Tobias Smollett (March 19, 1721 - September 17, 1771)
Born: 19th March, 1721
Died: 17th September, 1771
Nationality: Scottish
Profession/Occupation: Writer
Region: near Livorno, Italy
Notable works: "Humphry Clinker", "Peregrine Pickle", "Travels Through France and Italy", "Roderick Random", "The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves", "The Reprisal: or, The Tars of Old England", "The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom", "An Essay on the External Use of Water"

Tobias Smollett Facts


Tobias Smollett, in full Tobias George Smollett, (baptized March 19, 1721, Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scot.--died Sept. 17, 1771, near Livorno, Tuscany [Italy]), Scottish satirical novelist, best known for his picaresque novels The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748) and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751) and his epistolary novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771).

Smollett came of a family of lawyers and soldiers, Whig in politics and Presbyterian in religion. In 1727 or 1728 he entered Dumbarton grammar school, proceeding from there to the University of Glasgow and apprenticeship to William Stirling and John Gordon, surgeons of that city. His first biographer states that he "attended the anatomical and medical lectures," and, if his first novel, Roderick Random, may be taken as evidence, he also studied Greek, mathematics, moral and natural philosophy, logic, and belles lettres. He left the university in 1739 without a degree and went to London, taking with him his play The Regicide. A year later he was commissioned surgeon's second mate in the Royal Navy and appointed to HMS Chichester, which reached Port Royal, Jam., on Jan. 10, 1741. It is probable that Smollett saw action in the naval bombardment of Cartagena (now in Colombia). The expedition was disastrous; he would later describe its horrors in Roderick Random. In Jamaica he met and was betrothed to--and perhaps there married--an heiress, Anne Lassells. He returned to London alone to set up as a surgeon on Downing Street, Westminster, his wife joining him in 1747. He failed to secure a production of The Regicide, but in 1746, after the defeat of the Jacobite rebels at Culloden, he wrote his most famous poem, "The Tears of Scotland." He had by now moved to cheaper accommodations in Chapel Street, Mayfair, no doubt because, despite litigation, he had managed to recover only a fraction of his wife's considerable dowry, which was invested in land and slaves. It was in Chapel Street that he wrote Advice and Reproof, verse satires in the manner of the Roman poet Juvenal.

In 1748 Smollett published his novel The Adventures of Roderick Random, in part a graphic account of British naval life at the time, and also translated the great picaresque romance Gil Blas from the French of Alain-Rene Lesage. In 1750 he obtained the degree of M.D. from Marischal College, Aberdeen. Later in the year he was in Paris, searching out material for The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle. This work contains a great comic figure in Hawser Trunnion, a retired naval officer who, though living on dry land, insists on behaving as though he were still on the quarterdeck of one of his majesty's ships at sea.

In 1752 he published "An Essay on the External Use of Water," an attack on the medicinal properties of the waters of a popular English health resort, Bath (he would resume the attack in his later novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker). The essay made him many enemies and little money. His financial difficulties were intensified by his generosity in lending money to a hack writer called Peter Gordon, who employed legal stratagems to avoid repayment. Smollett came to blows with Gordon and his landlord and was sued by them for GBP1,000 and GBP500, respectively, on charges of trespass and assault. In the event, Smollett was required to pay only small damages. He was now living at Monmouth House, Chelsea, where he was host to such leading literary figures as the authors Samuel Johnson and Oliver Goldsmith, as well as to the actor David Garrick and John Hunter, a famous surgeon and anatomist. On Sundays, if one may take a passage in Peregrine Pickle as autobiographical, Smollett threw his house open to "unfortunate brothers of the quill," whom he regaled with "beer, pudding, and potatoes, port, punch, and Calvert's entire butt-beer." He himself seems to have been a man irascible, pugnacious, infinitely energetic, courageous, and generous.

The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom (now, with The History and Adventures of an Atom, the least regarded of his novels) appeared in 1753. It sold poorly, and Smollett was forced into borrowing from friends and into further hack writing. In June 1753 he visited Scotland for the first time in 15 years; his mother, it is said, recognized him only because of his "roguish smile." Back in London, Smollett set about a commitment to translate Don Quixote from the Spanish of Miguel de Cervantes, and this translation was published in 1755. Smollett was already suffering from tuberculosis. Early in 1756 he became editor of The Critical Review, a Tory and church paper, at the same time writing his Complete History of England, which was financially successful. This work relieved the financial pressure that he had felt all his adult life. A year later, his farce The Reprisal: or, The Tars of Old England was produced at Drury Lane and brought him a profit of almost GBP200. In 1758 he became what today might perhaps be called general editor of Universal History, a compilation of 58 volumes; Smollett himself wrote on France, Italy, and Germany. His friendship with the politician John Wilkes enabled him to secure the release of Francis Barber, Samuel Johnson's black servant, from the press-gang. But a libel on Admiral Sir Charles Knowles in The Critical Review led to Smollett's being sentenced to a fine of GBP100 and three months' imprisonment in the King's Bench Prison. He seems to have lived there in some comfort and drew on his experiences for his novel The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1762), which was serialized in The British Magazine, of which Smollett became editor in 1760.

