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A Pestel Research On Tour Providers Tourism Essay

With the following information I have been asked to examine

You are a recognised Head to Operator offering worldwide, long haul programmes that feature Africa, The Caribbean, Dubai, CHINA AND TAIWAN and THE UNITED STATES. Each programme runs on the variety of ways of transportation,

With air being the rule method. You also use local rail and ferry relationships and coaches are used extensively for both touring and exchanges. It is an accepted undeniable fact that major crashes and incidents may appear during the procedure of a programme.

Task 1

Describe the major accidents and incidents which could take place throughout the length of the program described above.

Task 2

Produce a detailed and systematic Crisis Plan that can be put into action to cope with any major automobile accident and/or crisis.


You should produce one generic plan that is with the capacity of being implemented for any situations. Usually do not produce separate ideas for each of the incidents and incidents recognized in Activity 1 above.

Your plan must be comprehensive you need to include contact and staffingrequirements, in addition to the actual course of action.

Table of Details Webpage no.

Introduction. , 04

Porter's Five Pushes Model. . , 05

Selecting an Organization. , 08

Application of Porter's Five Causes Model to a determined business. , 08

Additional theories which develop Porter's idea. , 11

Conclusion. , 17

References. , 18



According to the planet Tourism Organization Travel and leisure can define as "THE ACTIONS of persons travelling to and residing in places outside their standard environment for only one consecutive yr for leisure, business and other purposes"

Tourism is "the non permanent movement of individuals to destinations outside their normal workplaces and residence, the activities undertaken throughout their stay static in those vacation spots, and the facilities created to focus on their needs" (Mathieson & Wall, 1982, p. 1)

Tourism has not been defined universally because it is hard to establish if tourism is

an industry and what factors make a person visiting a visitor. "All tourism involves

travel, yet not all travel is tourism" (Mill & Morrison, 2002, p. 1). What this says that

you need to go anywhere to be a visitor yet you can go somewhere and not be a tourist,

simply at family. Travel refers to the function of moving outside of ones usual

environment for business or pleasure

Tourism industry can split into 3 main categories. These categories are depending on kind of the travel.

Domestic tourism

When People travel within their own country come under this section

Incoming or inbound tourism

When people joining the country in question from the home country, this is a type of international tourism

Outbound tourism

When people travel from their home country

As we talked about earlier there are a few main requirements that a traveler looks for when travelling takes place. A few of them are


-Travelling Assistant

-Information Assistant

In order to assist with the travel arrangements, special travel services providers will come in to action. They are really called tour operators, a travel operator typically combines tour and travel components to create a holiday package for a individual or for group of people.

Sometimes there is confusion in the difference in functions of head to operators and travel agents. Tour operators will be the organizers and providers of program holidays. Who makes contracts with hoteliers, airlines and ground carry companies then finally print brochures and advertise the holidays they have assembled.



Cultural Sites

Natural Sites









Transport to/From




OperatorTravel agents give advice, sell and administer the bookings for range of tour providers. As by definition, tour providers design packages, retains the relationship between the other celebrations.


The Package holiday seasons offered may cover an array of destinations, both nationwide and international, and can cover a variety of holidays, such as cruises, adventure, touring, winter and summertime destinations.

Task 1

Describe the major crashes and incidents that could appear throughout the length of the program explained above.

Tourist vacation spot is the most crucial part in a travel package. This can help travel operator to draw in tourist for his or her packages. Following are some of main tourist destinations tour operators use to catch the attention of tourist for his or her tour packages

Activities in head to packages.

Based on the type and the requirement of the consumer travel operator creates a deals. If the travel pacakage is based on adventure tourism it'll mainly consist of activity based travel itinerary. These activities are based on the traveler location they visit. For example tour deal in Africa includes a safari head to, in Dubai shopping and also safaris in deserts etc.

Following are a few of main activities that use in a tour package deal. These activities can be change by demand of travel group. And also it is tour providers responsibility to set up these activities with safety measures.

Safari tour



Horse riding


Nature walks

Hot air balloon

Helicopter tours

Bridge jumping


Whale watching


Historical Places Visit

Group Happenings in hotel


Cultural event

Boat Riding

Another excursion events

Tourism and Transportation

Transportation is the method using for travel one destination to another. Going is main part of almost any tourism. No tourism take place without considering about travelling. There are four main transport methods used when it comes to visit and tourism, they may be air, street, sea and railway. Most of tour operators used following methods of transportation heavily because of their travel agreements.

Air :- Aviation

This is the most typical method use for travel within the travel and leisure industry. This can be separate in two ways. International and domestic travel. Tour operators understand this service through the travel agents.

