Posted at 12.01.2018
Feminism is employed as a point of mention of seem sensible of the marginalization of women. Feminism offers an description of the politics, economic and social situations of women and it puts forward a conclusion of their record with oppression. Feminism in literature refers to the nature of the feminine experience in it. It will involve the activities of the character, the rational, institutional, imaginative capacity of your author and the experience implicit in the dialect of composition that interrogates the social prescriptions. Feminist Writings cover all aspects of writing for women, by women, and about women and the issues that matter them. This appears to be the primary matter of feminine fiction writers from feminist point of view. A feminist fiction is a work where terms and imagery are used to impart a new vision of simple fact to perceive fact from woman's brain. Patriarchal societies favour men over women in concerns of decision making, positions of power, and possession of property. Johnson (1997), a sociologist who taught at Hartford School for Women, explains patriarchy as:
A modern culture is patriarchal to the amount that it is male-dominated, male- revealed, and male-centered it also requires as one of its key aspects the oppression of women. Patriarchy is male-dominated for the reason that positions of authority-political, economic, legal, religious, educational, armed service, domestic-are generally reserved for men. Mind of states, commercial CEOs and Panel members, religious leaders, school principals, members of Legislatures at all levels of federal, senior law companions, tenured full professors, generals and admirals, and even those determined as 'mind of home' all tend to be male under patriarchy.
Men who take up positions of expert are assumed to get gained those positions scheduled to natural dominance. Patriarchy perpetuates male dominance. Throughout background male dominance has been asserted through a set of methods that has induced women to be observed as obviously subordinate to men. For instance, in a patriarchal system women figure out how to see themselves from the standpoint of men. Li and Bolaria (1994) say that patriarchy is
a societal happening proclaimed by the domination of certain men over other men, all women and children. A system of ruling where electricity is exercised as domination over others and is due to the historical introduction of the oppression of women. (84).
Li and Bolaria further claim that because women see themselves from the standpoint of men, they begin to form an internalized view of themselves based on their relationship with men. This internalized view is the consequence of adopting patriarchal perspectives, which lead women undervaluing themselves. Generations of patriarchal conditioning are perpetuated as women are socialized to learn these are inferior to men. Betty Friedan says in Feminine Mystique, "The womanly mystique enables, even motivates, women to ignore the question of the identity. The mystique says they can answer the question "Who am I?" by stating "Tom's wife Mary's mother. " So a woman should possess her independent id. Woman's confidence to say her independent personality without referring to man or other persons and her initiatives to live regarding to her own ideas and ideals is an objective of feminism.
Feminism is not not used to India. Incidences are replete with feministic attitudes in Indian epics. For example, in Manimegalai, the renowned Tamil epic, the heroine establishes her id as a learned, independent girl choosing her own job rather than giving into the over tunes of her royal suitor. It can be understood that the concept of gender equality has been quite definitely respected and observed in India in historical times.
In the midst of most these generalization about Indian woman, my aim in this work is to track out the steady progress in the prospect of Indian women and their repression and rebel against the patriarchal population as identified by Anita Nair in her novels. Due to the western influence, the social, political, economic and cultural aspects of India have undergone a significant change. Even the most submissive, docile and self-sacrificing Indian girl have started thinking about their selfhood and individuality.
Anita Nair is a well-known and renowned Indian British writer. She concentrates mainly on feminism and exposes the condition of women especially in Indian population with wit and humour. Her novels portray all areas of the lives of women. Nair has portrayed three kinds of women in the Indian Population. A large group of Indian, both uneducated and educated are extremely traditional. These are totally dependent on their husbands and are completely devoted to the family. Subsequently, there are women who are informed and economically indie who desirous to be economically reasonable and have a family life. They cannot break the framework work of the family. Such women are in transitory point out. There's a third group of a handful of women who are educated, economically indie and empowered. They are prepared to pay a high price for his or her ambitions and achievements and bother a minimum of about the cultural and traditional norms of the world.
