In this chapter, I will discuss types, triggers and ramifications of delay of job in the development industry. Besides that, I will also discuss the technique to reduce the delays occurring in construction industry
In engineering industry, there are the types of delays used in determining delay harm as shown in stand 2. 1
Excusable wait as define a delay that is due to an unforeseeable event beyond the contractor's or the subcontractor's control. Usually, based on common general procedures in public firm specifications, delay caused by the following situations would be looked at excusable such as fires, floods, owner-directed changes, problems and omissions in the agreement sketching, unusually severe weather and etc. Excusable delays can be further grouped into excusable with reimbursement and excusable without reimbursement. (Ibnu Abbas Majid, 2006)
Compensation delays are triggered by the dog owner or the owner's agents. A good example of this might be the drawings overdue release from the owner's architect. An excusable, compensable wait normally brings about a schedule expansion and exposes the dog owner to financial problems claimed by the company. In this scenario, the contractor incurs additional indirect charges for both expanded field office and home office overhead and unabsorbed office at home over head. (Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir 2009)
Non-compensable delays are brought on by third functions or incidents beyond the control of both the owner and the service provider. Illustrations typically include functions of God, different weather, hits, fires, acts of federal government in its sovereign capacity, etc. In cases like this, the contractor is generally entitled to declare extension of time but no compensation for delay injuries. (Abdul Hamid Kadir Pakir 2009)
Non-excusable delays are cause by lack of performance of the service provider on the building project. This hold off can be cause by underestimates of output, improper task planning and scheduling, poor site management and supervision, wrong development methods, equipment breakdowns, unreliable subcontractors or suppliers. Therefore, it is contractor responsibilities to continue their work with no entitlement to claim for extension of time or delay problems until they completed the project. For example, a contractor failing to offer an adequate material to completed their job.
Concurrent hold off is issues that occurring on the majority of the development industry project. This problem arises when two or more delaying event at the same time in a project cannot complete promptly. In this example, both owner and service provider are accountable for the delay. Commonly concurrent delays which require any several excusable delays lead to extension of their time. When excusable with payment and non-excusable delays are concurrent, an extension of time can be issued or the wait can be circulation between your owner and the company. Concurrent hold off can be categories in three types of delays:
If excusable and non-excusable delays appear concurrently, the contractor and then allow say for extension of your time:
If excusable with settlement and excusable without settlement delays happen concurrently, the builder is entitle to assert extension of your time but no delay damages:
If two excusable with payment delays arise concurrently, the company is entitled to claim extension of time and delay damage.
For example, a concurrent hold off would be if the dog owner failure to provide more detail regarding either using ceramic tile or homogeneous tile for toilet floor surface finishes. But at the same time contractor made with own decision and using ceramic tile for toilet floor finishes but actually owner plan using homogeneous tile. In this example, the company cannot assert for damages. For the reason that contractor is not follow owner education but he can claim for expansion of energy with owner inability to give more detail of drawing
Bramble and Callahan (1987) have identified that ; " a hold off is the time during which some area of the construction task has been prolonged or not performed due to a unanticipated circumstance. An incident of delay can result from within the contractor's business or from any of the other factors interfacing after construction Task. Some projects are just a few days behind the timetable; some are postponed over a yr. So it is essential to determine the actual causes of delay in order to minimize and prevent the delays in any construction job. Many and various studies were taken to assess the sources of delays in construction projects. "
Assaf et al. , (1995) surveyed "the sources of hold off in large building engineering tasks in Saudi Arabia. The most important causes of hold off project in building industry included approval of delays in repayments to contractors and the producing cash-flow problems during engineering, shop drawings, design changes, issues in work schedules of subcontractors, design problems, labor scarcity and limited labor skills, slow-moving decision making and professional bureaucracy in the owners' organizations. "
Mezher et al. , (1998) conducted a study of "the causes of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon from the viewpoint of owners, companies and architectural/executive firms. It had been found that owners got more concerns in regards to to financial issues; companies regarded contractual connections the most important, while consultants considered project management issues to be the main factors behind delays. "
Ogunlana et al. , (1996) researched "the delays in building projects in Thailand, for example of developing economies. They concluded that the issues of the structure industry in growing economies could be nested in three layers: issue of shortages or inadequacies in industry infrastructure, mainly supply of resources, problems caused by clients and consultants, and problems brought on by incompetence of companies. "
Kumaraswamy et al. , (1998) surveyed "the causes of engineering delays in Hong Kong as seen by clients, contractors and consultants, and reviewed the factors impacting on productivity. The review revealed dissimilarities in perceptions of the comparative need for factors between your three categories, indicative of these experiences, possible prejudices and lack of effective communication. "
Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) conducted a review "to judge the relative importance of 83 potential delay factors in Hong Kong development projects and found five primary factors: poor risk management and guidance, unforeseen site conditions, sluggish decision making, client-initiated versions, and work versions. these basic causes were categorized into the following into eight categories:"
Project-related factors include task characteristics, necessary variations, communication among the various parties, swiftness of decision making concerning all project clubs, and floor conditions;
Client-related factors include those worried about client characteristics, task financing, their versions and requirements, and interim obligations to companies;
Design team-related factors include design team experience, project design difficulty, and errors and delays in (producing) design documents;
Contractor-related factors include builder experience in planning and managing the jobs, site management and supervisions, degree of subcontracting, and their cash-flow;
Materials related factors include shortages, materials changes, procurement encoding, and proportion of off-site prefabrication;
Labor factors related include labor shortages, low skill levels, fragile inspiration, and low productivity;
Plant/Equipment related factors include shortages, low efficiency, breakdowns, and incorrect selection; and
External factors include longing time for endorsement of drawings and test examples of materials and environmental concerns and restrictions.
Abd. Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied "the factors of non-excusable delays that effect contractors' performance. They grouped the main factors behind non excusable delays according to the source of event, and then identified the factor contributing to those causes. The assumption is that the client has more control over the compensable delays and may take action to avoid them. The service provider is likely to have control over the non-excusable delays and, presumably, do more to avoid them. They labeled the factor of factors behind non-excusable delays into twelve
groups: material-related delays; labor-related delays; equipment-related delays; financial-related delays; incorrect planning; lack of control; subcontractor-related delays; poor coordination; inadequate supervision; improper development methods; technical personnel shortages; and poor communication. "
Mansfield et al. , (1994) analyzed "the sources of wait and cost overrun in development projects in Nigeria. The results demonstrated that the main factors are financing and repayment for completed works, poor agreement management, changes in site conditions, lack of material, and poor planning. "
Al-Momani (2000) conducted a quantitative research of "construction delays by analyzing the data of 130 general population building projects created in Jordan during the period of 1990‡1997. The researcher provided regression types of the partnership between actual and planned task duration for different kinds of creating facilities. The evaluation also included the reported frequencies of time extensions for the different factors behind delays. The researcher concluded that the main factors behind delay in development projects relate with designers, customer changes, weather, site conditions, late deliveries, monetary conditions, and increase in quantities. "