Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, a Kenyan author of Gikuyu descent, began an extremely successful profession writing in British before embracing work almost totally in his native Gikuyu. In 1986 Decolonising the Mind, his "farewell to English, " Ngugi explains language as a way folks have not only of describing the entire world, but of understanding themselves. For him, English in Africa is a "cultural bomb" that goes on an activity of erasing memories of pre-colonial civilizations and history and as a way of setting up the dominance of new, more insidious types of colonialism. Writing in Gikuyu, then, is Ngugi's way not only of harkening back again to Gikuyu traditions, but also of acknowledging and connecting their present. In a general statement, Ngugi highlights that terms and culture are inseparable, and this therefore the lack of the former brings about the loss of the latter:
"[A] specific culture is not transmitted through words in its universality, but in its particularity as the words of a specific community with a particular history. Written literature and orature are the key means by which a particular terms transmits the images of the world within the culture it carries.
Words as communication as culture are then products of each other. . . . Language provides culture, and culture holds, particularly through orature and literature, the whole body of worth by which we understand ourselves and our devote the world. . . . Dialect is thus inseparable from ourselves as a community of humans with a specific form and character, a specific history, a specific marriage to the globe. "
Ngugi's 1986 development "Decolonizing your brain" is a collection of essays by which he proposes an application of radical decolonization. It highlights specific techniques the vocabulary of African books manifests the dominance of the empire. In addition, it reveals the political, economic, and social circumstances that created the sensibility of all African freelance writers and illuminates the various types of mentalities or ideologies that inform African literature. Moreover, it can help in the argument on the definition of African books that makes it possible to investigate African literature dealing with pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial stages of African record. As Ngugi says: "This book is part of a continuing debate all around the continent about the future of Africa"
Pakistan also has a colonial past that's why the majority of the Pakistani writers and poets connect to the original colonial discourse by indirectly referring to it under the layers of symbols and metaphors. They allude to the changes in sociable and economic establishments and deliberately speak about racial and communal oppression at certain levels.
This research newspaper deals with the communal and political position of pre and post-colonial Africa and Pakistan by comparatively examining the views of Ngugi Wa Thiong provided in 'Decolonizing the Head' and a Pakistan's leading diasporic copy writer Bapsi Sidhwa with particular respect to her novel "Ice-Candy-Man" (1988) and article entitled' "New Neighbours".
Born in Karachi and increased in Lahore, Bapsi Sidhwa was lauded as Pakistan's finest novelist. She is the author of four books: "The (Pakistani) Bride", "Crow-Eaters", "Ice-Candy Man" and "An American Brat". Moreover, she actually is the receiver of 'Sitara-e-Imtiaz', Pakistan's highest honour in arts, and many other honours at the international level. Most of her production is most importantly an attempt to bring women's issues of the sub-continent into general population talk. She as a young girl witnessed the fatal Partition of 1947, which was the effect of a complicated group of social and political factors including religious differences and the finish of colonialism in India.
England having colonized India at its leisure, awarded it independence with unseemly haste even its most outspoken nationalists were astonished when Lord Mountbatten, the Brirish Viceroy, unexpectedly released that the night out for freedom was a couple of months, not a couple of years, in the future. The United kingdom decision to grab by Augest'15'1947, left a country with no orderly way to deal with rivalries between Hindus and Muslims. Subsequently, the Partition of India along religious lines led to a huge mass genocide, blood vessels shed, massacres and "the major and most awful exchange of population known to history. "
Sidhwa's 1988 creation "Ice-Candy-Man", simultaneously, reveals the point of view of an individual and traces the activities of populace as a collective unit, through the partition of India 1947. The story is written from the point of view of a kid with her adult tone of voice, who comes with an usage of the relationships of a variety of individuals from different ethnicities, classes and religions during a period proclaimed by immeasurable assault.
'New Neighbours' is a autobiographical article in which Sidhwa expresses her personal experiences of Partition. 1947, Partition of India was a state of interregnum, a liminal period between your colonial and post-colonial phases of the country. It was not just a section of land but also a process of segregating people: families and areas--- a dissection of self applied and society. Quite simply, it was more a mental displacement, fundamentally, induced by the colonial rule.
