Learning is something that has been focused in many different ways, in particular when it involves spanish learning. Of course, a great deal of techniques have been advised throughout history to start this issue. It has always worried linguists and other experts in general. Some may say that, nowadays, we know more about the process of learning because we know more about our brain and how it works. This is partially true, however, from a strictly linguistic viewpoint there are other implications. A learning method or procedure is proved useful so long as one can put into action it successfully. There are a great number of these methods and depending on who will try to apply them, they may work or not. Privately, I have been told some teachers who declare that one method may well not work just as depending on the professor or even on the students(how old they are, personality, etc). So, what you can infer out of this, is that there surely is no perfect or infallible method and this possibly the "perfect" one would be the one which can change itself to its framework of implementation. In my view, flexibility is most likely the primary feature that "perfect" method should have. In this task, I will check out different learning methods and then, try to compare them. The aim of this job is to offer an overall view on some of the primary learning methods and techniques.
Historically, the Grammar-Translation Method commenced in Prussia(Germany) at the end of the 18th hundred years and became popular in the first 19th century. The Grammar-Translation Method, anciently also called the "Classical Method", has been used by language teachers for many years. It is one of the very most traditional coaching methods amongst others. It has been mainly used in neuro-scientific what is called applied linguistics. Originally, it was applied as a coaching approach to both Latin and Greek, also known as "dead" or classical dialects. Diane Larsen-Freeman says in the 2nd chapter of 1 of her books about the Grammar-Translation Method: "(. . . ) this method was used for the purpose of supporting students read and appreciate foreign language literature"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Rules in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). The initial aim of this method was to allow students to read classical texts, convert them, understand the sentence structure and move on to know the affect that the so-called "dead" languages, especially Latin, experienced on the progression of modern Western world European dialects.
Classes are conducted in the indigenous language(sometimes called "vernacular dialect"). Students have to create huge vocabulary lists in both their mother tongue and a classical dialect either Latin or Greek. So, a good example for a Latin lessons would end up like follows: "Truth - veritas". Students make lists writing the word in their mom tongue first and, beside, its equivalent in the target dialect. They learn grammar by reading text messages and by listening to the instructors explanations. By learning sentence structure they learn how to build regular phrases. So, students learn grammar guidelines first and, then, they apply them as it pertains to producing phrases. They complete from isolated words to full sentences, making the school more and more complicated. A good example because of this would be: "Quid est veritas? - What is truth?". The popular and perhaps relatively archaic drill method is herein used as students itemise phrases to memorise new words by repeating them over and over. There is almost no focus on communication, in other words that students do not have to learn how expressing themselves in the vocabulary orally, they just have to have the ability to master the sentence structure and know very well what they read. As this technique was conceived to learn literature, literary dialect provides the most weight. As Diane Larsen-Freeman asserts in the next chapter of one of her works: "Literary terms is superior to spoken terms"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Rules in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press). Another aspect to which this method provides no special importance is pronunciation. The formal or cultured "version" of the terminology prevails in the spoken or familiar one. Students are permitted to correct each other, so if, for example, a student makes a blunder they might be corrected by another one, which makes the course more interactive and participatory in a way. Based on the features and the idiosyncrasy of this method, it is more important to know this is of an individual isolated term than to understand its context.
From the professors point of view, you can say that the Grammar-Translation Method is one of easy and simple or simplest ones to execute. The instructor doesn't need to have a great control of the terminology, she or he just simply needs to be able to train vocabulary through grammar which makes the work less challenging than others.
3. The Direct Method
The Direct Method came out as an alternative to the previous Grammar-Translation Method that was harshly criticised for focusing much on grammar and almost leaving the dental part apart. "Since the Grammar-Translation Method had not been extremely effective in getting ready the students to work with the target terminology communicatively, the Direct Method became popular. "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Concepts in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press).
