Stephen Crane (November 01, 1871 - June 05, 1900)
Born: 1st November, 1871
Died: 5th June, 1900
Nationality: American writer
Region: Newark, New Jersey, Germany
Notable works: "The Red Badge of Courage", "The Blue Hotel", "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky", "The Open Boat", "Maggie: a Girl of the Streets"

Stephen Crane Facts

Biography

Stephen Crane, (born Nov. 1, 1871, Newark, N.J., U.S.--died June 5, 1900, Badenweiler, Baden, Ger.), American novelist, poet, and short-story writer, best known for his novels Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) and The Red Badge of Courage (1895) and the short stories "The Open Boat," "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky," and "The Blue Hotel."

Stephen's father, Jonathan Crane, was a Methodist minister who died in 1880, leaving Stephen, the youngest of 14 children, to be reared by his devout, strong-minded mother. After attending preparatory school at the Claverack College (1888-90), Crane spent less than two years at college and then went to New York City to live in a medical students' boardinghouse while freelancing his way to a literary career. While alternating bohemian student life and explorations of the Bowery slums with visits to genteel relatives in the country near Port Jervis, N.Y., Crane wrote his first book, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893), a sympathetic study of an innocent and abused slum girl's descent into prostitution and her eventual suicide.

At that time so shocking that Crane published it under a pseudonym and at his own expense, Maggie left him to struggle as a poor and unknown freelance journalist, until he was befriended by Hamlin Garland and the influential critic William Dean Howells. Suddenly in 1895 the publication of The Red Badge of Courage and of his first book of poems, The Black Riders, brought him international fame. Strikingly different in tone and technique from Maggie, The Red Badge of Courage is a subtle impressionistic study of a young soldier trying to find reality amid the conflict of fierce warfare. The book's hero, Henry Fleming, survives his own fear, cowardice, and vainglory and goes on to discover courage, humility, and perhaps wisdom in the confused combat of an unnamed Civil War battle. Crane, who had as yet seen no war, was widely praised by veterans for his uncanny power to imagine and reproduce the sense of actual combat.

Crane's few remaining years were chaotic and personally disastrous. His unconventionality and his sympathy for the downtrodden aroused malicious gossip and false charges of drug addiction and Satanism that disgusted the fastidious author. His reputation as a war writer, his desire to see if he had guessed right about the psychology of combat, and his fascination with death and danger sent him to Greece and then to Cuba as a war correspondent.

His first attempt in 1897 to report on the insurrection in Cuba ended in near disaster; the ship Commodore on which he was traveling sank with $5,000 worth of ammunition, and Crane--reported drowned--finally rowed into shore in a dinghy with the captain, cook, and oiler, Crane scuttling his money belt of gold before swimming through dangerous surf. The result was one of the world's great short stories, "The Open Boat."

Unable to get to Cuba, Crane went to Greece to report the Greco-Turkish War for the New York Journal. He was accompanied by Cora Taylor, a former brothel-house proprietor. At the end of the war they settled in England in a villa at Oxted, Surrey, and in April 1898 Crane departed to report the Spanish-American War in Cuba, first for the New York World and then for the New York Journal. When the war ended, Crane wrote the first draft of Active Service, a novel of the Greek war. He finally returned to Cora in England nine months after his departure and settled in a costly 14th-century manor house at Brede Place, Sussex. Here Cora, a silly woman with social and literary pretensions, contributed to Crane's ruin by encouraging his own social ambitions. They ruined themselves financially by entertaining hordes of spongers, as well as close literary friends--including Joseph Conrad, Ford Madox Ford, H.G. Wells, Henry James, and Robert Barr, who completed Crane's Irish romance The O'Ruddy.

Crane now fought a desperate battle against time, illness, and debts. Privation and exposure in his Bowery years and as a correspondent, together with an almost deliberate disregard for his health, probably hastened the disease that killed him at an early age. He died of tuberculosis that was compounded by the recurrent malarial fever he had caught in Cuba.

After The Red Badge of Courage, Crane's few attempts at the novel were of small importance, but he achieved an extraordinary mastery of the short story. He exploited youthful small-town experiences in The Monster and Other Stories (1899) and Whilomville Stories (1900); the Bowery again in George's Mother (1896); an early trip to the southwest and Mexico in "The Blue Hotel" and "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky"; the Civil War again in The Little Regiment (1896); and war correspondent experiences in The Open Boat and Other Tales of Adventure (1898) and Wounds in the Rain (1900). In the best of these tales Crane showed a rare ability to shape colourful settings, dramatic action, and perceptive characterization into ironic explorations of human nature and destiny. In even briefer scope, rhymeless, cadenced and "free" in form, his unique, flashing poetry was extended into War Is Kind (1899).