Ngugi holds that it's not the variety of African culture that is accountable for discord in the modern culture but colonialism and its strong impacts. Although Africa was religiously and culturally a diverse country prior to the entrance of the missionaries also, yet a definite sense of tranquility and unity been around among its people. It had been the Whiteman who appeared with the 'Bible and the Sword' in his hand, pretending to steer the Blackman with Christianity also to move him out of the 'darkness of pre-colonial former to the light of Christian present'. Ngugi's metaphorical use of 'Bible and Sword' in his writings unveils the comparison between the actual colonizer stated and his original motives and exactly how he used religion as an instrument to control the straightforwardness of African people. As he sets in his "Detained: A Writer's Jail Diary":
Religion is not similar thing as God.
When the British imperialists came here in 1895,
All the missionaries of all the churches
Held the Bible in the remaining hand,
And the weapon in the right palm.
The white man sought us
To be drunk with religion
In the meantime,
Was mapping and getting our land
And starting factories and businesses
On our sweat.
This is how, the Western european exploiters, oppressors and grabbers use Christianity as a weapon to describe the manifest contradictions portrayed in African books due to working out of broader historical forces.
Sidhwa also reveals how colonialism provided birth to spiritual variations when people began rebelling contrary to the tyrannical rule of the colonizer. "1 day everyone is themselves and the very next day they can be Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Religious. " Atrocities were completed on the name of religious beliefs. She creates in 'New Neighbours': "A large number of women were kidnapped: Muslims women by Hindus and Sikhs, Hindu women by Muslims". (pg 3)
Ngugi writes that the first weapon which the colonizer 'unleashed' was the 'ethnical Bomb' --- English dialect. His critique centers around the political dynamics of dialect and the role it plays along the way of social alienation. He upholds the idea of a linguistic decolonization because language relating to him is a governing factor over one's thoughts, creativity and observation which is also 'the collective memory bank of any people's connection with background'. He puts in 'Decolonizing the Brain' that the colonizer dominates the mental world of the colonized' Additionally, he calls current economic climate the 'terms of real life' and sets that the purpose of colonialism was to 'control the people's prosperity to control the entire world of the language of real life'.
Similarly, Sidhwa hints upon the actual fact in her writings that the colonizer imposed English language on the colonized which led to class variation as well as disintegration--- a fragmented presence. In 'Ice-Candy Man' she makes her lower-class heroes speak their indigenous dialects: Urdu and Punjabi, whereas the Elites are created to speak in English.
Talking about the impact of colonialism on the child's life, Ngugi says that the disharmony between the language of an child's upbringing at college and the spoken vocabulary at his home disharmonizes his subconscious growth and social interaction. It results in the 'dissociation of the sensibility of that child from his natural and communal environment what we might call colonial alienation. '
Sidhwa opens the article with the word: "I used to be a kid then. " which clues upon the fact that she herself was linguistically influenced by colonialism. The disharmony between your vocabulary of her life at home and of interpersonal interaction resulted in her dual lifestyle. In 'Ice-Candy Man' her autobiographical character, Lenny, is also designed to speak in British at home and in Urdu with Ayah and her admirers. In other words, her medium of manifestation varies from visitors to people, belonging to different social classes. As a result, she suffers an id crisis--- duality of her being--- 'a colonial alienation' as Ngugi phone calls it.
The term 'Neocolonialism' discussions of the impact, affect and consequences of the colonizer's culture on the colonized's. Matching to Ngugi neocolonial Kenyan society could be generally divided in four portions:
Peasants/ Working class
In the neocolonial Kenyan society, an extremely less volume of imperialists are left, but their comprador section, the Elite bourgeoisie has produced a separate cultural category of their own. They are the ones who are directly associated with the imperialists and follow their systematic policies. So, elite bourgeoisie are people in electric power and authority. This school includes industrialists, politicians and other ruling elements of the united states. Third section is 'petty-bourgeoisie' whom Ngugi phone calls 'the comprador bourgeoisie' because they provide a link between the elites and the peasants. Ngugi compares them with a 'chameleon' that they can take on the color of any category to aid their 'vacillating psychological make up'. This section comprises another set of individuals whom Ngugi describes as 'the Nationalistic Bourgeisie'. They will be the ones who advocate patriotism which is mirrored in their books also. The final and the cheapest portion of this society is the 'working school/ proletariats' who are simply national and want to preserve African culture, dialects, norms and customs.