At first, linguists tried out to conceive a new method or method of teach foreign dialects based on the training procedure for ones mom tongue, thus getting in touch with this technique the "Natural Method" which is like the "predecessor" of the Direct Method. The so-called "Natural Method" has its root base in the 19th century. The German F. Franke and the People from france L. Sauveur, amongst others, were two exceptional supporters of the Natural Method. They said that the procedure of learning a foreign language can be compared with that of learning ones own language. It is not until the end of the 1860s that the method employed by L. Sauveur in his school in Boston is named the "Natural Method". He reinforced the idea of using the next terms without resorting to the first one, hoping to resolve problems through questions and learning, thus, in a spontaneous way. So, if, for example, a student will not know the meaning of a phrase, his educator can try to describe or explain it, always in the target language, so the student eventually ends up by inferring it in some way. Later, in Germany, by the entire year 1884, F. Franke shared a book on which he pointed out the psychological connection between "thing" and "phrase". Matching to Frankes view, if a student does not know, for example, what the word "chair" means in his own vocabulary, the teacher shouldn't tell him or her. He could show her or him a seat and probably the student will know what the instructor is referring to. Mime might be considered a useful resource in certain circumstances as well. This is one way the so-called "Natural Method" became, later, the "Direct Method". "Direct" is the adjective that explains this method best, because it is focused on starting to learn the second language straight, without the earlier theoretical explanations. "In fact, the Direct Method obtains its name from the actual fact that meaning is usually to be conveyed directly in the mark language by using demonstration and visual aids"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Rules in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). The Direct Method began also in Germany and France in the first 20th century, although one of its most important theorists was a Dane called Otto Jespersen. There is absolutely no substantial difference between the Natural Method and the Direct Method, so that it is just a big change of name really. The two of them derive from inductive learning which lets the students more liberty to experience on their own and at the same time it stimulates their logic and their capacity to deduce meanings from objects, gestures, etc.
Unlike the Grammar-Translation Method, the Direct Method targets oral communication, what we'd refer to as the "Speaking" part within an English lesson. So, fundamentally it is aimed at developing oral appearance, inferring grammar guidelines from sentences and, obviously, the use of the target language all the time.
4. The Audio-lingual Method
The Audio-lingual Method was developed within the framework of the Second World Conflict and became really popular in the United States through the 1950s and 1960s. It was originally known as the "Army Method". It has a great deal in common with the Direct Method. Like the Direct Method, it was regarded as a reaction to the deficiencies of the Grammar-Translation Method as well.
The Audio-lingual Method is based upon a theory positioning that vocabulary learning is directly linked to creating habits. It is also deeply affected by structural linguistics suggested by the Swiss Ferdinand de Saussure, as well as with a behaviourist conception of language in the sense that the psychologist B. F. Skinner described and by other American psychologists. Diane Larsen- Freeman mentions this point in the 4th section of 1 of her literature: "Charles Fries(1945) of the University of Michigan led the way in applying principles from structural linguistics in growing the technique"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Ideas in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). Unlike the Grammar-Translation Method, the Audio-lingual Method does not support the thought of using the mother tongue to teach a second dialect. On the one hand, regarding to de Saussures structuralism, vocabulary and individuals culture generally can be analysed semiotically, that is, through signals. You may still find supporters of the approach to language nowadays, such as the well-known Italian professor and copy writer Umberto Eco. On the other hand, behaviourism claims that all human features, including language, can be seen as behaviours. So, it is the combination of these two elements which makes the theoretical or philosophical foundations of the Audio-lingual Method. Additionally, speaking and tuning in take priority over writing and reading. Grammar structures are learned by resorting to the popular drilling method, i. e. , by duplicating constructions and other grammar points again and again. The Audio-lingual Method lays particular emphasis after both pronunciation and grammar. It aims at getting students to pronounce in the most correct way possible. No specific grammar lessons are trained, students learn grammar as they go along. They in essence have to imitate the educator and are compensated if they prosper, thus being reinforced. As for vocabulary, everyday vocabulary can take clear precedence over other lexical areas which are believed as "less" important. The point here's to help students manage in a second language through tuning in and speaking. One could assert that the main priority of the method is to elicit good conversational skills from the students.
