Rosalia de Castro, (born February 1837, Santiago de Compostela, Spain--died July 15, 1885, Padron, near Santiago), the most outstanding modern writer in the Galician language, whose work is of both regional and universal significance.In 1858 Castro married the historian Manuel Murguia (1833-1923), a champion of the Galician Renaissance. Although she was the author of a number of novels, she is best known for her poetry, contained in Cantares gallegos (1863; "Galician Songs") and Follas novas (1880; "New Medleys"), both written in her own language, and En las orillas del Sar (1884; Beside..
Baltasar Gracian, in full Baltasar Gracian y Morales, (born January 8, 1601, Belmonte de Calatayud, Spain--died December 6, 1658, Tarazona), philosopher and writer known as the leading Spanish exponent of conceptism (conceptismo), a style of dealing with ideas that involves the use of terse and subtle displays of exaggerated wit.After studying at Calatayud and Zaragoza, Gracian entered the Jesuit order at the age of 18 and later became rector of the Jesuit college at Tarragona. His early works--El heroe (1637; The Hero), El discreto (1646; The Compleat Gentleman), and El oraculo manual..
Jose Ortega y Gasset, (born May 9, 1883, Madrid, Spain--died Oct. 18, 1955, Madrid), philosopher and humanist who greatly influenced the cultural and literary renaissance of Spain in the 20th century.Ortega y Gasset studied at Madrid University (1898-1904) and in Germany (1904-08) and was influenced by the neo-Kantian philosophical school at Marburg. As professor of metaphysics at Madrid (1910), however, he diverged from neo-Kantianism in such works as Adan en el paraiso (1910; "Adam in Paradise"), Meditaciones del Quijote (1914; "Quixote's Meditations"), and El tema de nuestro tiempo..
Juan Goytisolo, (born January 5, 1931, Barcelona, Spain--died June 4, 2017, Marrakech, Morocco), Spanish novelist, short-story writer, and essayist whose early Neorealist work evolved into avant-garde fiction using structuralist and formalist techniques.A young child when his mother was killed during the Spanish Civil War, Goytisolo grew up hating the fascist dictatorship and the country's conservative religious values. From 1948 to 1952 he attended the universities of Barcelona and Madrid. From the late 1950s he lived in self-imposed exile in Paris and later in Marrakech, Morocco.His..
Camilo Jose Cela, in full Camilo Jose Cela Trulock, (born May 11, 1916, Iria Flavia, Spain--died January 17, 2002, Madrid), Spanish writer who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1989. He is perhaps best known for his novel La familia de Pascual Duarte (1942; The Family of Pascual Duarte) and is considered to have given new life to Spanish literature. His literary production--primarily novels, short narratives, and travel diaries--is characterized by experimentation and innovation in form and content. Cela is also credited by some critics with having established the narrative style known..
Juan Ramon Jimenez, (born Dec. 24, 1881, Moguer, Spain--died May 29, 1958, San Juan, P.R.), Spanish poet awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1956.After studying briefly at the University of Salamanca, Jimenez went to Madrid (1900) at the invitation of the poet Ruben Dario. His first two volumes of poetry, Almas de violeta ("Souls of Violet") and Ninfeas ("Waterlilies"), came out that same year. The two books, printed in violet and green, respectively, so embarrassed Jimenez in his later years by their excessive sentiment that he destroyed every copy he could find. A man of frail constitution,..
George Santayana, original name Jorge Augustin Nicolas Ruiz De Santayana, (born December 16, 1863, Madrid, Spain--died September 26, 1952, Rome, Italy), Spanish-American philosopher, poet, and humanist who made important contributions to aesthetics, speculative philosophy, and literary criticism. From 1912 he resided in Europe, chiefly in France and Italy.Early life and careerGeorge Santayana was born in Madrid of Spanish parents. He never relinquished his Spanish citizenship, and, although he was to write in English with subtlety and poise, he did not begin to learn that language..
Federico Garcia Lorca, (born June 5, 1898, Fuente Vaqueros, Granada province, Spain--died August 18 or 19, 1936, between Viznar and Alfacar, Granada province), Spanish poet and playwright who, in a career that spanned just 19 years, resurrected and revitalized the most basic strains of Spanish poetry and theatre. He is known primarily for his Andalusian works, including the poetry collections Romancero gitano (1928; Gypsy Ballads) and Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias (1935; "Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias," Eng. trans. Lament for a Bullfighter), and the tragedies Bodas de sangre..
Lope de Vega, in full Lope Felix de Vega Carpio, byname the Phoenix of Spain or Spanish El Fenix de Espana, (born Nov. 25, 1562, Madrid, Spain--died Aug. 27, 1635, Madrid), outstanding dramatist of the Spanish Golden Age, author of as many as 1,800 plays and several hundred shorter dramatic pieces, of which 431 plays and 50 shorter pieces are extant.LifeLope de Vega was the second son and third child of Francisca Fernandez Flores and Felix de Vega, an embroiderer. He was taught Latin and Castilian in 1572-73 by the poet Vicente Espinel, and the following year he entered the Jesuit Imperial College,..
Miguel de Cervantes, in full Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, (born September 29?, 1547, Alcala de Henares, Spain--died April 22, 1616, Madrid), Spanish novelist, playwright, and poet, the creator of Don Quixote (1605, 1615) and the most important and celebrated figure in Spanish literature. His novel Don Quixote has been translated, in full or in part, into more than 60 languages. Editions continue regularly to be printed, and critical discussion of the work has proceeded unabated since the 18th century. At the same time, owing to their widespread representation in art, drama, and film, the..
Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Machado y Ruiz, (born July 26, 1875, Sevilla, Spain--died February 22, 1939, Collioure, France), outstanding Spanish poet and playwright of Spain's Generation of '98.Machado received a doctoral degree in literature in Madrid, attended the Sorbonne, and became a secondary school French teacher. He rejected the modernism of his contemporaries and adopted what he called "eternal poetry," which was informed more by intuition than by intellect. Three stages can be distinguished in his artistic evolution. The first, typified by the poems in Soledades (1903;..
Carmen Laforet, in full Carmen Laforet Diaz, (born September 6, 1921, Barcelona, Spain--died February 28, 2004, Madrid), Spanish novelist and short-story writer who received international recognition when her novel Nada (1944; "Nothingness"; Eng. trans., Nada) won the first Nadal Prize.Laforet was educated in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, and returned to Barcelona immediately after the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). The lives of the heroines in her novels strongly reflect the author's personal experiences. Nada, Laforet's first and most successful novel, presents the impressions of..