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A critical evaluation of CRM (Customer Marriage Management)

The era in which marketers have significantly acknowledged the importance of customer's retention has viewed as the progression of related models and strategies. Significantly, customer retention has needed greater emphasis in the company strategies due to the environmental changes and globalization developing in the markets.

The area of relationship market is very important which is main issue during tough competition on the market. Various factors like internet and advanced technology has bring about the attention and awareness among the clients to access a far greater choice of services offer to them. The evaluation of the strategy of Customer Romantic relationship Management is becoming an indispensible area of the organisations in the market management. This area is of great importance in the management strategies as customer are the key factors for the organisations in virtually any field and there is great importance related to the clients as they are the determinants of the success of an organisations and should be managed good relationships with them in order to get competitive advantages in the market. The existing market needs the professionals with all the knowledge to package the customers. For this function there a wide range of researches are going to be on in the relation to this subject, by realising the important of this area in tem market the companies become aware to the facts that how vital is the handling relationships with their customers.

The person cause of adopting the area of research for the dissertation is that nowadays customer are take as 'God' and every single portion of marketing and management is based on the dealing, satisfaction and retention of the customers. Without customers there is no market no management. So that it is mandatory for everybody to have the in-depth understanding of the management and coping of customers. With no the proper research of customer romance within the market is tea without sugars. For the personal reason I have the greater fascination with the dealing with the clients and in order to get the proper knowledge about the management of romantic relationship with them it might be very helpful to understand the type of customers and hoe it could be managed healthy connections with those to make sure they are happy and satisfied.

2. 1 Aim

The aim of this dissertation is to critically measure the strategies of Customer Relationship Management. In addition, it seeks to explore the difference between the ideas of 'Marriage Marketing' and the idea of 'Customer Marriage Marketing'.

3. Preliminary Review of the Literature


A powerful business case and success reviews continue to entice business interest and investment in customer relationship management (CRM). The CRM software market is likely to increase from $7 billion in 2000 to $23 billion in 2005, even though standard wisdom is the fact 30 to 50 present of CRM initiatives fall short of achieving company goals, while another 20 present actually ruin customer connections (AMR Research 2002). A relatively myriad of issues, conditions and circumstances donate to the ultimate success or failing of a CRM effort. Before committing scarce resources in that risky technology development, corporate leadership is dialling for a way of reducing the sphere of doubt encircling CRM. The adoption stage (Rogers, 1995) of any technology based development such as CRM is where decision-making and planning activities are conducted to handle "whether, why, and exactly how" to execute the invention (Markus & Tanis, 2000:189). Developing at job inception, the associated problems or shortcomings of this stage are multiplicative, and can exert a poisonous influence on the ensuing development process. Although decisions made in this phase are critical to the eventual success or failing of a CRM initiative, there's a paucity of research exploring these adoption issues (Markus & Tanis 2000).

2. Business value, complementarity and alignment

When considering a CRM initiative, executives ultimately wish to know the effect on organizational performance - that is, the likely business value of the effort. That is typically assessed via the profits on return (ROI) metric. However, identifying the monetary value of any development, especially one empowered by technology, has posed major challenges to researchers and practitioners for many decades. Recent books on business value advises complementarity as an integral determinant of organizational performance (see Barua and Mukhopadhyay 2000 for an overview). Two activities or factors are complementary if the great things about doing more of 1 increase by doing more of the other (Milgrom and Roberts, 1990).

Organizational alignment is concerned with the level of arrangement between complementary constituent parts (e. g. people, techniques, activities). Position research typically falls into either of two basic sizes: intellectual or interpersonal (Reich and Benbasat, 2000). The intellectual dimensions, also known in the books as strategic position, centers around the alignment of organizational strategy, set ups and planning procedures Here, strategy is the focal point in a way that positive alignment may be accomplished when organizational structures and operations support strategy. On the other hand, the social dimension concerns the position of organizational culture, stakeholder connections and knowledge of one another's work area. In this context, culture is at the nucleus where positive alignment occurs when stakeholders are knowledgeable about each other's domains areas in a way that cooperative relationship (instead of conflictive) occurs within the bounds of the organization's norms and principles. Other related research underscores the importance of alignment between your intellectual and public dimensions. For example, using standard systems theory and chaos theory as the foundation, Semler, 1997) reveals a theory of organized organizational alignment where strategy, structure and culture are complementary. A harmonious arrangement of these aspects breeds an internal environment supportive of the organization's strategy, by eliminating internal obstacles to co-operation and performance. The

theory outlines six areas of alignment (process, prize system, beliefs, norms, performance and environment) that, if in contract, should bring about positive organizational performance. As organizational performance is guided by strategy (Pearce and Robinson 1994), and given that a firm's leaders develop strategy, it

is the market leaders and the roles and processes they suggest that mainly drive position.