So, the Audio-lingual Method appears to be another substitute like, for example, the Direct Method, to prior learning methods or approaches which were thought to be somewhat "defective" in the sense that they did not really cover or deal with some skills of great importance as it pertains to learning a second language.
5. Total Physical Response(TPR)
Total Physical Response, generally known as "TPR", is a way created by Dr. Adam J. Asher, Teacher of Mindset at San Jose College or university in California. It became popular in the 1970s and had certain success. It is based upon the fact that the human brain is able to learn any dialect. Besides, this method focuses a lot on the role of the teacher in the class. A proof that is exactly what Diane Larsen-Freeman says in the 8th chapter of 1 of her works: "On the basis of his research, Asher reasoned that the fastest, least difficult way to attain understanding of any target language is to follow guidelines uttered by the instructor(. . . )"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press).
The way children learn their local language attracted Dr. James J. Ashers attention and used this as a theoretical component for his method. He retained that a child can connect him or herself with the parents by means of gestures even before she or he learns to speak. Equally as other methods that people have observed before, it is influenced by behaviourist ideas as well. As far as the instructor can be involved, his / her main function is actually to give commands to the students, so that they carry them out. As Dr. James J. Asher himself said: "The teacher is the director of any stage play in which the students are the celebrities". The professor could, for example, tell the students: "Stand up!" or "sit down!" and they would obey his / her command without declaring nothing at all. In this case, the educator would stand up and sit down together with the students. The whole class functions activities like the popular game "Simon says" where one of the players can take the role of "Simon", begins offering instructions and the rest of the players have to handle his or her orders. So, what this Total Physical Response method does is to combine both talk and action and look for activities that require the two of them. Relating to Dr. Wayne J. Ashers view, second terminology learning is really very similar to first vocabulary learning. He advocates for the imitation of the mom tongue learning process when instructing a second dialect. Body language takes on also an important role, since it is about getting "physical replies" without resorting to spoken terminology. Diane Larsen-Freeman asserts in this value also in the 8th chapter of one of her literature: "The teacher helps her students to understand her by using pictures and infrequent words in the students indigenous language and by being as expressive as it can be"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Rules in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press). That is the reason why in this technique being attentive skills are trained before the speaking or dental ones. As regards the goals of the full total Physical Response Method, we find comprehension training before teaching speaking skills and dental demand through action-based drills.
The Total Physical Response Method is yet another strategy to talk about second dialect learning. It really is aimed at imitating native dialect learning and therefore reproducing the process with a spanish. It basically plays a part in comprehension development through some sort of body gestures. It's important to stress the fact that the TPR Method is still nowadays found in language teaching in some countries.
6. Communicative Terminology Teaching(CLT)
Communicative Language Coaching, also called "CLT", aroused in Britain during the 1970s. Any method seen up to now will try to get students expressing themselves in a foreign language. However, this assumption went through an emergency. "In the 1970s, though, educators began to question if indeed they were going about meeting the target in the right way"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Key points in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press). CLT has been often seen as a response to the Audio-lingual Method. It really is grounded after the theories of some British linguists such as J. R. Firth and M. A. K. Halliday and North american sociolinguists like D. Hymes, among others. In addition, this approach highlights the importance of harmonising the reason to be obtained with the means to do this.
The origins of CLT are available in the British teaching traditions that underwent some changes during the 1970s. By that time, there was an approach called "Situational Terminology Teaching"(SLT) that was the leading method of English as a second language. In this process, the primary thing was the acquisition of basic buildings within a framework of diverse activities. However, linguists and terminology experts, in general, started questioning SLT, as they considered dialect had to be approached a lot more in depth than it turned out until then. In addition they claimed that dialect sciences generally had to recover an idea that had always been in force, that is, the one which supports that words can contain interpretation in themselves. Regarding to the, object names would not get arbitrarily, since words would have an intrinsic sense regardless of the subject or thing they could refer to. CLT is profoundly inspired by a functionalist conception of vocabulary. Corresponding to functionalism, terminology changes constantly as change lies in its nature. This approach to language considers that there surely is a "hidden" purpose in words change. The main element point in CLT is, as its name points out, communication, so, any activity including communication should be targeted at learning. As regards the targets of CLT, apart from, definitely, communication, students shall figure out how to use language as a means of expression and as a means of gratifying their own communication needs and getting beliefs and judgements to expression. To be able to achieve that, they have to get a certain competence. This aspect is pointed out as well by Diane Larsen-Freeman in the 9th chapter of one of her works: "Communicative Terminology Teaching is designed broadly to use the theoretical point of view of the Communicative Strategy by making communicative competence the goal of dialect teaching(. . . )"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Rules in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press). Additionally, semantics is dealt with thoroughly, as it is the way students learn grammar, unlike in the Audio-lingual method where they learn grammar through this is of words. CLT emphasises the significance of the good coordination between your instructor and the student. When a tutor decides to work with CLT to provide a class, the most crucial thing is to set-up situations in the school room that imply real communication, so that the students can develop this skill.
