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A Research On Computer Aided Design

Before the 1070s, nearly every drawing produced in the world done with pencil or ink on paper. Minor changes require erasing and redrawing while major changes often intended recreating the drawing from the scuff. An alteration in a pulling will affect the other documents and all of these changes and acceptance are done manually which is time consuming (iBM. com, 2003). The release of Computer Aided Design (CAD) then makes a change in the form of producing design.

CAD is a software program which uses the computer technology in the process of design and design-documentation. Essentially, CAD software is utilized to create curves and results in two-dimensional (2D) space, curves, floors and solids in three-dimensional (3D) items. CAD software allows the user to produce better streamlining design, drafting, and paperwork and facilitate developing process. It provides output in the form of electronic data and allows the users to get printing duplicate.

CAD software is often used in construction, making and other sectors because it may bring market to the operations by providing convenience in conveying information in technical and engineering drawings. Examples of information which may be conveyed are materials, functions, measurements and tolerance. The program really helps to produce drafting and design for all sorts of properties such as home houses, private hospitals and factories. Besides, the software is also used throughout the executive process to produce conceptual design and design for the products and explain the durability and dynamic research of developing components.

There are extensive CAD software suppliers such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, Pro-E Wildfire, Catia and many.


There are many essential synonymous terms in CAD software. It really is sometimes translated as 'computer-assisted', 'computer-aided drafting', or an identical term. CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting) and CAM (Computer Aided Making) are other related acronyms. Many of these terms have understated differences in so this means and each is utilized for different goal.


Dr Patrick J. Hanratty developed the first commercial numerical-control encoding system in the entire year 1957. He previously greatly contributed to the field of CAD design and creation and he was known as 'the Dad of CAD'.

In time 1960, Ivan Sutherland produced a project called SKETCHPAD as the first step to CAD industry. SKETCHPAD allowed the custom to interact with computer graphically where the design can be fed into the computer by using a light pen to attract on a keep an eye on. Thus, so that it is as an indispensable feature of modern CAD software.

The first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the motor vehicle and aerospace industries as well as in consumer electronics. This was scheduled to only large corporations could spend the money for computers with the capacity of performing the computations. In year 1964, Dr Patrick J. Hanratty experienced utilised Design Augmented by Computer (DAC-1) in his company tasks. In year 1971, UNISURF was developed by Pierre Bezier at Renault. It was a pioneering surface CAD system for car body design and tooling. The founding of Making and Consulting Services Inc. (MSC) in yr 1971 by Dr Patrick J. Hanratty improved the introduction of CAD. Then supplied the codes to numerous companies such as Control Data, Autotrol, Garber, Calma and many.

The software of CAD extended steadily when computer became affordable. The development of CAD software for personal desktop computers was the momentum for almost universal application in all areas of engineering.

Key details in the 1960s and 1970s such as IBM, Intergraph and Intergraph IGDS became the foundation of CAD systems. Since then, the execution of CAD had evolved greatly. 2D visual was design with CAD software primarily in the 1970s and limited to producing drawings comparable to hand-drafted drawings. Variety applications of CAD were allowed when coding and computers became advanced.

In yr 1982, Autodesk was founded by John Walker which in turn led to the 2D system AutoCAD. In calendar year 1988, Pro/Engineer premiered and required higher usages of feature structured modelling methods. The introduction of graphics machines ShapeData and ACIS by the end of the 1980s motivated by the work of Ian Braid. The ideas then resulted in the discharge of SolidWorks in calendar year 1995 and SolidEdge in yr 1996.

Today, in 21st century, there are numerous CAD software products in the market. The famous CAD software companies are Autodesk, PTC, UGS Corp and many. Generally, the deal of CAD software can be classified into 3 types, there are 2D drafting systems, mid-range 3D sturdy feature modellers and high-end 3D cross types systems.


In Malaysia, CAD software has been on the sell since the 1980s. In the mid 1990s, the applications of complex CAD tools with 3D modelling and coloured graphics enhancements acquired become more common. Since that time, the usage of CAD has impacted the professional practice, education and the research associated with structures tremendously.

In today's time, CAD software including CAM is now widely accepted and used throughout the industry. The technology goes from costly workstations to off-the-shelf pcs. 3D modelling has become a norm and it can be found even in applications for the wider industry such as house furnishing and garden planning.

As the consumption of CAD has become part and parcel of the daily jogging of architecture companies, higher-learning organizations such as universities and colleges have produced great work in preparing the built environment market with workforce that is equipped with the fundamental skills and capability to operate CAD.


CAD is utilized to create, develop and boost products, which may be goods employed by end consumers or intermediate goods found in other products. For example, buildings, mechanical and executive tools, vehicle and transportation and a great many other product designs.

In the field of engineering, CAD allows design and drafting of tools and machinery which are being used in the produce components. Besides, complete executive of 3D models and 2D drawings of physical components can be made easily by applying CAD.

In the field of creating architecture, CAD has reduced the necessity for manual drawing. CAD really helps to make all particulars of an building such as floor strategies, parts, elevations, perspectives views and model renderings in a shorter time. The software allows drafting and design of most types of properties.

Besides designing, growing and optimizing products in building and engineering, CAD is also used for business goal including the followings:

Testing on Conceptual Products

CAD eliminates the need to test all of the product design literally. Instead of conducting physically screening, the designers can run online lab tests using CAD which can simulate the same condition. The use of virtual checks is often adopted in the aeronautical company which its screening can be ruinously time consuming and expensive.

Idea Generation

CAD allows versatile process of idea technology when the limiting factor of prototype make is removed. The businesses, both employees and potential prospects face more open and new ideas and ideas. The suggestions for new products then can be examined quickly better value.


CAD allows small improvement on new product designs instantly. It really is useful in looking into possible improvements to existing products.