The contributions by women writers cannot go unnoticed. Actually the functions by women writers constitute a major portion of the contemporary Indian writing in British. Today women have emerged establishing their id in almost all walks of life and they have heralded a fresh awareness in the world of literature too. Anees Jung in her book Unveiling India claims her ideology in the following words:
In the sophisticated pantheon of diversities, the Indian girl remains the idea of unity unveiling through each solo experience a collective unconscious prized by a contemporary society that is searched in mortal combat with the energy and weakness of age and time. She remains the still centre, like the centre of the potter's wheel, circling to build new varieties, unfolding the continuity of your racial life, which in turn has encircled and helped her acquire a quality of amount. (48)
One of the primary concerns of Anita Nair on modern girl is man-woman romance. Sexual romance is prominent among them and here the books of Nair spell an escape from the mythological image of Indian female in the earlier fiction. For instance, the major heroes in the books of Nair have affairs outside their marital human relationships both before and after relationship. But nonetheless the old world of taboos and constraints, confinements and superstitions where women are marginalized hasn't passed on yet.
Modern Indian female is generally liberated from the original restrictions and some of the family constraints. Still she's to play certain jobs in the body of the family and modern culture. In
earlier times, the Indian female was destined by tradition, taught and trained from youth to walk in the shadow of her husband. As the world progress with the changes within modern era, with the growth of education, a lot of women started taking up jobs in addition to their home work. Economic freedom of women encouraged them to endure extreme changes in their patterns and an extremely liberal attitude towards intimacy and sexuality. Eventhough women using their attitude of modernity and progress, they battle to rebel contrary to the repressive forces of patriarchy, almost all of the time their work and anger wrap up in vain. They finally end up in the clutches of patriarchy and console themselves by compromising on the rebel and stay suppressed in the hands of men.
The personas of Nair realize that marriage itself is an application a repression. In Gals Coupe, Janaki, a normal woman that has lived forty long years under the repressive connection of marriage nowadays wanted to rebel up against the frame of mind of her man Prabhakar. Though she rebels, her tone is unheard. The type Margaret is a well educated, modern woman who also sees that her marital life uses all her wishes and interests. Even though she rebels against her husband's dominating and selfish aspect, she cannot hold up against her protest being in the family life. Shyam in 'Mistress, ' cleverly uses his love in marriage to keep Radha under his control and restricts all her flexibility. To be able to conquer the repression of matrimony, Radha chose an extra-marital romance with Chris. But she could no longer continue her life with Chris and comes back to Shyam by submitting her onto his feet. Meera in "Lessons in Forgetting", is one of the most burdened character types of Nair. When she was deserted by her husband at an extremely early age of her marital life, she was pressed forcefully in a situation of shouldering the entire duties of her family which she could not bear. At a certain stage in her life, she considers that she cannot lead a life together. So willingly she withdrew her rebel and surrenders herself to JAK.
Marriage is known as to be always a weapon used by men for a long time to oppress women. Relating to Gerstel and Sarkisian "The organization of matrimony is the principle vehicle for the perpetuation of the oppression of women; it is through the role of better half that the subjugation of women is maintained. " This increases a few of the questions that are lingering in the intellects of women such as, Could it be essential for a woman to obliterate her personality, her life, once she gets hitched, when she enters into a publicly-acknowledged relationship with a guy? Does she not need the to stay her own person? Will there be something sacrosanct about women submitting their lives for the reason that of the men they marry or live with? A few of this is changing as more young ladies get educated and follow jobs. Many traditions have been questioned and have been modified. Yet, the expectation that female will automatically and willingly "sacrifice" her freedom, her profession, her personality, and even her given name at the altar of marriage somehow remains sacrosanct. What's even more perplexing is how, despite a so-called "modern" education, most women continue to acknowledge without question that their many years of freedom, or independence, are limited by enough time they get committed.
Many have got a wrong idea that faith oppresses women but if we have a deeper look and analyse religion, its only the men who oppress women in the name of faith. The type Saadhiya in Mistress is caught in a religio-cultural framework that circumscribes her life, limiting her physical as well as mental activities to a miniscule area. Powered by loneliness and boredom, she looks for refuge in religious beliefs and seeks to reenter the buildings she possessed fled from. She rebels up against the religious custom produced by men and when she was not able to find a resolution within her divided home, she ends her life to achieve the freedom. Thus, crimes against Muslim women can't be related to Islam as a faith. Islam was the first to give women the right to own property, to divorce and remarry. Islam doesn't oppress women only the Men oppress the ladies.
