing for the girl but cannot understand her frosty, detached and ice-like distance from him. Spenser's incredulousness at how his courtship did not melt her frigid heart and soul is significant as it gives a modern audience an understanding into Elizabethan love all together; women acquired more effect over who could court them than is identified in modern culture. "Obviously enough, if we browse the woman of the Amoretti as a type of Beatrice, all the sonnets which stress her noticeable cruelty are in fact fitting expressions of the appro-priate and necessary result of perfection to imperfection. " (Benson, 1972, 186) With this same way, Sidney's Sonnet 31 from Astrophil and Stella portrays exasperation using its subject on her behalf lack of passionate interest. Acquired Stella taken notice of Astrophil by reading his sonnets focused on her, she would have realised the depth of his love for her and in anticipated course delivered it.
Furthermore, this poem provides us an excellent exemplory case of chivalric love and courtship that is typical of the Elizabethan time. "Physical union by themselves did not lead to this "new form" in the same way lust didn't lead to virtuous love. Only from the latter-a love that was regular and true arrived the union of souls towards which the love of logical creatures was likely to strive. " (Cirillo, 1969, 84)
Cirillo, A. C. , The Good Hermaphrodite: Love-Union in the Poetry of Donne and Spenser, 1969