The colonial and post-colonial culture that Sidhwa portrays in her book and article also characterizes cultural hierarchy. It is divided using classes same like neo-colonial Kenya. The imperialists, here, are the colonists in first 1 / 2 of this article, who will be the activators of these fatal partition activities. "the Radcliff percentage sorts out places as though from a load up of credit cards. " ('New Neighborhood friends' pg2) In the same way, in "Ice-Candy-Man", in the first 1 / 2 of the booklet, there are certain personal references to the white colonizer and how he induced this unsafe business of Partition. "India is likely to be broken. Is it possible to break a country? And what goes on if they break it where the house is", says Lenny. (ch. 11, pg. 97) Then, the elite bourgeoisie are the hypocritical politicians who change the trust of masses and pretend to deal with faithfully and honestly for their nation, but all together, develop personal connections with the British to get their own ways out. For, occasion, in the novel, Sidhwa gives insights about Nehru's hypocrisy that "He bandies words with Female Mountbatten and it is presumed to be her fan. He is captivating too to Lord Mountbatten carries about an aura of vitality and a presence that flatters anyone he compliments tenfold. " (ch. 20, pg. 168) Then come the petty-bourgeoisies, they will be the people whom Sidhwa mentions as: "Mr. Singhand our parents' other Hindu and Sikh friends" in this article (pg 2). They are the ones who stand anywhere in the middle of elites and peasants--- colonizer and the colonized. In addition, Parsee community, including Sidhwa herself, is one of the petty-bourgeoisie class because they performed politically and religiously a natural, position. As Sidhwa places in the article: "I rarely feel at risk partially because our company is Parsee/ Zoroastrian. "(pg 1-2). The novel also provides evidence of the 'chameleon' like lifetime of Parsee community paralleled to Petty-bourgeoisie. Colonel Bharucha explains their policy to 'run with the hound and hunt with the hare. " (ch. 5, pg. 39). Bapsi Sidhwa herself belongs to this neutral category of the society which allowed her to witness the Partition from a safe religious and political distance. She says within an interview that "The have difficulty was between your Hindus and the Muslims, so when a Parsee, I sensed I could give a dispassionate account of the huge, momentous have difficulty.
The lowest class in sub-continent was contains the people who had been being exploited and violated the most by the federal government. Ngugi feels that the empowerment of the proles can bring about a pleasant change in world and can wipe out the traces of colonialism, in the same way, their exploitation can disintegrate the foundation in our culture and identification. Sidhwa also presents that the colonizer and other manipulative politicians employ these proletariats as a tool to initiate religious differences in contemporary society. For instance, in 'Ice-Candy Man', Ayah and her group of admirers collapses due to the politically oriented spiritual differences. Here, in this specific article, she pictures the inhumane girl exploitation to classify women also as participants of the most victimized, marginalized and least expensive sect of population. She says: "Why do these women cry like that? Because they're delivering unwanted newborns. " (pg 3) "Victory is celebrated on a woman's body; vengeance is considered on a woman's body. That's very much the way things are, especially in my part of the world. " (Sidhwa's 'Graeber')
In spite of ethnical and religious diversity, there have been no issues in pre-colonial Africa and subcontinent because people were not divided in classes. Community hierarchy is usually an outcome of colonialism--- the root cause of disharmony. As Ngugi said in one of his interviews: "Wherever there are classes in contemporary society there will always be conflicts on the planet outlooks of the various social groupings. In a global split into a minority of countries that rule nearly all nations, there must be a difference in outlook. "
Ngugi views books as a reflection to modern culture. He advocates that books should be used as a representation of our customs and traditions to universalize our culture. Additionally, corresponding to him literature should play a role of your intermediary between your youthful and the more mature generation. In other words, by reminiscing days gone by it will mirror history in order to make the new generation realize the richness of these pre-colonial culture. He creates: 'In 'Ngaahika Ndeena' [I] demonstrated how background can be brought to the fore through crisis so that children may know very well what their former was like therefore that they could assist in building of a healthy contemporary society. "
