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A background of social policy changes

With reference to changes in federal government coverage and ideologies of welfare, issue the significance of the shift from Victorian 'Pauper' to 21st century 'service individual' and its impact on interpersonal work practice and ideals.

This task has used a timeline of government changes and insurance policies as a backdrop to question the move from Victorian pauper to the 21st century service individual. The split between poor and wealthy has always been an issue that governments have tried out to diminish using different guidelines and laws and regulations. However there is still that separate that appears to be increasing. Has much altered since the Low of the Law was integrated? Are individuals given more choice and privileges now? Will there always be stigma attached and communal exclusion that originates from using these words, do they still have the same meaning? This project will attempt to answer these questions using sources to insurance policy and ideologies of welfare.

The explanation of a Pauper in line with the Collins dictionary is a person who is extremely poor or historically eligible for general public charity.

The classification of something user is somebody who uses or gets health or sociable attention services. (Basic social care council)

According to Sen, 1999 the term service consumer was introduced because of gained strength of powerless people during the 1980's. This term implies an acknowledgement of the federal government and public, understanding that service users have a confident role. They still have functions and can appreciate their potential, they are really not just individuals who are entitled to help via the services you can expect. Although this term was made by the individuals who use the assistance it still shows that they use professionals and that the energy still resides with them. (Adams, Dominelli and Payne, 2009) The Country wide network of service users: Shaping our lives think that the word service consumer is positive, it's someone who uses the assistance, they confer ability creating a more powerful voice and having a larger ability to form services. (Levin 2004)

The changes in coverage from Pauper to service customer have been great. British social policy's basis is from the Poor Laws and regulations, the first one exceeded in 1598 the previous 1948.

The Elizabethan Low-quality Rules of 1601 provided a compulsory poor rate and helped arranged the indegent onto work. However as the Parish was the essential area of supervision laws and regulations were enforced diversely in that area, signifying the operation of the Poor Rules was inconsistent between areas, the beginning of the postcode lottery. The Poor Law amendment action of 1834 altered the prevailing system that was set up, it was applied at a higher stage not merely at Parish level, Poor Laws unions were created the introduction of the workhouses was encouraged, one workhouse in each union to give poor comfort. This act explained that no able bodied person was to receive any other help other than in the workhouse. This law's key problem was to make life inside as bad as outside of the workhouse, this is difficult as some could have had to be starved to meet what they achieved outside. There was a stigma fastened though and it was that reputation that ceased everyone from by using a workhouse, they produced prison style segregation women and men and even people needed to be separated.

As the government thought this is the best way to help the neediest households they observed no issues with this Act. In fact the neediest households still weren't using the assistance and entering a workhouse because they didn't desire to be segregated. Not unlike people today that still don't require help due to stigma or because they don't really know or understand the system applied to help them as much as possible.

It is at 1869 which the Charitable Organisation Population was produced to make charities more effective, they recognized that charitable assistance was needed but presumed that their purpose was to reach all families, these were also uncertain of the way the money from charities got previously been spent. They lay out financial help launching local committees, these then brought up funds and allocated to family members in need. Also very similar to many charities today, you may still find many family members who don't require help because of religion, language, pride or perhaps weren't informed. (Family action)

COS found that it wasn't just financial help that folks needed, so they started to offer psychological and practical help too. If they had many households needing help they understood there volunteers would want training, this became the pioneer out there of sociable work, something our foundations are based on today. The main groundwork of COS was to improve plan to help the people battling the consequences of poverty, something that public employees do now, the general council of sociable workers remain attempting to help those suffering the most and work towards giving help those who have struggling to find help elsewhere and give communal work support as well as signpost to other services that may help them further.

From this time around more acts were introduced including the Public health function of 1872. During this time poverty was never really defined they comprehended what helped bring it about like unemployment or health problems, if they got defined poverty it may have helped unveiled different acts to prevent it.

In the 1900's poverty was ever increasing, the settlement movements started its idea was to establish settlement homes in poor areas with the theory that the center course would volunteer to have with them, sharing their knowledge and help relieve the poverty with their poor neighbours. From this movement many initiatives surfaced and helped to boost conditions of most poor areas of world and help all individuals. This movement focused on the sources of poverty providing a number of services including education and health services. This settlement deal movements is another foundation of cultural work practice today, no we don't live with the individuals in need, but the entire reason of social work is to use our education and knowledge to ease the problems they may have and help them emotionally, practically and financially, which is just what these volunteers did. Although some argued that this was normative because some wished the divide between the poor and higher classes. (Laybourn, 1995) Although this activity was important the more powerful COS submerged as the controversial characteristics of social work, there is individuals that weren't eligible for help we were holding still at the workhouse, and most of they were women who bore children out of wedlock. Even though settlement movements was also necessary in population in focusing on poverty, it centered on a more structured analyses of poverty and its impact on real human behavior by practising interventions at a community level, which is necessary now to help small areas help the other person as well as singularly. The nature of public work practice then focused on individuals and a significant element of this time is the elimination of reading client's voices and the incomparable knowledge of the pros working with them. Only now could be the service user's speech being accepted again. (Adams et al, 2009)

The Poor Legislation was the basis of the introduction of services for the 20th century, including the national insurance act, these new services were created to avoid needing to rely on the indegent Laws. (Alcock, 2003) The government laid the foundation of the future sociable services, the major concern was that all areas should be given the same services, these new services were provided away from The Poor Laws to evade the connection. Even though these new ideologies were presented to provide services to all or any individuals there is still a stigma attached, even now there continues to be a stigma attached to the word service consumer, although government authorities have modified their policies to utilize different terms some still have the same so this means.

