Posted at 11.01.2018
Ancient Egypt was the birthplace of one of the world's first civilization, which arose about 5, 000 years back. It surfaced in the northeastern Africa near the Nile River. However, beside this, there was another civilization, Sumerian Civilization, which happened in the southern Mesopotamian, now southeastern Iraq. This started 3, 500 B. C. until 2, 000 B. C. Both civilizations arose individually, and didn't contact with each other, but down the road. If we likened traditional Egypt with Sumer, we maybe see some similarities and some differences. Thus, what are the similarities? and the variances? In this essay, I have divided it into three parts in term of geography, religion, and government to make it easy to comprehend.
The Nile River, the longest river on the planet, was considered the foundation of life in historical time, as well as today in Egypt. Because of the Nile, people could live near there that was bordered by deserts on the east, south, and west, combined with the Mediterranea Sea on the north. The Nile floods were predictable each year. The flooding were only available in July following rainwater season in central Africa. The Nile provided valuable moisture and silt, which was deposited on the fields as the waters reached. These were beneficial for farming. The Egyptians also depended on the Nile as their main travel path. Therefore, many locations developed along the river due to its need for farming and vehicles.
In Egypt, it was encircled by the Libyan and Nubian deserts, the Mediterranea Sea, and the Red River, which were the natural barriers. Egyptians resided in old time by protection from these barriers. There were cataracts, or waterfall, rapids, and an enormous swamp in the southern Nile, which posed hurdles to outside invaders. However, regardless of fertile narrow remove of land across the river, farmers cannot plant crops in the surrounding deserts. This brought on to build comprehensive irrigation system to carry Nile water in to the deserts for farming. Farmers also drained the marshy swamps of the Nile delta.
The Tigris-Euphrates Valley lies in the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, the arc-shaped strip of fertile land stretches from the Mediterranea Sea to the Persian Gulf. Because of the rich garden soil of the spot and its own crescent form, it was called the Fertile Crescent. It also has another name, the "crossroads of world" since it codes the land routes to three continents: Asia, Africa, and European countries. Unlike Egypt, the Fertile Crescent has few natural barriers, the Arabian and Syrian deserts, which provided less safeguard to early on civilizations than the Libyan Desert have in Egypt. Owing to less protection, there were many minors in there, such as Asian Slight. It was very hard to unite the region under a single ruler because of the diversity of individuals.
The Tigris-Euphrates Valley was called by the Greeks "Mesopotamia, " indicating "land between two rivers. " The Tigris and Euphrates River, like the Nile River in Egypt, dominated the lives of the people in Mesopotamia. Unlike the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates floods are unstable, but it was known that in the planting season or early warmer summer months, melting snows from the mountains sometimes brought on the river to overflow. These caused enormous damage to farms, villages, and animals and sometimes drowned many people. In warmer summer months, sometimes it was suffered droughts and hot winds, that could change fertile land to dust, shrivel crops, and cause famine. However, the two waterways provided the trade routes to Mesopotamia people, which made the locations rich and powerful. Silts from the floods were also goods for farming. Due to floods year after year, it made the delta in the low Mesopotamia a maze of swamps and marshlands. The individuals needed an elaborate network of dikes and cannels to drain the swamps and channel the to farmland.
The Egyptian's values in gods and goddesses reflected the value of nature in their lives and every individual activity. The Egyptian people thought that the makes of aspect were handled by differences deities. It was depended on the feelings of deities, giving good harvests or leading to crops to pass away. They also presumed that the deities had the power of life and loss of life over everyone. Egyptians were polytheistic. In each city and town, people worshiped their own special god. Sometimes, they identified some gods with pets or animals such as cats. The main god was sunlight god, Amon-Re. The most important goddess was Isis, representing the dedicated mother and partner. Her partner, Osiris, ruled over vegetation and the death, so Egyptian farmers provided special attention to Osiris, the god of the Nile. In addition they assumed that the east, where in fact the sun increased, symbolized the delivery to Egyptians and the western, where the sunshine set, represented fatality. Most historic Egyptians prayed at home because the temples didn't offer regular services for people. Each temple was either regarded as the home of deity or focused on a dead king. The main priest's job was to serve the deity or ruler, who was symbolized by a status in the temple. The king reigning at that time was considered the principle priest of Egypt.