The nature of control and subjugation of women varies from one world to the other as it differs due to the differences in school, caste, faith, region, ethnicity and the socio-cultural routines. Thus in the framework of India, brahminical patriarchy, tribal patriarchy and dalit patriarchy are different from each other. Patriarchal societies propagate the ideology of otherhood which restrict women's mobility and burdens them with the responsibilities to nurture and back children. For example, Akhila in Ladies Coupe who is a Brahmin woman belongs to an orthodox family. As she lost her father in her teenage, being the eldest little princess in her family, she is burdened with the family tasks like providing for the family and taking care of her siblings by sacrificing her fresh years and dreams. She falls deeply in love with Hari and desires to marry him who is young to her. Eventhough this being the desire of her heart and soul, she concerns the contemporary society because the modern culture would look down after a woman who marries a guy youthful to her and generally would not allow. Finally she overcomes the societal pressure and would go to Hari and becomes a part one of the minority of women who rebel against patriarchy. Also, Marikolunthu who belongs to an economically poor family and a so called 'low-caste' community was raped by Murugesan of Chettiar community. Though she wished to punish him for the offense he devoted against her, she cannot undertake it because her cry was not noisy enough to be noticed within the male dominating contemporary society, money power and casteism.
Another notable personality Smiriti in Lessons in Forgetting is a teenage gal who rebels against feminine infanticide in a community called Minjikapuram. When her rebel was subjected to the men in the village, handful of them came jointly and use sexual violence as a weapon to shut her up from protesting against them. Eventhough the town people understood that injustice has been done to her; nobody came forward to support her due to electric power men exercised in the village to curb women. Her rebel against female infanticide didn't help her in any way but made her immobile.
After creating a vivid research and understanding of the characters found in the books of Nair, I'd like to conclude expressing that eventhough women rebel highly against their oppressive pushes, mainly patriarchy, they remain being exploited by religious, ethnic, societal realms of life. Still women are held in the dark about their protection under the law, freedom, individuality and personality. For the cover of women from discrimination, women must be empowered by educating them the right and electricity as in like manner enable to fight against male hegemony. Apart from the Constitution which provides for the gender equality and to lessen the space between two sexes, regulation can create empowerment through several other ways which include empowerment through conferment of substantive protection under the law or ability, empowerment through institutional infrastructure and supporting, stimulating and monitoring the attitudinal and principles change in society
The image of the virtuous goddess like women is often seen one in South Asia. In such a image, the women must devote themselves to their husbands and show loyalty and sacrifice even in the most extreme circumstances. The father protects the woman during child years, the spouse during her junior and the boy during her later years. Therefore a female does not deserve any independence. She is therefore inculcated with the ideas of martyrdom, of take great pride in in perseverance, of the need to accept a lesser position through the mythical types of Sita, Savitri, Gandhari etc. pursuing these models she is taught to be timid, gentle and dignified as a person, clean and faithful as a better half and self-less, adoring and thoughtful as a mother. Building on this image, Acharya quotes,
Karyeshu Mantra, Karaneshu Daasi
Repecha Lakshmi, Kshamayaa Dharitri
Bhoj Yeshu Mata, Shayanetu Rambha
Shat Karma Yukta, Kulu Dharma Patni
The above lines signify,
Like a slave while working/serving,
A minister when counseling/advising,
Goddess Lakshmi in her looks/personality,
The Earth in forbearance/endurance,
A mom while feeding,
Rambha the celestial prostitute, in bed.
These six are the characteristic of an ideal wife. Thus, the patriarchal joint family system consolidated the positioning of a guy by forever damming that of a woman. There is extensive pressure to conform to the norms of culture and the patriarchal system of family life. However now you have the questioning of the dominating patriarchal custom and their role. The life of a female is considered a general population affair; her personal revolts are therefore revolts contrary to the society as a whole. Anne Wilson Schaef, in Women's Simple fact(1985), sheds light on this instinct:
Historically, women have been defined (by men) as being sexually clean and pristine. The only perfect woman was a detached and innocent virgin. "Nice women" didn't enjoy sex. There have been good women, and there have been whores. (44)
Society also performs a essential role in the sufferings of women. Man is a communal pet animal, a 'homosapien'. He cannot live without his contemporary society. For a sociable being, the reaction of the modern culture is more important than his specific self. For most of the people gratifying the society becomes the best object of their life. There exists nothing incorrect in respecting the population in which we live. The challenge starts only when man starts overlooking the 'self' for the sake of his society. Whenever a man place the interest of the society most importantly, he cannot respond normally. He starts off harassing or ignoring the thoughts and feelings of his dear ones only once he forgets his own 'home'. Victimization of women is one particular abnormal patterns of man. Man fails to respect the feelings of one specific in the world. As society takes on essential role in the progress of women, the purpose and the function of the modern culture must be appropriate first. So long as the society bound by traditions there is no remedy for this. Once the role of tradition is correctly known by the folks, progress is visible. Unwanted elements need weeding. After the weeding, naturally the bottom is ready for progress and development. A population led by fruitful aspects of traditions will definitely move towards progress. Once women are freed from all these clutches they can walk towards success with continuous, unswerving mind, stength and determination.