Market Testing

CAD allows earlier procedure for market testing because virtual services can be shown more quickly than physical prototypes and opinions can be acquired instantly.

CAD can be applied in the field of medical to control medical images such as digital x-ray image (DICOM). The application of CAD in the presentation of medical images continues to be new in comparison to CAD widely used in the areas that entail with creating of the processing industry products and engineering field.


CAD is one of the numerous tools most used by designers and designers.

3D Wire Shape is an extension of 2D drafting. Fundamentally, it possesses similar fashion to the 2D system. Its final product doesn't have mass properties. Besides, there is absolutely no feature directly put into it such as holes.

3D Dumb Solids possesses similar fashion to just how of creating the real world thing. This technology has been incorporate into programs such as AutoCAD and Cadkey 19. The principal provides draft views which can be easily produced from the models. However, the changes can only just be achieved by deleting the thing or feature and start over. Besides, its assemblies do not include tools which allow action.

3D Parametric solid modeliling allows the operator to utilize what is referred to as 'design intention'. Any future changes to the design will depend on the original part. It may be simple, difficult or practically impossible. This technology has been include into programs such as Alibre Design, TopSolid, SolidWorks and Sturdy Edge.


According to Duan (2006) review, CAD and design anatomist users require 7 categories of skills and knowledge as the followings:

General knowledge and skills

English writing and speaking


Critical thinking

Problem solving

Mathematics and research skills.

Interpersonal skills

Basic drafting knowledge and skills

Basic drafting

Descriptive geometry

Technical standards

Coordinate systems

Multiview drawings

Isometric drawings

Geometric dimensioning and tolerance

Basic mechanical drafting

Basic architectural drafting

Basic civil drafting

Computer knowledge and skills

Computer fundamentals

Computer file management

Word processing

Computer software


Basic software of internet

Basic programming

CAD knowledge and skills

Major CAD software

CAD 2D drawings

CAD 3D modelling

Basic CAD LISP Programming

CAD design project

Custimization of CAD program

Basic engineering evaluation and specialized knowledge and skills

Special knowledge and skills

Design software and practices

Special assignments in the field

Marketing and sales

Basic knowledge of laws

Troubleshooting skills


Leadership skills


CAD software offers several advantages which appeals to many industry players. In essence, it provides benefits which in turn can result in time and cost saving. Both cost and time cutting down are essential especially in the world of business because in the view of commercial man, time is money.

First of all, the software is becoming an important technology in guaranteeing lower product development costs. Prior to the 1070s, almost every drawing stated in the world done with pencil or ink in some recoverable format and any change requires erasing and redrawing that will produce waste products. CAD software allows the designers to build up their work on display and allows future editing. Thus, it brings benefits in cost saving rather than redrawing credited to small changes. Besides, the software also ensures brief design pattern as it eliminates the must redraw when modest changes happen, it brings benefits with time saving.

Both cost and time conserving in product development can even be achieved by getting rid of the necessity to test all of the product design literally. Instead of doing physically evaluating, the builders can run virtual tests using CAD which can simulate the same condition. The application of virtual checks is often implemented in the aeronautical company which its trials can be ruinously frustrating and expensive.

Cost saving may be accomplished by reducing the amount of designers. By using CAD, the professional designers can do the making work faster and eliminate the need of additional designers. Besides, cost saving also takes place when CAD software offers better and standardised drawings which then facilitate better marketing communications.

Moreover, CAD allows quickly and easy design alteration which also lead to faster product development. Faster product development then will lead to upsurge in productivity of the custom made. The software allows understanding about how the actual product functions by giving animation to the product so that immediately improvements can be made if required. CAD software helps the custom in synthesizing, analysing and documenting the design. Thus, the efficiency of the artist can be improved upon due to fast developing, low designing cost and shorter conclusion times.

In addition, saving with time and cost does not affect the grade of the design. Actually, CAD can enhance the design quality because large numbers of tools is offered by the software which assists inspection and evaluation of the suggested design. Beside, CAD offers greater correctness and mistakes are reduced to provide a much better design. This better design can help carry out faster production and reduce wastage scheduled to faulty design.


Although almost all of the users understand on advantages helped bring by CAD, in the mean time, it includes several disadvantages that the engineer or entrepreneur must understand. These advantages may have an effect on the strategy that getting a product on the market.

The software of CAD software requires training on the list of users. This will then costs additional money in the personnel training.

Besides, its program requires expensive start up costs including hardware, software and training. Computer technology found in CAD is expensive to implement and support the program. Besides, the technology is not continuous as new hardware and software packages constantly come on the market and therefore, the users need to maintain with these changes for compatibility reasons.

Risk of technology failure must be taken under consideration when implementing CAD as computer used may breakdown. It then influences the progress of product development which is not favoured in a demanding production schedule. The chance is highest when the business depends on assembly-line framework as inability will have an impact on all things of production rather than an isolated development area. Besides, when there breakdown in computer, all the data preserved including CAD backup will be lost.


Before the 1070s, all the design and drawings are produced manually which is time consuming. Thus, the advantages of Computer Aided Design (CAD) has made a change in the form of producing design.

CAD is a software program which uses the computer technology along the way of design to create two-dimensional (2D) space, curves, floors and solids in three-dimensional (3D) things. It is often used in development, making and other sectors such as the engineering process to create conceptual design and design for the products and explain the durability and dynamic examination of manufacturing components.

CAD brings benefits to the users, in the mean time, it also brings limitation or down side. In essence, cost and time cutting down are the key advantages as design and drawings can be produced faster than manually. However, when there's a technology failure especially computer, it will affect the development brand and cause dalay.

Therefore, wise decision must be produced when adopting CAD in product development and it must consider of factors such as time and cost of the technology copy as well as the knowledge available.

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