St. Jerome
Nationality: Christian scholar
Region: Bethlehem
Notable works: monasticism

St. Jerome Facts

Biography

St. Jerome, Latin in full Eusebius Hieronymus, pseudonym Sophronius, (born c. 347, Stridon, Dalmatia--died 419/420, Bethlehem, Palestine; feast day September 30), biblical translator and monastic leader, traditionally regarded as the most learned of the Latin Fathers. He lived for a time as a hermit, became a priest, served as secretary to Pope Damasus I, and about 389 established a monastery at Bethlehem. His numerous biblical, ascetical, monastic, and theological works profoundly influenced the early Middle Ages. He is known particularly for his Latin translation of the Bible, the Vulgate, and is considered a doctor of the church.

Life

Jerome was born of well-to-do Christian parents at Stridon, probably near the modern Ljubljana, Slovenia. His education, begun at home, was continued in Rome when he was about 12. There he studied grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy. A serious scholar enamoured of Latin literature, he frequented the catacombs and near the end of his Roman education was baptized (c. 366), probably by Pope Liberius.

He spent the next 20 years in travel and impermanent residences. At Treveris (later Trier), he was profoundly attracted to monasticism. Possibly as early as 369 he was back in the vicinity of Stridon. In Aquileia (Italy) he was linked with an ascetic elite--including Tyrannius Rufinus, a writer and scholar, who translated the 3rd-century Alexandrian theologian Origen--grouped around Bishop Valerianus. When the group disbanded (c. 373), Jerome decided to go on a trip through the East. On reaching Antioch in 374, fatigued by travel and by inner conflict, he rested as a guest of the priest Evagrius of Antioch and there may have composed his earliest known work, De septies percussa ("Concerning Seven Beatings"). There also, in mid-Lent 375, during a near-fatal illness, he had a celebrated dream. In that dream, in which he was dragged before a tribunal of the Lord, he was accused of being a Ciceronian--a follower of the 1st-century-bce Roman philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero--rather than a Christian, and he was severely lashed; he vowed never again to read or possess pagan literature.

Long afterward, in controversy with Rufinus, Jerome minimized the dream's importance, but for years it prevented him from reading the classics for pleasure, and at the time it was the cause of a genuine spiritual crisis. One result of the dream was his first exegetical (critical interpretive) work, an allegorical commentary on the biblical book Obadiah, which he disowned 21 years later as a youthful production of fervent ignorance.

In 375 Jerome began a two-year search for inner peace as a hermit in the desert of Chalcis. The experience was not altogether successful. A novice in spiritual life, he had no expert guide, and, speaking only Latin, he was confronted with Syriac and Greek. Lonely, he begged for letters, and he found desert food a penance, yet he claimed that he was genuinely happy. His response to temptation was incessant prayer and fasting. He learned Hebrew from a Jewish convert, studied Greek, had manuscripts copied for his library and his friends, and carried on a brisk correspondence.

The crisis arrived when Chalcis became involved with ecclesiastical and theological controversies centring on episcopal succession and Trinitarian (on the nature of the relationship of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) and Christological (on the nature of Christ) disputes. Suspected of harbouring heretical views (i.e., Sabellianism, which emphasized God's unity at the expense of the distinct persons), Jerome insisted that the answer to ecclesiastical and theological problems resided in oneness with the Roman bishop. Pope Damasus I did not respond, and Jerome quit the desert for Antioch.

In Antioch his host, Evagrius, won Jerome over to the party of Bishop Paulinus, who was opposed by St. Basil, the great orthodox bishop of Caesarea and one of the three Cappadocian Fathers--the others being St. Gregory of Nazianzus and St. Gregory of Nyssa. Recognizing his importance--since Jerome was by now known as a scholar and a monastic figure of significance--Paulinus decided to ordain him. Jerome accepted (378) on two conditions: that his monastic aspirations would not be prejudiced and that priestly functions would not be forced on him. He attended the exegetical lectures of Apollinaris of Laodicea and visited the Nazarenes (Jewish Christians) of Beroea to examine their copy of a Hebrew gospel purporting to be the original Gospel of Matthew.

Jerome spent almost three years (379-382) continuing his pursuit of scriptural studies. An enthusiastic disciple of St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Jerome also came to know St. Gregory of Nyssa and the theologian Amphilochius of Iconium at the Council of Constantinople (381). Under such influences he improved his knowledge of Greek and developed an admiration for Origen's exegesis. He translated 14 of Origen's homilies (sermons) on Old Testament books into Latin. Here too he translated the church historian Eusebius's Chronicon (Chronicles) and continued it to the year 378.