In order to emerge from the original bondage, the traditions must be burnt. All the irrelevant and insensible practices in our age-old traditions must be ended. Tradition should assist in the improvement of man and it will not prevent his improvement. Bow to tradition when it helps bring about you, stamp and crush it under your foot when it hinders your improvement. Women's personality must be transformed. Say good bye to negative womanly aspects such as docility, submissiveness and dread. Women should forget their role models Sita and Savithri. In tune with the changing modern fads, they can have new role models. When the transformation is only one sided, the condition cannot be fixed. Men also have equal part in the sufferings of women. Therefore men also must go through transformation. If indeed they adamantly stick to custom, while their partners enhance their personality, the system of family will dissolve. The change must be mutual. While women climb in the ladder, the men must climb down their pedestal so that both can meet on similar grounds. In a nutshell, it could be said that men and women must value each other's feelings and lead a peaceful, friction free life. Women should dismiss their traditional role models completely. They have to have new role models to check out. They also needs to be very solid and dependable in their choice. By exchanging blind love with common love, total submissiveness, fear and cowardice with courage and bravery, the women can transform themselves totally and face the " new world " confidently.
More importance must get to women's education. Special health care must be taken to educate women who have their twin jobs to perform both inside as well as outside their house or the family. Women are to be educated without the restriction or discrimination. Experienced they been properly educated, they would not need become easy victims of male dominance. Self-confidence is the essence of education. If they're educated, they can feel free gaining their own livelihood. Education only can provide and enable women to face the population boldly.
Lack of financial independence is another essential aspect which imprisons women at home. Progress will not end with education exclusively. Education must provide economic independence. Women should never rest till they find a right profession. Economic independence helps a female to recognize herself. Once 'the self' is recognized, nothing or nothing can keep women under control and prevent her progress. Majority of the women do not have any regular income, they have to depend on their husbands for all their expenses. Sometimes they need to please their men to get even the essential needs. Just because they seek financial help from other husbands they suffer from in silence. Monetary freedom goes by way to individual freedom.
Only a small number of women are modern in their thought. Even if women are educated and modern, also, they are on the battle route against their victimization with renewed energy and vigor. The modern women are courageous, strong, confident, dominating, authoritative, rebellious and powerful. The brand new awakened women have good education, occupation, money and success. But what they lack is a harmonious married life. Thus all the moderns experienced the courage and self-confidence to handle the " new world " all alone, appropriately they were very successful however in their personal life, they proved to be unpleasant failures. With all their modernism and progress, they can not have a peaceful and happy life. The reasons for their inability are once again their individual characteristics and the public setup. Though the moderns experienced all the positive features such as courage, bravery, expert, education, independence and can force, they lacked assurance in themselves. These were afraid to step out of the family bonds. The expectation of the custom bound society managed to get problematic for the moderns to disregard their family bonds. An unmarried girl is never a welcome visitor in a public gathering. Her occurrence is recognized as not an auspicious sign. She is not socially accepted as an individual. So the unmarried modern woman were required to lead a lone life.
Men should also join hands with women for their upliftment. They must encourage women to come out on view to fight because of their cause. Men should get the confidence and trust of women to attract them into relationship. Thus with common understanding both women and men must enhance themselves completely.
Thus in all the three novels of Anita Nair, she's presented an extremely common idea of patriarchy when a woman is constrained by tradition to be reliant on men, crippled to realize her own power. She has presented her women attempting and revolting hand and hand because of patriarchy but at the end has given them a gesture of defiance against patriarchy. Her women have been portrayed as brilliant, questioning women who are not contented with the injustice and rebellion against them. So Anita Nair's women raise the question of these life-style consolidated by patriarchy, and see it not only as the website of their oppression at home and in contemporary society but also make it a field of fight to vanquish their oppressors.