Andre Philippus Brink, (born May 29, 1935, Vrede, South Africa--died February 6, 2015, in an airplane traveling from the Netherlands to South Africa), South African writer whose novels, which he wrote in Afrikaans and English versions, often criticized the South African government.Brink was educated in South Africa and France. He later became professor of Afrikaans and Dutch literature at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa. He was one of a new generation of Afrikaans writers known as Die Sestigers ("the Sixtyers," or writers of the 1960s), whose declared aim was "to broaden..
Dennis Brutus, in full Dennis Vincent Brutus, (born November 28, 1924, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe]--died December 26, 2009, Cape Town, South Africa), poet whose works centre on his sufferings and those of his fellow blacks in South Africa.For 14 years Brutus taught English and Afrikaans in South Africa. As the white minority government increased restrictions on the black population, he became involved in a series of antiapartheid-related activities, including efforts to end discrimination in sports. The government subsequently banned him from teaching, writing,..
J.M. Coetzee, in full John Maxwell Coetzee, (born February 9, 1940, Cape Town, South Africa), South African novelist, critic, and translator noted for his novels about the effects of colonization. In 2003 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature.Coetzee was educated at the University of Cape Town (B.A., 1960; M.A., 1963) and the University of Texas (Ph.D., 1969). An opponent of apartheid, he nevertheless returned to live in South Africa, where he taught English at the University of Cape Town, translated works from the Dutch, and wrote literary criticism. He also held visiting professorships..
Todd Matshikiza, (born 1920/21, Queenstown, S.Af.--died March 4, 1968, Lusaka, Zambia), journalist, writer, and musician noted for his score for the musical play King Kong (1960) and for his short stories.Matshikiza divided his career from the start between musical and literary activities. Trained as a teacher at Lovedale, near the University College of Fort Hare, he wrote a monthly column for Drum magazine and also worked as a jazz critic. His choral music was widely performed by South African choirs and won him a commission for the Johannesburg Festival in 1956. When he and his family accompanied..
Alfred Hutchinson, (born 1924, Hectorspruit, Transvaal, S.Af.--died Oct. 14, 1972, Nigeria), writer and teacher noted for his imaginative experiments with language. His autobiography, Road to Ghana (1960), was highly acclaimed and translated into several languages. It tells of his escape from Johannesburg (via East Africa and Ghana) to the United Kingdom after he had been imprisoned in 1952 and charged with high treason in 1956 for opposing apartheid.Hutchinson graduated in education from the University College of Fort Hare and received his M.A. from the University of Sussex, England...
A.C. Jordan, in full Archibald Campbell Jordan, (born Oct. 30, 1906, Mbokothwana Mission, Cape Colony [now in South Africa]--died Oct. 20, 1968, Madison, Wis., U.S.), Xhosa novelist and educator who belonged to the second generation of South African black writers (of which Es'kia Mphahlele and Peter Abrahams are the best known).Jordan served as lecturer in Bantu languages and African studies at the University of Cape Town until 1961, when he immigrated to the United States. He taught at the University of California, Los Angeles (1962), and at the University of Wisconsin (1963-68).Jordan..
Guy Butler, in full Frederick Guy Butler, (born January 21, 1918, Cradock, Cape province [now in Eastern province], South Africa--died April 26, 2001, Grahamstown), South African poet and playwright, many of whose poems have extraordinary sensitivity and brilliant imagery.Butler began writing during military service in North Africa and Europe (1940-45). After studying at the University of Oxford, he joined the faculty of Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa, and from 1953 to 1978 headed the school's English department. He studied and edited diaries of colonial settlers and..
Lewis Nkosi, (born Dec. 5, 1936, Durban, Natal, S.Af.--died Sept. 5, 2010, Johannesburg), South African author, critic, journalist, and broadcaster.After attending a technical college in Durban for a year, Nkosi worked as a journalist, first in 1955 for the Zulu-English weekly paper Ilanga lase Natal ("Natal Sun") and then for the Drum magazine and as chief reporter for its Sunday newspaper, the Golden City Post, from 1956 to 1960.In 1961 Nkosi accepted a fellowship to study journalism at Harvard University, and, consequently, he was exiled from South Africa. From that time Nkosi wrote for..
Bloke Modisane, original name William Modisane, (born August 28, 1923, Johannesburg, South Africa--died March 1, 1986, Dortmund, West Germany), South African-born British writer, actor, and journalist whose moving autobiography, Blame Me on History (1963), is a passionate documentation of the degradation and oppression of blacks living under the laws of apartheid in South Africa.Educated in Johannesburg, Modisane served in the 1950s on the editorial staff of Drum magazine--which provided an important forum for a number of African writers, including Richard Rive, Alex La Guma, Es'kia..
Richard Rive, in full Richard Moore Rive, (born March 1, 1931, Cape Town, S.Af.--died June 4/5, 1989, Cape Town), South African writer, literary critic, and teacher whose short stories, which were dominated by the ironies and oppression of apartheid and by the degradation of slum life, have been extensively anthologized and translated into more than a dozen languages. He was considered to be one of South Africa's most important short-story writers.Rive grew up in Cape Town and with scholarship help attended high school and the University of Cape Town (graduated 1949). He taught at Hewat Training..
Herman Charles Bosman, (born Feb. 5, 1905, Kuils River, near Cape Town, Cape Colony [now in South Africa]--died Oct. 14, 1951, Edendale, S.Af.), South African writer who is noted for his short stories depicting rural Afrikaner character and life.Bosman, the son of Afrikaner parents, had an English education at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, where he took his degree in education. His teaching career was terminated abruptly when, home on a visit, he shot and killed his stepbrother. Bosman was sentenced to death; the sentence was commuted to 10 years, of which he actually served..
Mazisi Kunene, in full Mazisi Raymond Kunene, (born May 12, 1930, Durban, S.Af.--died Aug. 11, 2006, Durban), South African-born poet, whose work reflects the influences of traditional Zulu poets.Kunene began writing in the Zulu language when he was still a child and by age 11 had published a number of his poems in newspapers and magazines. In his University of Natal (now University of KwaZulu-Natal) master's thesis, "An Analytical Survey of Zulu Poetry, Both Traditional and Modern," Kunene criticized several tendencies in modern Zulu literature: its reliance on European stylistic techniques..