Ground:- Coaches and Rail

These will be the two methods travel operators used to travel tourist in the bottom. Most tour providers take care of their own instructors services with well manage personnel. If not they get the service from travel companies. Depend on how big is the group coaches can be assorted.

Railway is principally managed by rail companies. They offer planned service within the home country. Tour operators may reserve seats for vacationer group and utilize this service.

Sea :- Ships, Ferry

This is the transport method greatly used when people travel in this inflatable water. Ships and Ferries provide website link between band of islands, or islands and a more substantial land mass. Tour operators have the service through the sail or ferry providers for their packages.

5. Incidents in tourism

An crash is a particular, unexpected, unconventional and unintended exterior action which occurs in a specific time and place, without clear and deliberate cause but with noticeable effects. It signifies a generally negative end result which might have been prevented or prevented experienced circumstances before the accident been accepted, and applied, prior to its event. (Wikipidea )

As identified above even in tourism there is a huge possibility to take place an accident during the tour programme program. Pursuing are some major crash that can happen in the tourism industry. These mishap can be divided in to several section be based upon the mishap type and location it happens.

Accident Due to Natural phenomena

It's one common proven fact that natural phenomena cause huge accident and damage to tourism industry. For example Tsunami in 2004 Dec results quantity of fatalities in the coastal area including tourist who have there been at that time when it just happened. Following are some of natural phenomena identified about the world







Accident in the Transportation

When tour operators creating deals as explained above they use various method of transportation to visit tourist. Pursuing are some accidents that can tale place while transporting passengers,

Air accidents

Sea accidents

Rail accidents

Road accidents

Accidents anticipated to Activities

As we described in this specific article travelers are taking part various kind of activities in the event. Because of these activities tourist can face to these type of accidents.

Animal Attacks

Pool Accident

Beach accident

Falling down

Overturn Boat


Also there may be certain incedents that a tourist may face with pursuing types of injuries,

Communicable diseases

Food hygiene


Accident created by man

In a vacation spot there can be unexpected attracts or picketing that a tourist might face in to, some of them are

Political Reasons

Incident investigations

Terrorist attacks

Tour operator runs bankruptcy

Common Accident

Apart from all the following accident can happen to anyone including vacationer anytime in anywhere,

Meat with a robbery

Lost in the way

Result of accident

Accident always introduces the bad final result. Following are a few of results can occur due to an accidents in the middle of travel program.

Dead of 1 or even more in a travel group

Injured of one or more in a travel group

Trip Cancellation

Group stuck in a location

Illness of one or even more group members

Delay from a schedule time

Economy issue of group members

Lost baggage.

Task 2

Produce a detailed and systematic Disaster Plan that may be put into action to deal with any major accident and/or emergency.

As illustrate in above damages are unstable and may appear anywhere anytime of the day. Since there are many great risks involved in tourism damages it is often realized there should be proper methods take before those types of occurrences take place. By which will ease the situation and prevent the panic amongst others.

Planning for Accident

It is tour operators responsibility to give safety because of their travelers till the finish of their journey. Using good plan to response for automobile accident can prevent or decrease risk for travelers. In this section we are talking about how exactly to make a common intend to face above mention accidents.

An disaster plan it can be divided in to three main section.

Identifying the primary accident and create a action arrange for those accidents

Give necessary training for the personnel and information to travelers.

Implement the plan and screen the progress

Identifying the primary crash and develop an action plan for those accidents

In this step tour organizations must try to identify and filter down what are the possible mishap that may take place in a destination and exactly how to develop an action arrange for those. Priorities for the action plan can be changed depend on the tourist vacation spot. For example tour operator must give enough measures for crash related to pet attacks, communicable disease or food hygiene on trip in Africa but less in Dubai. Even as design a common plan for all those identified potential happenings we need to bring forward the best option crisis plan that covers almost all of the crashes that can occur in destination.

Following are the key points that require to be considered to complete in this task. The outcome for each point can be evolved in line with the destination.

Point 1:- appoint somebody who can maintain charge when car accident occurs.

Every tour operator must have one or several people in control to manage an event of disaster. Each group or individual must have a sensible person to lead them, in this case basically helpful information may be used to do both guiding, that is part of the service a tour operator provide and within an accident to do something as a trained helper by giving proper previous training to him/her

Point 2 :-appoint an associate or associates from staff to response when car accident occurs

One or more users must be contained in the response team. Each of them must get different jobs, response team must contain following members to aid in case of emergency


This people responsibility is inform the head of the team first and then if necessary to travelers if crisis occurs


This member responsibility is to check equipment, records and other thing are safe and in order.