3. 1 Intellectual dimension

3. 1. 1 Strategy. An extremely competitive global market places pressure on organizations to lessen costs, while all together differentiating themselves through advancements in customer support to gain income. The underlying premise of CRM is: If a company improves upon how it handles relationships with its customers, the result will be evidenced as a rise in firm output and client satisfaction, leading to better financial performance. However, firms must avoid looking at CRM as the perfect solution is to competitive pressures. CRM is a lot more included - a CRM effort should be conceived of as a corporate and business strategy. The customer-related functions of a firm are at the heart and soul of assumptions regarding client satisfaction, productivity, and the firm's financial performance. Relating to marketing concept, to be successful an organization must aim all of its efforts at satisfying its customers, at a revenue - that is, handling customer needs profitably. Which means that organizations must create, deliver, and speak customer value better than their rivals. Organizations that be successful at such are explained using conditions such as market powered, customer-centric, customer-focused, or customer oriented. Day (1999:5) suggests that such market-driven

organizations are marked by "an excellent ability to understand, get and keep valuable customers, " and he recognizes three specific components of market orientation: (1) an externally focused organizational culture with a give attention to added value; (2) distinctive capacities in market sensing, romance building, and proper thinking; and (3) a settings that enables the complete organization to foresee and respond to changing customer and market conditions (pp. 6-7). Kohli and Jaworski (1990) provide further standards, defining market orientation as the organization-wide era of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments, and responsiveness to it. Pertaining to IT improvements, Kwon and Zmud (1983) find that top management support is an integral, repeating success factor. Management support can be defined as" the common sponsorship of your innovation". Successful execution of an advancement has been found that occurs when top management displays commitment to improve (in our context, the CRM effort) as well as dedication to the (CRM) implementation effort. Support is evidenced through determination of resources such as money and time for education and training of employees, project of key employees throughout the development process, and money to get the technology and support the multiyear implementation work. Kwon and Zmud state that successful IT execution is more likely that occurs when sufficient organizational resources are primarily aimed toward motivating the execution work and then to sustaining it. The books also consistently issues to the importance of a champ of the development effort. To meet the requirements as a champion, a worker must be a higher level, highly respectable individual who actively supports and promotes the development, providing information, material resources, and political support. As an aid to success, it is important that the same champion sees the innovation effort through to completion. In a recent field study, firms undertaking CRM tasks with a passionate high-level champion were doubly likely to survey that their job was doing at least much better than expected (Yu 001). Authority styles are an integral factor when embracing a fresh initiative such as CRM. Nguyen-Huy (2001) discovered four change management control styles, including: commanding; engineering; coaching; socializing; or crossbreed. No one type is inherently superior to another. Much will depend on the styles which may have brought success in the organization's history. Also, successful change leaders have used one style during a short stage, and changed to a different style in a later stage. For instance, a commanding style may be important first of a project, to converse that top management is serious and committed to the change, whereas a far more collaborative style may be effectively used during execution. In the context of CRM, little research

has been done to look at the change management management styles utilized, or even to analyse under what conditions a particular change management command style is likely to be effective.

3. 1. 2 Framework. The innovation literature suggests that a company with a flat, decentralized structure, as opposed to a centralized hierarchical framework, is most probably to support the introduction of ground breaking ideas. However, with regard to employing the innovation, a centralized structure has been proven to be most reliable. In terms of any IT technology, structural factors pertain to the compatibility of the system with the organizational design (e. g. , centralization, decentralization, organic), the expert hierarchy, reporting associations and the like. ERP and CRM efforts revolve around business functions. Effective CRM must incorporate and support the business enterprise processes that induce customer activities. These business procedures span the business, like the customer-facing business functions of marketing, sales, and customer service. However, back-office business processes such as accounting, purchasing, creation, and logistics are also included. The significance of this reasonable integration of customer related knowledge cannot be under-estimated. It poses a significant challenge to organizational readiness.

4. Research Questions

RQ1. What are the critical issues that contain to be reviewed in the client relationship management initiatives?

RQ2. What problems have to be faced through the adoption of CRM initiatives?

RQ3. What's the range of CRM for different kind of organisations?

RQ4. Is Customer Relationship Management is taken as the correct for all those kind of organisations?

4. 1 Research Objectives

As the growing discipline the CRM needs lot of assistance in the theoretical area. The region of customer marriage management is very important for the

To identify the key issues of Customer Romantic relationship Management

To critically analyse the books of the CRM

To take a look at the areas of the client welfare and to keep them for long term

To explore how CRM succeed and fail.