Sidhwa, too, uses books as a mirror to colonial and post-colonial Pakistani modern culture. She creates about socio-political issues to unveil the concealed realities of her area of the world. The majority of her writings deal with women issues: female-exploitation, sexual-harassment, vulnerability of women and physical as well as psychological dominance of men over women. Furthermore, Sidhwa uses literature as a tool to promote Pakistani culture and customs. An ideal example of this idea is her publication entitled "Pakistani Bride". Besides that, this very article: "New Neighbours" written in the context of Partition 1947, is also an attempt to reveal certain social evils like religious differences, racial prejudices and political tensions and exactly how these factors cause the fragmentation of self and dismemberment of culture. 'Ice-Candy Man' also exemplifies Sidhwa's technique of mirroring background of Pakistan as a colonial status, the days of Partition and post-colonial/ post-partition plight of the united states.
For Ngugi, vocabulary has a dual figure. He views it as (1) Communication as (2) a carrier of culture. Communication evolves culture thus both are indistinguishable. If we lose in vocabulary, we lose in culture therefore in personal information. Ngugi thinks that cultural appropriation and assimilation cause a language fatality.
Sidhwa's work itself helps the idea of a linguistic appropriation and assimilation. Pakistan's countrywide dialect is Urdu but she used British as a medium of literary appearance. Her language could be called 'new British' as Ngugi conditions it in 'Decolonizing the Brain'. For him, it isn't acceptable to create in the colonizer's terminology. His question is: 'Can a spanish exactly picture the true flavour and substance in our culture which books is meant to provide? He argues that writing in international languages perpetuates neocolonialism that all literature in British is Euro-African literature rather than African Literature. For him writers like Achebe and Okara are not African but Euro-African authors. In the same way, Sidhwa's style corresponding to Ngugi's perspective would not be Asian but a Euro-Asian style of writing. As he creates in the preface to his assortment of essays 'Decolonizing the Head': "In these essays I criticize the Afro-European (or- Euroafrican) selection of our linguistic praxis I am lamenting a neo-colonial situation which includes meant the European bourgeoisie once more stealing our skills and geniuses as they have taken our economies. In the eighteenth and the nineteenth generations Europe stole artwork from Africa to decorate their homes and museums; in the twentieth hundred years European countries is stealing the treasures of your brain to enrich their languages and ethnicities. Africa needs back again its overall economy, its politics, its culture, its languages and its patriotic writers. "(pg xii)
Ngugi, basically, wishes us to realize the fact that the colonizer finally been successful in making the colonized accept "the fatalistic logic of the unassailable position of English in [their] books, in culture and in politics. "
Ngugi enlists the problems of your neo-colonial society as: Marginality, liminality and the quest for identity. These issues are fundamentally induced by the colonial guideline, because colonialism "continuously press-ganging the African hand to the plough to turn the dirt over, and putting blinkers on him to make him view the path forward only as identified for him by the master equipped with the Bible and the sword. "
The colonizer not only marginalizes and devalues the colonized by the imposition of his words but also subordinates him in cultural, cultural, politics and economic position. Sidhwa also earns the issue of marginality in virtually all her writings. Here, specifically, in this specific article she portrays women as the utmost marginalized users of the world. She paints the visual picturesque images of the rehabilitation refugee camps and the 'empty servant quarters' from where in fact the terrible may seem of grief and pain erupt during the night. ' These are the 'so called retrieved women' painfully crying while delivering 'unwanted infants'. This is one way these women were ostracized as undesired creatures in the subcontinent. These were treated as only a lifeless object. Furthermore, in 'Ice-Candy-Man' Ayah is perfect exemplory case of female-marginalization in subcontinent. Towards the finish, her virtually cracked spirit signifies the physical and psychological destruction of thousands of women who went through the same fate during that traumatic period. The bout of 'fallen women' and Hamida's history in the written text also support this notion where she says: "This is my kismat that is no good we have been Khutputli, puppets, in the hands of destiny. " (ch 27, pg 232).