CLT is aimed at, even as already said, communication. It really is a good solution to promote communication in order to arouse interest in the study of your foreign language. A very important thing about CLT is that it starts from real-life situations for students to learn rather than creating hypothetical ones. That is clearly a way of setting up the students easier to use the terminology in a real framework.
7. The Silent Way
The Silent Way is a strategy to teach foreign dialects created by the Egyptian educator Dr. Caleb Gattegno in the 1960s, although Gattegno himself said that the "Silent Way" had not been a way. It aroused somehow as a a reaction to the Audio-lingual Method. "Although people performed learn languages through the Audio-lingual Method(and even it continues to be used nowadays), one problem with it was students inability to readily transfer the patterns they had mastered in the class to communicative use outside it. "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). It really is based upon the idea that the trainer should be "silent" in the classroom, thus limiting his or her role. So, she or he should cede the initiative to the students in order for them to practise and find out the language.
The underlying idea to this method is that students gain in autonomy throughout their learning process. By being given more "freedom of action", the students do not be concerned a whole lot about making mistakes and this allows them expressing themselves in a more spontaneous way. Silence is designed for the teacher the best way to intervene less than possible in the school. Dr. Caleb Gattegno put such a particular emphasis upon silence because: "In silence students concentrate on the task to be accomplished and the actual opportinity for its accomplishment"(Richards, J. C. , Rodgers & Theodore S. (2001). Solutions and Methods in Vocabulary Coaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Herein it's important to mention Gattegnos view on learning: "Learning is regarded as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity"(Richards, J. C. , Rodgers & Theodore S. (2001). Techniques and Methods in Terminology Coaching. Cambridge: Cambridge School Press). But, of course, this is a large-scale process where students play a more dynamic role than they used to before, whereas trainers stand a bit aside. Gattegno managed that learning can eventually be in comparison to discovering. This is exactly what is known as "discovery learning". Students do not learn a foreign language in the "old" rigid academic way, but in a far more natural one, just as though they were overseas in the street and needed to be able to connect themselves. For the teachers role, he or she may share him or herself by means of gestures. It is actually very important to the teacher to bear in mind that he or she is no more the centre of attention in the class. He or she is rather some sort of facilitator, as the saying goes these days, when compared to a teacher in the traditional sense. His / her activity is to provide the students with the resources for them to learn, then, the students solve the problems independently which is one of the purposes of this method.
The Silent Way is quite a genuine method. It is the first one we find up to now where the professor has such a "secondary" role. A very important factor that is good about the Silent Way is that, unlike other methods or methods that we have seen, it let us the pupil "emancipate" from the educator in ways providing him a certain freedom to experiment with the language.
Suggestopedia is a teaching method created by Georgi Lozanov, a Bulgarian educator and psychiatrist. The term "Suggestopedia" is a cross of the words "suggestion" and "pedagogy". He based his method on his studies of advice in the later 1970s that he called "Suggestology". So, Suggestopedia is actually about learning through recommendation. Yet, now it is generally referred to as "Desuggestopedia", since it ended up focusing on what's called "desuggestive learning". This type of learning is targeted at "releasing" the college student from his / her own mental obstacles that make him or her think the ability to learn is somehow limited. "The reason for our inefficiency, Lozanov asserts, is that people set up mental health barriers to learning(. . . )"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Ideas in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford School Press).