A major article produced about the welfare of people was the Beveridge survey. This report focused how Britain could be rebuilt after the battle. In 1945 labour was elected and guaranteed to expose a welfare state. The welfare express involved launching new services these included family allowances, the national health services and housing works to name a few. The welfare status was produced to encourage the provision of services for the general public not as a reply to poverty. (Laybourn, 1995) that's where a significant criticism is within debates about the welfare condition within current government authorities. In the 1950's the provision of welfare point out services became difficult, government interventions at the time didn't help and induced further problems so the Conservative government got over and slice the help directed at the indegent and sick and tired. This then made the syndication of income more imbalanced and even though attempted to make the poor more hardworking and do it yourself sufficient it didn't work.

One survey that impacted policy and practice during the 1960's was the Seabohm report 1968, this article re-introduced poverty. This paper was tasked to review the company and duties of the neighborhood authority personal public services in Britain and to think about what changes are suitable to secure an efficient family service. (Seebohm, 1968, pg11. ) Ahead of this report communal work was distributed across various local specialists and different federal sections, due to this the report discovered that there is inadequacies in the grade of provision and access was very hard. The report recommended "a new local authority division providing a community founded and family orientated service, which is designed for all" When this suggestion was helped bring into action new sociable services team were produced. Seebohm do foresee problems which were highlighted in the statement, it stated that having independent departments for children and people would make it difficult to treat the family's needs as a whole.

Another important Report was the Barclay Record, 1982 that looked into the role of a social employee, in its opening line it expresses that too much is expected of interpersonal workers. It found that it was a profession that was confused about its role and because of strong multimedia scrutiny was fighting its work load. It discovered that there was a continuing need for social personnel to fulfil many functions including promoting community systems, working with other services and acting on client's behalf and to act as resources for all individual who need help. The survey did criticise public work departments for "taking a reactive position towards communal problems, interacting with those needs which are forced upon their attention but failing to develop overall plans which link the voluntary, volunteer, statutory and private services in an area into a coherent plan" (p. 38) which continues to be problems today.

Although these reviews have all highlighted how good interpersonal work is and exactly how much it's needed there are so many problems involved in the profession. Firstly because every authorities have changed the way the are soon as they get used to it, it changes again, yes the changes could be for the better but are these just changes for changes sake? The labour government have imposed new regulations and directives for communal work but after 8 years you may still find problems within public work some that could be easily applied. We will only know if these new procedures and new public work task drive works over time.

As its been highlighted before in this task there continues to be an implication involved with being truly a service user in the same way there was being truly a pauper. Whilst researching the different serves and welfare ideologies which may have been introduced throughout the timeline I've used I've realised that there are more similarities than comparisons between a services consumer and pauper. They still have problems being able to access help and there are many young families who still don't require help due to stigma. However new techniques have presented service user participation by defining what help they need and defining the grade of help they acquire. A recent article by Beresford, Shamash, Forrest and Turner, 2007 research service users eye-sight for adult service they discovered that the process of accessing social good care was frequently negative for service users, the assessments were very dependent on the quality of the staff undergoing it, which must not be happening all sociable personnel should work to one high standard it shouldn't be a lottery of if you get a good one or not. Access to connecting with the public staff member was low and that many of the service users questioned got spaces in their services making them feel insecure.

A significant problem through history is a struggle to get good support for they. Whilst researching this subject I realised that service users know very well what they need and can certainly highlight the problems at when one record found while welfare bureaucracy has been condemned by government authorities for a long while service users still identify problems. One individual said that people shouldn't have to fill out forms to be made to feel like beggars, not unlike THE INDEGENT Laws and paupers thoughts. There is still social exclusion, the poor will remain poor because they have just enough to get by so they won't stop, think and revolt. But do public personnel maintain this, because they help them just enough, finding the quickest thing they can do to help them definitely not the simplest way in the long run. New Labour has already established so much time to make advancements and rectify communal exclusion but child poverty gets worst.

How much have rights helped service users, many studies have found that they feel more liable and comfortable about the help they are acquiring when they have been more involved in the decision processes. Even though some still feel like they are concealed away from population so when they have significantly more connection with their disability they have to be acknowledged. The statement by Beresford et al, 2007 also found that service users would like a watchdog with service users and experts and they ought to be the judges of quality.

One issue that social workers face is working towards anti discriminatory practice, equality ought to be the core of provisions of service, and it needs to take into consideration religion and backgrounds. Yes some improvement has been made relating diversity for example the race equality work, still tons of progress needs to be produced.

There a wide range of barriers when considering the major historical happenings that brought about communal work and the ideals it has now. We see that welfare status is a necessary condition of public work flourishing and to protect it or could it be temporary in which internationally public work will then erupt from another thing. One hurdle when understanding which major occasions affected what interpersonal work is today is our understanding of the history of interpersonal work, the history isn't concrete it changes daily. Most of the history of interpersonal work originates from COS as its source and its own methods remain used today. However Laybourn, 1997 has found other methods which were used which have yet to be analyzed this might have been because COS was used in London which would have an effect on the annals, power will always influence record.

To conclude communal work has evolved significantly and is still very important and we'll improve to help all individuals, we desire a larger voice though to talk about the problems we face as a profession to ensure that service users and pauper have fewer similarities. I believe that service users have shifted from paupers as they may have much more freedom and rights now, yes there are still similarities which need to be focused on to boost our system and we're able to probably be a better service if problems hadn't took place on the way to affect how exactly we work, we also need to won't let guidelines be imposed on us when they don't improve on what were already doing. Rights are now benefiting service users but we have to ensure it stays such as this. Whilst working towards anti discriminatory practice and equality for all we have to ensure our beliefs will be the same that we donate to a fairer modern culture by reducing disadvantage and exclusion and promoting fair usage of resources. Many policies and serves have been the bedrock of what cultural work is today and without them sociable work would be completely different.

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