Two years later he became editor of The Briton, a weekly founded to support the prime minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. He was also writing an eight-volume work entitled The Present State of all Nations, and he had begun a translation, in 36 volumes, of the varied works of the French writer Voltaire. Smollett was now seriously ill; attempts to secure a post as physician to the army in Portugal and as British consul in Marseille or Madrid were fruitless. In 1763 the death of his only child, Elizabeth, who was 15 years old, overwhelmed him "with unutterable sorrow." He severed his connection with The Critical Review and, as he said, "every other literary system," retiring with his wife to France, where he settled at Nice.

In 1766 Smollett published Travels Through France and Italy, his one nonfiction work that is still read. It is a satire on both tourists and those who batten on them, and its jaundiced version of traveling on the Continent led to Smollett's appearance as the splenetic Smelfungus in Laurence Sterne's novel A Sentimental Journey (1768). He returned to England in that year, visited Scotland, and at Christmas was again in England (at Bath), where he probably began what is his finest work, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, an epistolary novel that recounts the adventures of a family traveling through Britain. In 1768, steadily weakening in health, he retired to Pisa, Italy. During the autumn of 1770 he seems to have written the bulk of Humphry Clinker, which was published on June 15, 1771.

Smollett is not the equal of his older contemporaries, the novelists Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding, but he is unrivaled for the pace and vigour that sustain his comedy. He is especially brilliant in the rendering of comic characters in their externals, thus harking back to the manner of the Jacobean playwright Ben Jonson and looking forward to that of the novelist Charles Dickens. By modern criteria, his art as a satirical novelist is defective, his model being the "picaresque" novel, relating loosely linked episodes in the life of a rogue hero. But his panoramic picture of the life of his times is surpassed only by that given by Henry Fielding, while his account of conditions in the Royal Navy is especially valuable.

Top 2 Tobias Smollett quotes

Some folks are wise and some are otherwise.
Who bravely dares must sometimes risk a fall.