Fist help support

This an example may be responsible for medical support to travelers in case of emergency.

Tour providers must identify or coach current personnel before members choose team or appointing them to act within an accident

Point 3 :-Information is vital for every emergency plan. There for following information must include in the crisis plan. This info can be improved depending on tour destination.

Emergency assembly sites

When an event of accident travel operator must definitely provide distinct safe site to assemble for the travelers. As an example if the hotel fulfilled with flames put travelers to another hotel.

Evacuation route

Always will need to have a backup route to travel for destination. Then travelers can avoid a place where possible to talk with accidents. To be a example avoid flood areas.

Staff contact details

Every action plan must have contact details of every member in the response team as well as the key numbers of head to operator company staff.

Emergency contact numbers

In this section must have the volumes we can get help from in case of emergency. For example Police, Fire Office, Hospitals

Warning communication receivers

In this section we could keeping a person or an organization where we can get more info regarding happenings of an accident or situation. For example contact details of whether office, local police stop.

Point 4 :- To reduce the impact of a major accident tour operators must provide sufficient equipment to travelers. In this aspect disaster plan list down the equipment needed for a emergency

First help kit

Fire distinguish

Life jackets

When first rung on the ladder is completed head to operator must produce basic plan to meet the accidents. It will list down all the activities and details that they need to be ready for within an event of a major accident. Following stand show a sample of the outcome of first point. Using these details tour operators can minimize or avoid the effect of accident to travelers. This crisis plan must get and communicated well with every head to guide who coordinates the travel group.


Consider Point

Action or Name


Head of accountable Person


Appoint members that can act wise within an accident



First Aid



Emergency set up sites

Evacuation route

Staff contact details

Emergency contact numbers

Warning subject matter receivers



First help kit

Fire distinguish

Life Jackets

Give necessary training for staff and information for travelers\Staff.

Even though tour operator makes a good emergency plan they have to involve both people that face the real situation. Those are staff and travelers. In this step main awareness is how to teach the staff to handle for mishap situation and provide necessary data and assist with the travelers.

Staff Training

When it comes to staff training company must determine what kind of training is necessary. Also company need to decide who, where and when these training to be conducted. Pursuing are a few of the trainings that people of the crisis plan must undertake to act smart and confidently within an emergency.

Basic training

Every staff in the organization must have an idea about emergency technique within the organization. With this training all the staff will be trained about current disaster procedure in the organization. Pursuing are some areas that are need to protect in this training

Information handling

Evacuation practice

Basic first aid training

Specialist training

When selecting staff for the team, like first aid, communication, etc they want separate specialist trained in those domains.

Information to Clients

Before the travel starts head to operator must give information to travelers how to act when an emergency. Pursuing are some important information that can provide to the travelers.

Where is evacuation Places

To whom they need to inform when an emergency, like fire, illness, suspicions work. Also the contact information on staff in charge

Where will be the equipment to use when a meeting of emergency

Apart from that it always good to show these information exactly where possible to see to both staff and travelers. Company may use following solutions to display information


Display Boards

Operation Manual

Implementing and monitoring the plan

After above planning head to operator must put this plan in to practice. Even through action properly right in company create emergency plan, will not entirely imply everything will continue to work without the problems regarding to plan when in real situation. However it will help people in control to apply and memories the items they have to do within an situation all though it always create problems when put these plan into practice. So travel operator must keep an eye on the plan regularly and do the necessary changes to the program. For example if new evacuation point is established those details must revise into the plan or a member of an emergency plan leaves the operator new you need to be appointed accurately.

Anyhow creating an emergency plan that will be ideal for all incidents is similar to a never ending loop. It always goes in a circle. When there is something new or someone new comes in we need to change the program accordingly that mean we cannot create crisis plan once and for all and utilize it, we need to continue adding changes and keep an eye on it constantly to make it correct and effective. By applying this type of method can have a most reliable emergency plan for the operator.

Training/ Information to personnel and client

Implement and Monitoring Plan

Making Emegency

Plan for Accident


Accidents in travel and leisure is never a new or amazing thing to anybody, although crashes are normal in this sector as much other sectors, travel providers must take enough precautions to reduce the impact of the crash as it will destroy the business they are involved and the as the continuing future of the industry, there for it is very essential to identify injuries that may appear during a head to programme and take appropriate steps to reduce these injuries and impact on those to the consumers, one universal way is to plan and put into action crisis plan that addresses the majority of the incidents and happenings that can take place while at a head to. For this, it is very important travel operator provides relevant training to the staff who are in and provide correct information, facilities and support to reduce the impact on a major accident to both consumers and also to the industry itself.

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