First of all, we must place Suggestopedia in its historical context. During the 1960s and 1970s lots of both coaching and learning methods commenced to appear and started fighting against each other for the academics "leadership". This took place mainly in neuro-scientific foreign language teaching and Suggestopedia was not an exception to that. Lozanov thought that one of things that any new method should improve was learning speed. So, it should help students and learners in general learn faster. This is what was later on known as "Accelerated Vocabulary Learning". Lozanov himself conducted some tests to see if the mind was able to retain more info than normal and, if so, how a lot more. What he found was that our brain was able to keep a lot more information than experts thought. "According to Lozanov among others, we may be using only five to ten percent of the mental capacity. "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). This insight into the brain and its faculties could be employed to the field of foreign language teaching. That is certainly just what Georgi Lozanov do. Students achieved better learning results by applying this method. They retained more vocabulary, more grammar, etc. So, this is also a way of making the the majority of the pupils mental probable. It may appear that method is associated with hypnosis, however, it is not. It is not about manipulating the pupils head, but optimising it. Another a key point in Suggestopedia is exactly what we're able to call "freedom". But, what does this "freedom" make reference to? It is due to the students and their thoughts. The teacher plays a liberating role here. She or he should create such an atmosphere that the student does not believe that he or she learns because she or he must, but because he or she wants to take action.
Suggestopedia may have something in keeping with the Silent Way, especially so far as the role of the teacher is concerned. The teacher will not play such an energetic or participatory role as in other methods. Both of them, the Silent Way and Suggestopedia, provide a certain degree of freedom to the students which is good up to a point, since they have the opportunity to experiment independently.
9. Community Language Learning(CLL)
Community Language Learning(CLL) is an approach produced by Charles A. Curran, a Jesuit priest and teacher of mindset at Loyola University or college in Chicago. "It takes its key points from the greater general Counseling-Learning methodology produced by Charles A. Curran"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Rules in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press). It is noticeably affected by Carl Rogers humanistic psychology. The roots of Community Words Learning date back again to the 1970s. The basis of this strategy is a fresh pattern of romance between the teacher and the pupil. It is made to coordinate the tasks of both tutor and student. It also allows the students to really have the opportunity to learn whatever they need in the mark language. There is not so much guidance on the trainers part.
In compliance with this process, one of the main goals on the learners part is the immersion in to the foreign vocabularys sound system which is undoubtedly "basic" to get a certain instinct in that language, much like that of native speakers. The instructor plays a markedly advisory role, they're a passive "character" in the course. In CLL, the professor changes his or her name, he or she is called "knower" instead of "teacher". So, the relationship between the so-called "knower" and the university student may seem somewhat "commercial", as though it were the case of a salesman and his customer. Even the way the educator perceives the student changes, as Diane Larsen-Freeman says: "CLL advises educators to consider their students as "whole entire persons""(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Key points in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press). The educator somehow places him or herself in the students position to connect with their thoughts. So, it isn't about forcing anything, the students may release their anxieties about learning a language which is new on their behalf. In this "releasing" process the so-called "knower" acts as sort of "language counselor" in what of Diane Larsen-Freeman herself(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Guidelines in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford University or college Press). And as such, she or he just attempts to help the college student learn the words by solving questions and intervening only when necessary. In regards to goals in CLL, we're able to mention fluency, the capability to solve dialect problems without the tutors help and the training of conversational skills. Since students are allowed to talk to the other person in the class, they have the possibility to put all of this into practice.
CLL, as some strategies seen before, allows the students a certain flexibility to make errors and to perfect themselves. They can ask the educator for help at any time if indeed they need to. In CLL, the professor is no more such, at least in the classic sense. CLL could also be called "Constructive Learning Approach" because that is, in short, what it is targeted at.