But the most decisive influence on Jerome's later life was his return to Rome (382-385) as secretary to Pope Damasus I. There he pursued his scholarly work on the Bible and propagated the ascetic life. On Damasus's urging he wrote some short exegetical tracts and translated two sermons of Origen on the Song of Solomon. More importantly, he revised the Old Latin version of the Gospels on the basis of the best Greek manuscripts at his command and made his first, somewhat unsuccessful, revision of the Old Latin Psalter based on a few Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament) manuscripts. He held classes for a monastic-minded circle of noble Roman widows and virgins (e.g., Marcella, Paula, and her daughters Blesilla and Eustochium). He taught them the Hebrew text of the Psalms, orally and in letters, he answered their biblical problems, and he was their master in spirituality as well. Under these conditions, he wrote a defense of the perpetual virginity of Mary, Jesus' mother (383), and attacked the view of those who espoused the equality of virginity and marriage. But his preaching in support of the monastic life and his relationship with the ascetic coterie, his castigation of Roman clergy, lax monks, and hypocritical virgins, and his correction of the Gospel text provoked such a storm of criticism and calumny, especially after Damasus's death, in December 384, that in August 385 he left "Babylon" (Rome) in bitter indignation and made his way to the Holy Land.

In company with virgins led by Paula, Jerome made a religious and archaeological pilgrimage through all of Palestine and to the monastic centres of Egypt; he spent almost a month with the famed exegete Didymus the Blind in Alexandria.

The summer of 386 found him settled in Bethlehem. There, by 389, Paula finished a monastery for men under Jerome's direction, three cloisters for women (forming one convent) under her own supervision, and a hostel for pilgrims. Here Jerome lived, except for brief journeys, until his death.

Major literary works

The literary legacy of Jerome's last 34 years (in Palestine) is the outgrowth of contemporary controversies, Jerome's passion for Scripture, and his involvement in monastic life. The controversies were varied. An anti-Origen movement in the east, fanned by the antiheretical bishop Epiphanius, turned Jerome not only against the views of Origen--whose 39 sermons on Luke he had translated c. 389-392--but against his friends Bishop John of Jerusalem and Rufinus. His petulance in early correspondence with St. Augustine, stemming from the African's strictures on Jerome's biblical efforts, imperilled their mutual respect. His catalog of Christian authors, De viris illustribus ("Concerning Illustrious Men"), was written in 392/393 to counter pagan pride in pagan culture. Against the monk Jovinian, who asserted the equality of virginity and marriage, he wrote a polemical diatribe Adversus Jovinianum (393) that was frequently brilliant but needlessly crude, excessively influenced by the 2nd- and 3rd-century theologian Tertullian, whose writings were at times unnecessarily harsh toward marriage. Against the priest Vigilantius, Jerome dictated in one night a defense of monasticism, clerical celibacy, and certain practices connected with the cult of martyrs (Contra Vigilantium, 406). The Pelagian problem--named for the heretical British monk Pelagius, who minimized the role of divine grace in salvation--was transplanted to Palestine from Rome with the personal appearance of the author of this heresy, and it called forth Jerome's finest controversial work, Dialogi contra Pelagianos (three books, 415), in which his use of fictitious interlocutors makes his arguments uncommonly impersonal.

Jerome's biblical production in Bethlehem includes two introductory works helpful to biblical scholars: Liber locorum ("Book of Places"), a useful translation and adaptation of Eusebius's work on Palestinian place-names; and Liber interpretationis Hebraicorum nominum ("Book of Interpretation of Hebrew Names"), an alphabetical list, with quite fanciful etymologies or origins, of Hebrew proper names in the Bible. Continuing his revision of the Old Latin version of the Septuagint based on Origen's Hexapla (an edition with the Hebrew text in Hebrew and Greek characters, and four different Greek versions arranged in six parallel columns), he revised Ecclesiastes, Proverbs, the Song of Solomon, Chronicles, and Job, and to his Roman revision of the Psalms he added Origen's diacritical notes. Between 391 and 406 he produced a Latin translation of the Old Testament on the basis of the original text, a remarkable effort considering the slender instruments at his disposal and the opposition his project provoked. Jerome's Bethlehem commentaries suffer at times from hasty composition, excessive dependence on his predecessors, and a predilection for allegorical interpretation. The Liber Hebraicarum quaestionum in Genesim ("Book of Hebrew Questions on Genesis") gives an important place to geography, etymology, and Rabbinic tradition (postbiblical Jewish scholarly views). He wrote short glosses (interpretations) on the Psalter and more scientific explanations of Psalms 10-16. His commentary on Ecclesiastes (c. 387) is a milestone in exegesis because it is the first original Latin commentary that takes advantage of the Hebrew text. Perhaps Jerome's best commentaries are on the minor and major prophets of the Old Testament. As for the New Testament, he explained Matthew, accenting the literal sense; he interpreted four of the Apostle Paul's letters (Philemon, Galatians, Ephesians, Titus), with the stress on the allegorical interpretation; he recast the chiliastic commentary (on the view that Christ would return again and his followers would reign for 1,000 years) of Bishop Victorinus of Pettau (Austria), a Latin exegete martyred circa 304, on the Revelation to John. Many of his letters are tracts on exegetical problems, and he wrote homilies to monks under his direction on texts of Scripture.