The historic Egyptians thought that after fatality they could enjoy their lives because assumed that in the afterlife people were happy, well given, and active with the same activities that they had done in life. This notion sometimes resulted in much planning for the loss of life and burial. For example, there was the building of pyramids and other great tombs for kings and queens. For others, there have been smaller tombs. In addition they stuffed the tombs with the treasures, furniture, and food they thought they might need in the afterlife. Egyptians assumed that the body of the deceased needed to be maintained as a home for the spirit in the afterlife. For this reason, therefore, they used mummification, a process that preserved your body of the fatality. The mummy was put in the tombs. A number of Egyptian mummies have survived for this day. Researchers used these mummies to examine many health issues and factors behind death among traditional Egyptians.
Each city-state worshipped its own god or goddess and also other gods. Firstly, military leaders were not the priests for the gods. Then slowly but surely they changed priests as rulers of Sumerian city-states. Indeed, the Sumerian did not worship their rulers as gods, nonetheless they thought that their kings were the gods' consultant on earth. However, they spoke immediately with gods and folks, so Sumerian kings commended complete obedience.
Sumerian religious beliefs was polytheistic because the Sumerians thought in and worshiped other gods in addition to the god of these city-state. These gods were incredibly powerful and anthropomorphic, that is, they resembled humans. The gods were creator gods as an organization, a council of gods and goddesses; they had created the world and folks in it. Each god had a specific rank or place through this council. Many of these gods managed natural forces. For instance, they believed that winter, the growing season of huger and hardship, occurred when the god Dumuzi passed on and descended into the underworld. In Egypt, people presumed the gods were kindly, but in Sumer, fear of characteristics disasters and invasions probably brought on by the gods whom people made something amiss to. The gods would punish them by sending floods or famine. Unlike Egyptian people, who believed in the afterlife they might be happy, in Sumer people expected to descend forever into a dark underworld, a huge cave filled with nothing but particles and silence.
Kings ruling Egypt were called the king Pharaoh, which came from words that designed great house in Egyptian. The Egyptians believed that each of the kings was the god Horus in human being form, which helped fortify the specialist of the kings. The positioning of king was inherited, which handed down to the eldest boy of the king's chief wife. The government structure of traditional Egypt engaged other representatives, including Viziers, military commanders, key treasures, the minister of general population works, and tax collectors, all of whom answered directly to pharaoh. Taxation been around under the federal government of Egypt, though mostly in the way goods and labor. Skilled workers paid taxes in the goods or services they produced. Resident was levied the taxes in labor, when administration needed the soldiers and government individuals. For reason for local government ancient Egypt was split into 42 provinces called nomes, that have been governed by officers known as nomarch. In each nome there were courts and in the capital there was a higher court. A lot of the circumstances were judged by Viziers, but in case of phrase to loss of life, it was judged by Kings. Earlier, Egypt had a small military of food soldiers prepared with spears. Later, the army was developed in a sizable scale. It included trained troops, horse-drawn chariots, and navy troops.
Land in Sumer was split into 3 parts, which were managed by the gods. Land was farmed for the gods. The vegetation were used as storage for famine times, and also to trade for foreign goods. Land was farmed to produce food for priests and temple personnel. Land was rented by the residents to expand food for themselves. The kingdoms of Sumer were planned into city-states, which were ruled by kings as the gods. Kings were helped by priests, scribes, and nobles. Priests gathered fees, designed and supervised the building of irrigation canals and determined instances of justice. Scribes assessed land into square units and chosen taxes to be paid. In addition they maintained accounts of foreign goods unloaded from ships. Before 3500 BCE priests ruled Sumer. They went to the gods who really ruled. Until 3000 BCE kings were elected to a short-term ruling position only in times of problems when it acquired warfare or famine. After 3000 BCE the positioning of king was no more an elected office, but was hereditary. Lawmaking in Sumer was performed with a two-house legislature (bicameral), who enforced the laws and regulations. Upper House was made up of elders, while Lower House was made up of free male residents, who had been also the soldiers. The Sumerian city-state supervised the building and maintenance of dikes and canals in the surrounding farmlands.
To slice the long account short, there have been some similarities between historic Egyptian and Sumerian Civilizations. In term of geography feature, both arose nearby the river say thanks to to the agriculture and trade. The folks of the both country were polytheistic and created for portion the gods and goddesses. About the both societies, they had the similarity of sociable classes: ruler, priests, scribes, nobles, and normal people. Meanwhile, many variations have found between the both civilizations. Natural barriers and the interpretation of great flood were quite different. The main point that people should notice was the opinion in the afterlife. The Egyptian thought the afterlife in positive way, however the Sumerian thought gloomy. Moreover, Egyptian authorities was led by only Pharaoh, while in Sumer there have been many self-employed city-states led by their own kings.