Other than that, Sidhwa reveals the low strata of culture also as a marginalized place of individuals in the book. She makes them speak in their local dialects whereas the upper-class personas are made to speak in British which shows the mental and mental health dominance of colonizer on the colonized.
Ngugi thinks that in a colonial empire, the colonizer and the colonized both remain in a state of liminality, because both dwell on a margin of two cultures and two societies. Sidhwa, too, reveals the sub-continental colonized society getting a liminal position. The ethnical assimilation and linguistic appropriation have reduced their lives with an uncertain stationed lifestyle. Moreover, owned by a Parsee community, Sidhwa herself was living a life of liminality. The Parsees kept a liminal position somewhere in the middle of colonizer and the colonized.
Marginality and liminality are the factors that initiate a search for personal information in the masses. "Values will be the basis of a people's individuality, their sense of particularity as people of human race. " Therefore, marginality as well as liminality with their ideals and culture makes them struggle for the attainment of a separate identity.
Sidhwa, both in her article and novel, is picturing India during the days and nights of Partition 1947. Partition itself was a battle for separate personal information of the colonized against the colonizer.
Ngugi makes a controversy on the subject: 'Euro-centric vs. Afro-centric' in the last part of 'Decolonizing the Brain'. "To check out ourselves obviously in romance to ourselves and then to the other selves in the universe" is Ngugi's meaning of the word Afro-centric. While studying Sidhwa's writing style with regards to Ngugi's argument, we notice that she has a dual procedure in that matter: on one hand she centralizes the Western european culture utilizing the English vocabulary as a medium of appearance because for Ngugi terminology and culture are the one. While on the other palm, she places the Asian culture in the center and relates the Western to it. For example, in her book 'An American Brat' she stimulates the centrality of Asian culture by relating the American life-style to it. In fact, her entire literary production can be an exploration of Asian culture generally speaking and Pakistani culture in particular from different perspectives.
Ngugi is a fervent follower of Marxism and supports lots of Marxist views in his writings. In 'Decolonizing the Mind' he advocates Marxist ideology of the empowerment of proles. He keeps that peasants/ proletariats will be the ones who could be called 'African people' in a genuine sense. He calling them the 'guardians of language' because they maintained their indigenous languages alive in the daily talk and tried to maintain the African culture, norms and customs. Sidhwa also upholds the thought of empowerment of the 'poor' but she makes women her subject matter rather than proles. The subtitle of her article facilitates this aspect as it says: "Partition helped bring the scarred and the terrified to a child's Lahore, but also a hint of the strength of sub-continental women" in this article, Sidhwa seeks to trace the occurrences of female exploitation that offered the ladies a spark and heart to bloom out " into judges, journalists, ngo officials, filmmakers, doctors and freelance writers women who today are shaping thoughts and challenging stereotypes. " (Article pg 3) within the last paragraph of this article she again reveals the image of Queen Victoria's statue as an emblem of girl dominance and expert. Similarly, in 'Ice-Candy-Man' the character of Godmother symbolizes female strength and control. She actually is an influential woman, a Marxist persona, picturing a solid female persona who has an authority to get rid of masculine brutality from the world.
Another Marxist ideology that promotes within the last part of "Decolonizing your brain" is the desirability of truly humane methodology. He shares the idea with Carl Marx that the humanistic ideas should be the foundation of mankind and that people can bring about any change in the society only if were humans in a true sense because then we can 'exchange love for only love, trust for trust'.