Jerome's ascetical interests at Bethlehem are mirrored not only in his controversies but in his life of Malchus, the monk captured by Bedouins; a biography of Hilarion, with its miracles and journeyings; a translation of Coptic ascetical works (e.g., the Rule of Pachomius); homilies to monks; and a significant segment of his correspondence.

Influence

Jerome is remembered for his extensive erudition, especially his understanding of the classics, the Bible, and Christian tradition. In the art of the Renaissance he was frequently (and anachronistically) depicted dressed in the robes of a cardinal, a reflection of his stature as a model humanist. He was a learned scholar rather than a deep thinker, a sound traditionalist and not a speculative theologian, more competent as editor than as exegete. His career was a turbulent combination of scholarship and asceticism, and his correspondence is an exciting source for the historian, Scripture student, and theologian. His influence has been far-reaching and profound, on the early Middle Ages in particular: primarily through the Vulgate (the Latin version that he had translated), but importantly also through his work as an exegete and humanist and because he transmitted much of Greek thought to the West.

Top 28 St. Jerome quotes

Good, better, best. Never let it rest. 'Til your good is better and your better is best.
Best
Better
Good
Never
Rest
Your
I am like the sick sheep that strays from the rest of the flock. Unless the Good Shepherd takes me on His shoulders and carries me back to His fold, my steps will falter, and in the very effort of rising, my feet will give way.
Am
Back
Carries
Effort
Falter
Feet
Flock
Fold
Give
Good
His
I am
Like
Me
It is not enough for us to restrain from doing evil, unless we shall also do good.
Also
Doing
Enough
Evil
Good
Restrain
Shall
Unless
Us
Virginity can be lost by a thought.
Lost
Thought
Virginity
Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a be general natural law.
Act
Action
Become
General
Law
Maxim
Natural
Through
Were
Will
Your
Being over seventy is like being engaged in a war. All our friends are going or gone and we survive amongst the dead and the dying as on a battlefield.
Amongst
Battlefield
Being
Dead
Dying
Engaged
Friends
Going
Gone
Like
Our
Over
Seventy
Survive
Action without a name, a 'who' attached to it, is meaningless.
Action
Attached
Meaningless
Name
Who
Without
Marriage is good for those who are afraid to sleep alone at night.
Afraid
Alone
Good
Marriage
Night
Sleep
Those
Who
True friendship ought never to conceal what it thinks.
Conceal
Friendship
Never
Ought
Thinks
True
True friendship
The friendship that can cease has never been real.
Been
Cease
Friendship
Never
Real
The scars of others should teach us caution.
Caution
Others
Scars
Should
Teach
Us
Beauty when unadorned is adorned the most.
Beauty
Most
Be ever engaged, so that whenever the devil calls he may find you occupied.
Calls
Devil
Engaged
Ever
Find
He
May
Occupied
Whenever
You
Catch, then, O catch the transient hour; Improve each moment as it flies!
Catch
Each
Flies
Hour
Improve
Moment
Then
Transient
Haste is of the Devil.
Devil
Haste
Keep doing some kind of work, that the devil may always find you employed.
Always
Devil
Doing
Employed
Find
Keep
Kind
May
Some
Work
You
Let your daughter have first of all the book of Psalms for holiness of heart, and be instructed in the Proverbs of Solomon for her godly life.
Book
Daughter
First
First of all
Godly
Heart
Her
Holiness
Instructed
Life
Proverbs
Psalms
Your
The face is the mirror of the mind, and eyes without speaking confess the secrets of the heart.
Confess
Eyes
Face
Heart
Mind
Mirror
Secrets
Speaking
Without
They talk like angels but they live like men.
Angels
Like
Live
Men
Talk
What good is speed if the brain has oozed out on the way.
Brain
Good
Out
Speed
Way
Why do you not practice what you preach.
Practice
Preach
Why
You
A fat stomach never breeds fine thoughts.
Breeds
Fat
Fine
Never
Stomach
Thoughts
Love is not to be purchased, and affection has no price.
Affection
Love
Love is
Price
Purchased
A friend is long sought, hardly found, and with difficulty kept.
Difficulty
Found
Friend
Hardly
Kept
Long
Sought
I am that prodigal son who wasted all the portion entrusted to me by my father. But I have not yet fallen at my father's knees. I have not yet begun to put away from me the enticements of my former riotous living.
Am
Away
Begun
Entrusted
Fallen
Father
Former
I am
Knees
Living
Me
Portion
Prodigal
Put
My native land is a slave of heathenism, men's god is their belly, and they live only for the present. The richer a man, the holier.
Belly
God
Land
Live
Man
Men
Native
Native land
Only
Present
Richer
Slave
Those who persevere in sin are those who are held in abhorrence by God, but those who abandon the ways of sin are loved by the Lord.
Abandon
God
Held
Lord
Loved
Persevere
Sin
Those
Ways
Who
Someone may ask, 'How is justice greater than all the other virtues?' The other virtues gratify the one who possesses them; justice does not give pleasure to the one possessing it, but instead pleases others.
Ask
Does
Give
Gratify
Greater
How
Instead
Justice
May
Other
Others
Pleases
Pleasure
Possesses

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