Tobias Smollett essays

Explore Related Essays
Civil engineering during the industrial revolution in britain record essay
The industrial revolution was an interval in Britain from the middle 18th hundred years to the 19th century where many new innovations led to changes in the general infrastructure of the united states. This improved sociable and economical conditions in the United Kingdom before spreading worldwide. Mechanical executive is often cited being the main professional practice during this time period but out of the many innovations during this time period, there have been many..
Definition and classification draft media essay
Just one technology back, internet was only accessible to experts and experts. However, Nowadays Facebook is obtainable to everyone from toddlers to pensioners every time they want. Furthermore, there tend to be more Facebook users than cars in America (Pring, 2012). Considering numerous cultural media users engaged in or even adhere to social mass media every day, we can't help wondering whether they have already been addicted to public advertising and what interpersonal..
Introduction to vodafone organization
Answer 1: Introduction: Our chosen firm is Vodafone. Vodafone is around from 1984. In those days it was produced as a subsidiary of Racal Electronics Plc. In 1991 it completely demerged from its parent company i. e. Racal Gadgets Plc & then it acquired its present name as Vodafone Group Plc. At present Vodafone is the world's leading telecommunication company, with a draw able existence in countries surrounding the world, whether it's Europe, Africa, Asia Pacific or USA...
Marketing and sales strategy of juicy super fruit smoothies
This opportunity research document identifies and summarises the backdrop, position and future programs for the creation for Juicy Fruit Smoothies Ltd. This idea is Drink and Smoothy Club which is seen in most shopping centres, cinemas and department stores. This new type of business will offer the consumer an array of beverages ranging from carbonated drinks to berries flavoured drinks with nutritious materials. Furthermore, this home based business will sell a number..
Marketing approaches for playthings 4 u marketing essay
India, is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Its rich practices embedded in the very main of common Indian man, and its large cultural diversity are well known worldwide. The Indian toy industry, as old as this region itself, has been nurtured and enriched under this intellectually abundant background. Indian toys, which are manufactured all over the country, mirror the Indian ethnical diversity in the number of items created. India has experience knowledge regarding..
Professional values attitudes and conducts of nurses medical essay
Nursing practitioners, much like other specialists, have unique binding worth, attitudes and actions. This paper outlines these prices and their relevance to nursing practitioners in their daily practice. Two ideas of medical form the foundation of this task. These theories are important since regardless of the evolving aspect of the medical profession as time passes due to scientific advancements, the underlying rule of caring still will serve as the major motivation..
The important of maintenance atlanta divorce attorneys building development essay
ABSTRACT This issue of research which is ensuring efficiency in building maintenance practice is to produce a several research how the management want to attain its goal atlanta divorce attorneys building that is manage by them. As we know, the top of maintenance atlanta divorce attorneys building can be demonstrating because without a well maintenance of the building, it may reduce the value of it building. That's the reason, we can easily see the need of the building maintenance..
Tudor trend in henry viii
After the Tudor dynasty English federal government and kingship was never the same. The way the kings power switched from a Medieval system of hierarchy his control over his land was limited, to rule he needed support of the nobility and cathedral and his parliament inadequate with an oligarchical government where in fact the kings influenced penetrated his land, his nobility and within the federal government the energy of the nobility shrank and the church became a secular..
Types of databases management systems
Keywords: types of dbms, dbms comparison As we realize databases are being used as part of your before to store and to access information. Due to the simple maintenance and spectacular performance of databases, the progress of database technologies has been increasing speedily. Moreover DBMS got thrived over INTERNET. Different web-applications are retrieving the stored data and the email address details are shown in a formatted form using web dialects like XML. This..
Racial segregation and the usa essay
Inequality in the United States seems to be a hot topic recently. So much so that we now have people who claim that white folks are racially oppressed. A sociologist at La Salle University or college n Philadelphia said, "We went via being privileged group to all or any of a sudden becoming white wines, the new victims" (Blake). There are a few people who even argue that since Obama became president, people became hurtful towards white colored people (Blake). While there..
The wish act dissertation
The FANTASY ActAfter about twelve years of the DREAM Action floating around in congress, many people about both sides of the issue will be unsure of what will happen. For a few, the fact it has been around intended for long without much progress means that the WISH Act is not going to pass. On the other hand of this concern, the dreamers, continue preventing to keep the DREAM Take action alive, to ensure that all the migrant students can certainly still post secondary education, and..
Reward devices essay
PHASE 3 Incentive systemsRESEARCH METHODOLOGYthree or more. 1 .AdvantagesThe aim of this kind of chapter is always to explain, justify and be the cause of the research strategy that has been picked in this study. In doing the research, the specialist intends to proceed via a quantitative-descriptive design. A number of issues relevant to the research strategy will be extensively discussed listed below.3. 2 . METHODICAL ACCOUNT (RESEARCH: QUANTITATIVE-DESCRIPTIVE)Thyer..
Business ethics and issues essay
Organization ethics aims to understand whether or not a specific business practice is definitely morally and ethically suitable. The American Heritage Book has defined business values as "the philosophy of human perform with the focus on determining right and wrong. It identifies the rules or standards governing the carry out of the people of a profession" (Ferrell ainsi que al, 2009). Being a good person or possibly a person of values, in one's very own opinion,..
Business presentation of family members relationships in carol bea duffy's poem before you were mine and in one poem by simon armitage
Presentation of Family Associations in Carol Anne Duffy's Poem Before You Were Mine and One Poem by Sue ArmitageIn Carol Anne Duffy's composition "Before You Were Mine", Carol Bea Duffy isthe little girl looking at a photograph of her mother as being a young girland explaining how your woman used to become before she was born. The poem iswritten as though spoken simply by Carol Anne Duffy with her mother, and movesbetween your present and various times during..
Job analysis and selection methods essay
For this solution to be effective the interviewer is required to ensure the interviee completely understands the causes for the interview in order to avoid such selection interviews to be considered as efficiency analysis which may slow down them to illustrate their work accurately. The method can be utilized effectively for top supervision job evaluation for example the situation of the handling director of the company. This will enable purchase of vital data such as general..
Video game console essay
Too much of some thing can usually harm you. This rule also applies to video games. Playing video games many times and for very long can harm you in more than one way.A large number of people argue that video games will be ruining the lives of several children in today's globe. This is because they have no limitations on the actual play and how long that they play this. Many video gaming these days add a lot of tools and, and an objective which involves killing or perhaps having to..
The end of the book essay
Mr and Mrs Birling are holding onto a pretence and are very pleased and do not desire to be proven incorrect. Unlike Lin who has turn into humbled through this conversation in the evening.  After the friends and family discover that the Inspector was obviously a hoax, Sheila still would not believe this individual came to trick them; the girl thinks he came to train the Birlings and Gerald a lesson about selflessness and caring for others instead of themselves. She says that the facts..
Amway india case analysis essay
CASE B-6: AMWAY INDIA ORGANIZATION CONTEXT & INITIAL CIRCUMSTANCE Amway, a North American Multinational, subsidiary of Alticor Incorporation. has over time become one of the leaders inside the 90 billion dollars dollar direct selling sector through the use of multi-level marketing and creation of networks of independent business owners and sales. Founded in 1959 by simply Jay Truck Andel and Richard DeVos, the company grew and mesmerized interest by using an international..
Essay on the prize simply by daniel yergin
The film "The Prize" can be described as documentary film that depending on the book "The Prize" by Daniel Yergin. The title of the next episode "The Prize" is referred to as war and oil, the key idea of this kind of episode can be cover the role of oil during the World War II, plus the point that first described in the video is that olive oil was an determine component for the earth War 2 result. This paper will handle some of the significant historical..
Crepúsculo essay
CrepúsculoThere exists a word that I learned from Pablo Neruda: crepúsculo. It indicates twilight.My spouse and i swim every night in the twilight of a hundred or so faces. These are the confronts that I look out of a sterling silver mist. These are the faces which have found their way to that particular part of my personal brain exactly where lost things are kept, efficiently stacked, permanently pressed at the rear of frosted goblet; forever just out of reach....Joe's confront,..
Subscribe to our updates
79 345 subscribers already with us