Stephen Crane first broke new ground in Maggie, which evinced an uncompromising (then considered sordid) realism that initiated the literary trend of the succeeding generations--i.e., the sociological novels of Frank Norris, Theodore Dreiser, and James T. Farrell. Crane intended The Red Badge of Courage to be "a psychological portrayal of fear," and reviewers rightly praised its psychological realism. The first nonromantic novel of the Civil War to attain widespread popularity, The Red Badge of Courage turned the tide of the prevailing convention about war fiction and established a new, if not unprecedented, one. The secret of Crane's success as war correspondent, journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and poet lay in his achieving tensions between irony and pity, illusion and reality, or the double mood of hope contradicted by despair. Crane was a great stylist and a master of the contradictory effect.

Stephen Crane essays

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Naturalism The Start Boat To Build A Fire English Literature Essay
Naturalism is a kind of literature that strives to achieve the duplication of the human individuals with the involvements of environment, heredity, instinct, chance, as well as the present cultural conditions of the particular time in that your work was written. American literary naturalism is closely associated with literary realism, and is also heavily affected by determinism: which areas a person's habits are swayed by heredity and environment. (http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/naturalism) In these brief stories authors Stephen Crane and Jack London make an effort..
The Bride Comes To Yellow Sky | Analysis
In The Bride-to-be Involves Yellow Sky, Stephen Crane features the ordinary as well as its sometimes unfavorable consequences. Within the tale, Scratchy Wilson and Jack Potter confront a significant change in their aspect. Crane's history shows the type of sociable addition with the unanticipated change towards a fresh modern culture. The inflexibility of the city to accept these eastern affects is presented within the depictions of Jack Potter and Scratchy Wilson. Stephen Crane discloses that whether a interconnection or have difficulties remains, change is inescapable. Although..
The Red Badge Of Courage Research English Literature Essay
The Red Badge of Courage is a classic Civil War novel that was compiled by Stephen Crane in 1895. Being truly a soldier in the Civil War was dangerous, with a death toll of over 600, 000. Becoming one particular statistics was an obvious fear for most military. The question is, are you willing to fight for your part or are you a coward? This question takes on an important role throughout the storyplot, as it is the key factor in Henry Fleming's brain. This question helps Fleming and his fellow military in their changeover from boys to men. Crane creates three major heroes that become mature soldiers after..
Existence as a Prostitute in The Painted Cohorts Documents
Life as a Prostitute inside the Painted CohortsIt was a dark, threatening night because she was standing there inside the shadows. Looking forward to the finale of the show that was playing, she glanced toward the exit whereby people would soon become leaving. The rich, since patrons in the theatre home, promised her a salary by least for today. Her tattered outfits revealed the consequence of personal decheance; the emaciated frame, that presently been around, harked again upon a body your woman must have when possessed. Driven by lower income to the area of "painted cohorts, inches she..
The Monster Angels by simply Michael Shaara Essay
Within a letter towards the reader, Michael Shaara says that his purpose is similar to Stephen Crane's in The Red Badge of Valor. He desires to display history not as cold facts, but instead in such a way that the reader can live the history. This is to be accomplished through comprehensive detail of the emotions from the men, the atmosphere of the battle, and strategies of the commanding officers. Accepting this as Shaara's intent, it is usually justifiably stated that this individual succeeds in his objective. The Killer Angels does not simply relate what assaults and defenses wherever..
Important Review of The Red Marker of Bravery Essay
Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage, talks about a young young man becoming a guy, through the techniques for war. In the story Holly joins the war searching for adventure and courageousness. Holly comes in person with new friends and foes inside the story, along with searching death in the eye on more than one occasion. Sophie Crane will an excellent task in writing this book. After looking over this story one general explained that "he recalled fighting in the warfare with Crane" (Overview).In November 1, 1871 Sophie Crane the writer of The Reddish colored Badge of Courage..
Examination Of Stephen Crane 's ' The Open Motorboat ' Composition
Analysis of "The Open Boat"In 1897 acclaimed copy writer Stephen Motorised hoist boarded a freighter commissioned to smuggle weapons and munitions to Cuba; he was to file the quest, but quickly after departure, the freighter sank. The literary traditional "The Wide open Boat", which in turn Crane written after enduring this tragedy, had nothing to do while using intended reason for the voyage, but rather focused on the will of person versus character and is the highest short story of Naturalistic literature.Protagonists carry a fantastic significance in Naturalism(..
Essay regarding The Open up Boat by simply Stephen Motorised hoist
"The Open Boat" is brief tale of endurance, suffering, and payoff. The story focuses on four interesting sailors on the journey to survival. They try their best to conquer the adversities of the water and strong storm. Motorised hoist focuses on the struggle of man's immobility to control his own existence. "The Open Boat" can be described as nonfictional fiction some call it up. It typically is contended as just fiction, most lean toward its nonfictional quality. Motorised hoist wrote the storyline based away his real life experience of a shipwreck he tragically..
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