Tawfiq al-Hakim (October 09, 1898 - July 26, 1987)
Born: 9th October, 1898
Died: 26th July, 1987
Nationality: Egyptian author
Region: Alexandria, Egypt, Cairo
Notable works: "The Maze of Justice", "Ahl al-kahf"

Tawfiq al-Hakim Facts

Biography

Tawfiq al-Hakim, (born Oct. 9, 1898, Alexandria, Egypt--died July 26, 1987, Cairo), founder of contemporary Egyptian drama and a leading figure in modern Arabic literature.

Al-Hakim was born into a well-to-do family. After studying law at Cairo University, he went to Paris to continue his legal studies but instead devoted most of his time to the theatre. On his return to Egypt four years later (1930), he worked for the Ministry of Justice in a rural area and for the Ministry of Education in Cairo. However, in 1936 he resigned to devote himself entirely to writing.

Al-Hakim won fame as a dramatist with Ahl al-kahf (1933; "The People of the Cave"), which was ostensibly based on the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus but which was actually a study of the human struggle against time. This introduced his series of "dramas of ideas," or of "symbolism." They include Shahrazad (1934), based on The Thousand and One Nights, as well as the plays Al-Malik Udib (1939; "King Oedipus"), Pijmaliyun (1942; "Pygmalion"), and Sulayman al-Hakim (1934; "Solomon the Wise"). His output of more than 50 plays also includes many on Egyptian social themes, such as Sirr al-muntahirah (1937; "The Secret of the Suicide Girl") and Rusasah fi al-Qalb (1944; "A Bullet in the Heart"). His boldest drama was the lengthy Muhammad (1936), which was not intended for performance.

Al-Hakim made drama a respected Arabic literary genre. Prior to him, prose plays had been primarily lightweight comedy or farce, while verse had been used by such noted poets as Ahmad Shawqi for heroic drama. Al-Hakim, however, wrote only in prose--a flexible, high-quality prose, often interspersed with colloquial Arabic. His autobiographical novel, Yawmiyat na?ib fi al-aryaf (1937; The Maze of Justice), is a satire on Egyptian officialdom.

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