Related authors

Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington, byname of Edward Kennedy Ellington, (born April 29, 1899, Washington, D.C., U.S.--died..
Anna Akhmatova
Anna Akhmatova
Anna Akhmatova, pseudonym of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko, (born June 11 [June 23, New Style], 1889,..
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau, (baptized September 25, 1683, Dijon, France--died September 12, 1764,..
Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso, (born March 11, 1544, Sorrento, Kingdom of Naples [Italy]--died April 25, 1595,..
Francois Hollande
Francois Hollande
Francois Hollande, in full Francois Gerard Georges Hollande, (born August 12, 1954, Rouen, France),..
Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell, in full Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell Marsh, (born November 8, 1900, Atlanta,..
Lucian, Greek Lucianos, Latin Lucianus, (born ad 120, Samosata, Commagene, Syria [now Samsat,..
Martial, Latin in full Marcus Valerius Martialis, (born Mar. 1, ad 38-41, Bilbilis, Hispania [Spain]--died..
Cornelius Otto Jansen
Cornelius Otto Jansen
Cornelius Otto Jansen, (born October 28, 1585, Acquoi, near Leerdam, Holland--died May 6, 1638,..
Ibn Gabirol
Ibn Gabirol
Ibn Gabirol, in full Solomon ben Yehuda Ibn Gabirol, Arabic Abu Ayyub Sulayman ibn Yahya ibn Gabirut,..
Juvenal, Latin in full Decimus Junius Juvenalis, (born 55-60? ce, Aquinum, Italy--died probably..
Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley, Edmond also spelled Edmund, (born Nov. 8, 1656, Haggerston, Shoreditch, near London--died..
Gaius Petronius Arbiter
Gaius Petronius Arbiter
Gaius Petronius Arbiter, original name Titus Petronius Niger, (died ad 66), reputed author of the..
Michael Harrington
Michael Harrington
Michael Harrington, (born February 24, 1928, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.--died July 31, 1989, Larchmont,..
Terence, Latin in full Publius Terentius Afer, (born c. 195 bc, Carthage, North Africa [now in Tunisia]--died..
Seneca, in full Lucius Annaeus Seneca, byname Seneca the Younger, (born c. 4 bce, Corduba (now Cordoba),..
Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke, in full Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, (born December 16, 1917, Minehead, Somerset,..
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, (born Dec. 11, 1918, Kislovodsk, Russia--died Aug. 3, 2008,..
Dylan Thomas
Dylan Thomas
Dylan Thomas, in full Dylan Marlais Thomas, (born October 27, 1914, Swansea, Glamorgan [now in Swansea],..
Paul Valery
Paul Valery
Paul Valery, in full Ambroise-Paul-Toussaint-Jules Valery, (born Oct. 30, 1871, Sete, Fr.--died..