To examine the CRM strategy for the Tesco Plc

To draw conclusion and suggest some advice for the company

Word Guide 200

5. Research Plan / Methodology

Research methodology is mainly put into three parts i. e. research perspective, research design and collection of data. These three phases of technique collectively shaped the clear information about the importance and need of the research methods.

Research Perspective

From the view point of Saunders et al (2003) for the study to be conducted there must be an appropriate selection of research point of view. This dissertation is a case study strategy which is most suited to the topic of CRM on the market. This help examine the study topic comprehensive and provide the required information for the plotting of dissertation. Because of this you can find good chance to learn about the efficiency of the company regarding the implementation of the CRM strategy. The case study approach includes the areas like clarification of topic, data processing, collection of data and the final outcome for the study is presented. Pursuing is given the study strategy chosen for the dissertation to be conducted.

Research design for the research design there is a process given by Saunders (2003) known as the 'Research Onion'. The next figure explains the whole design of the study. For this there are mainly two type of approaches called inductive procedure and deductive procedure.

Inductive approach

This procedure follow the procedure in there is movements from the precise to general for the formulation of the idea of the research. This process is widely wide open and exploratory for the study to be conducted at the first level.

On the other hand deductive approach is usually follow the process of general to specific which is totally opposing to the inductive way. In this process theory is considered at the first step and then goes to the observations. This process is taken as the slim one as there is limitation and binding to the theory chosen.

To conduct the research regarding the dissertation the author went with the inductive methodology because the inductive procedure is adaptable than that of the deductive one and there are more likelihood of exploration of this issue in the inductive way.

Data collection methods

Data collection methods is taken as the very crucial area of the research to be conducted as the whole process and sensation of the research of dissertation is depend on the techniques of data collection used for the purpose to accumulate relevant data so that there may be access to problem of the research. You will discover mainly two types of methods are available for the collection of data these methods are Secondary Data Collection Methods and Major Data Collection Methods.

Secondary data collection methods

Secondary data is that data which can be acquired and already is present. This data is usually prepared to use. This data usually accumulated for other reason for research and is used by the various other sources as this is always free to access and common. The extra data is usually available in varieties of qualitative and quantitative both types of data.

In qualitative data there is no numeric and diagrams and facts and body. This data is very based upon the idea part. That is typically used for the formulation of literature review for the study.

On the contrary there is another form of data i. e. Quantitative: this type of data is by means of numeric and facts and number. The annual studies of the firms and analysis by means of numeric demonstration is comes under this.

Primary data collection methods

Primary data collection methods are those methods in which the researcher itself collects the data to be able to receive the relevant data for the study to conduct. This type of data is mainly by means of qualitative data. The various methods used to collect the primary data are interviews, research, questionnaires etc.

For this dissertation there is use of both type of data i. e. secondary data collection and most important data collection. Both data collection methods are evenly important and researcher can't select alone one for the study. As there is certainly need of in depth and critical examination of the study problem therefore for this there should be both kind of data will be used in the dissertation.

In following stand there is brief outline for the various methods used in the collection of data with the advantages and issues.

Limitations of study

The thing is the fact at this time the topic of the research is not yet consider in detail. Still there are a few constraints that are outlined here.

At first the area where the research will conduct is extensive and it became hard to gather the relevant data for the research through data collection methods.

Secondly there is a huge collection of data regarding this theme and they are available in several software of databases.

At last it is not easy to get relevant and proper data from the medial side of interviewee regarding the research area, and sometime these interviews are biased.

6. Ethical Considerations

As this issue of research relates to the customer romantic relationship management the main ethical issue for this is to how to use the suitable technique for a company to perform this technique.

For seeking the introduction of the research issue for the dissertation I am going to conduct the instructions provided to us by the college and will also follow the guidelines of the University consequently that are provide to me in the available form.

Also regarding the data collection for the study the main way to obtain data collection for the dissertation is the available data i. e. secondary data for the company or organisation. There is absolutely no provision of data security this safeguard will considered at the time of publishing of the data later on.

As other reliable source for the collection of data for my research is interviews and questionnaires. Because of this, when there is needed the interview will be recorded after getting the authorization the interviewee. For all your process you will see supervision of the supervisor which will provide through the dissertation to be conducted.

There will be appropriate use of participation information during the plotting of the books review and other areas of the research.

7 Planning and any special resources required











Week 11

Introduction to aim & objectives

Literature review

Research methods

Data collection

Data analysis




Setting and submission

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