10. Content-based, Task-based and Participatory Approaches
Content-based, Task-based and Participatory Approaches is a variety of ways to address both foreign language teaching and learning. Corresponding to Diane Larsen-Freeman, this variety of approaches "make communication central"(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Key points in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford School Press). Quite simply, the key goal in all of these is to elicit a good communication from the students. They learn the mark dialect through communication. Naturally, in addition to the similarities that one can find between them, these solutions are different to a certain extent, as we will see now.
Content-based instructions is not something recent. Actually, it has been on the rise for a long time. That is due to the fact that depending on students foreign language needs, he or she may choose to learn confirmed register or another one. Diane Larsen-Freeman refers to this aspect in the 10th section of 1 of her catalogs: "(. . . )this content of a language course for flight pilots is different in one for computer experts. "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). So, therefore, Content-based instructions considers the learners professional record and makes learning depending on it. Through the use of Content-based education, students have the opportunity to learn the target language, along with the subject of the interest. Content prevails over the
language itself. This will not imply, of course, that the terms has no importance, quite contrary, it does. The teacher functions as an intermediary. In the content-based terms course, the very first thing the teacher does indeed, is in order to the students what knowledge they will acquire through the said course.
As for Task-based training, Diane Larsen-Freeman says also in the 10th section of one of her catalogs in this value: "(. . . , a task-based methodology seeks to provide learners with an all natural context for vocabulary use. "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Key points in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford School Press). This is something that Task-based education has in keeping with Content-based instructions. Task-based instruction stresses the value of the connection between learners. They interact by attempting to understand each other, so, they are really somehow forced to do so. They need to be able to understand if they want to communicate themselves. Terminology learning is herein conceived as a problem-solving exercise. As its name already offers, Task-based instructions resorts to the use of "tasks" for learning purposes. This may be a similarity with other solutions dealt with before such as CLT (Communicative Terms Teaching). Students use the mark language to carry out tasks and that is the way they learn.
Finally, as regards the Participatory Procedure, its roots date back to the early 1960s. It arose because of this of Paulo Freires works. The Participatory Procedure, as Content-based teaching, is also content-centred. Content is pertinent as
long as it is pertinent for the learners as well. Nevertheless, the kind of content differs. In this respect, Diane Larsen-Freeman asserts again in the 10th section of one of her literature: "What is strikingly different though is the type of
the content. It is not this content of subject matter texts, but rather content that is dependant on issues of matter to students. "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Guidelines in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press). Paulo Freires thought process in this esteem is characterised with a certain "humanistic" touch. He considered it more important to increase the lives of learners than to immediate teaching for the command of a specific vocabulary content. So, at the same time, learning is a way for students to reflect on their lives. For the targets of the Participatory Methodology, the main goal is, as Diane Larsen-Freeman identifies in the 10th chapter of one of her literature: "(. . . ) to help students to understand the communal, historical, or social forces that affects their lives(, . . . ) to do this and make decisions in order to gain control over their lives(Wallerstein 1983). "(Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Ideas in Language Coaching. Oxford: Oxford College or university Press).
The three approaches, Content-based instruction, Task-based instructions and the Participatory Approach, are aimed at a similar thing: Communication. Each of them presents a different way to elicit it from students. Content is one more thing they all have in common no matter its aspect. These methods seek to combine both things in the best way possible.
After writing on several learning methods and assessing them, it's time to sketch some conclusions. I do not want to finish this task by declaring which method is the best or the worst. It is not about that in any way. I would like to finish by expressing my perspective. Each method or approach has given me an understanding into the issue of spanish teaching. Some of them are more focused on the sentence structure part, I find, whereas others will be more "conversation-oriented", let us say. For instance, the Grammar-translation method could be observed today as a fairly out-of-date method since it is just about the most traditional one. Personally, i agree on that view to some extent. In my opinion, the most "practical" an example may be the Immediate Method, it has been implemented in foreign language teaching for many years now. Additionally it is modern in ways because it focuses on speaking, on practising the prospective language and not a lot on grammar. I certainly believe it is by speaking that you learn a foreign language and not even a foreign language however your mom tongue as well, you learn by imitating. So, I am hoping this project supplies the reader an overall view on different learning methods, their progression, their uses and, definitely, the results that one can achieve by putting them into practice.