Ngugi says in an interview: "- Like all artists, I am thinking about human human relationships and their quality. This is exactly what I explore in my own work. Human romantic relationships do not appear in a vacuum. They develop in the context of ecology, economics, politics, culture, and psyche. Each one of these aspects of our society have an impact on those interactions profoundly. These aspects are inseparable. These are connected. One of the most intimate is linked with earthly. As an musician you study the particulars to explore the interconnection of phenomena to open a window into the human heart and soul. The material of life opens out in to the spirituality of individuals life. "
Sidhwa also supports the same idea as her aim to portray all the political turmoil, assault and brutality of the public during the Partition 1947 was to make us realize that humanity stands before faith, politics, sociable classes and personal fulfillments. So it's not justified if we perform atrocities at the name of the elements. Godmother again shows this point in the novel, as she is the one who regards mankind above race, religion and politics. Inspite of being a Parsee herself, she will take an action resistant to the exploitation of women belonging to different religions and involves the rescue of an Hindu woman, Shanta (Lenny's Ayah).
Ngugi created a fresh form of fiction with the amalgamation of form and content. He tried out to expose features in his fiction that the African people were familiar with. For instance; oral tradition, conversational firmness, fables, reviews, folk stories and other conventional features were used. He used a poetic and tonal linguistic style and earned Biblical allusions to his writings. He also used the strategy of 'stream of awareness' as he had written stories within reviews in his books 'A Grain of Whole wheat' and 'Petals of Bloodstream'.
Most of the characteristics of Ngugi's fiction are found in Sidhwa's writings also. She gives a trational shade to almost all her works to make it more visual and comprehensible for her own people. Furthermore, there's a particular sense of melody and poetic rhythm in her language. The technique of 'experiences within testimonies' has also been used in Ice-Candy-Man.
'Decolonizing the Brain' was Ngugi's farewell to British language. After this he permanently used Gikuyu and Kiswahili as medium of expression. He thought that literature stated in native language stimulates oral traditions, gets an instant reaction and initiates conversations.
At this point Sidhwa's writing style is not the one Ngugi advocates. She, like Achebe, promotes the Asian culture through books but uses British vocabulary as a medium of manifestation, which matching to Ngugi should be called a Euro-Asian books. Sidhwa belongs to the approach that upholds the idea of universality of one's culture through the international language. writers owned by this group use English as a literary medium to (1) make their words heard by the whole world exactly the way they have got produced it and also to (2) show their skill and potential to the colonizer. As Brandon Brown says in his commentary entitled, 'Subversion Vs. Rejection': " The post-colonial speech can decide to withstand imperial linguistic domination in two ways--- by rejecting the terms of the colonizer or by subverting the empire by writing back a European terms. "
After having relatively examined the views and ideas of two post colonial freelance writers, Ngugi Wa Thiong'o and Bapsi Sidhwa, maybe it's concluded that the African and Pakistani modern culture share the majority of the issues regarding colonialism, post-colonialism and neo-colonialism. We were holding the subjects Ngugi made a decision to reveal. His purpose was to help make the African people realize the richness of these pre-colonial former and hold after the centre that was dropping aside. He again sets in his interview 2004 with Michael Pozo: "A writer or artist has to together swim in the river and also take a seat at the lender to see it move. I am something of the city and I would like to contribute something to that community Twenty-two years of exile will come to a finish. But in a religious sense I've never left Kenya. Kenya and Africa are always in my head. But I look forward to a physical reunion with Kenya, my much loved country. "
Similarly, Sidhwa's goal to reminisce the history was to remind her people of their strength of nerves with which they enabled themselves to bring about one of the biggest revolutions on the planet: the Partition 1947. In the words of the Indian Ministry of exterior affairs at Augest'15'1947: "For the first time and perhaps the only time in history, the power of any mighty globe empire on which the 'sunlight never establish' had been challenged and overcome by the moral might of an people armed only with ideals and courage. " This was the courage and strength of this region which Sidhwa, like Ngugi, wished to show her people and tried out to challenge the stereotypes. As she says in her interview in Massachusetts 1990: "Personally i think if there's one little thing I can do, is to make people realize: We aren't worthless because we inhabit a country which sometimes appears by Western eyes as primitive, fundamentalist country only I mean, were a rich combination of all sorts of makes as well, and our lives are incredibly much well worth living. "