Sophocles
Nationality: Greek
Profession/Occupation: Poet
Region: ancient Greece, Athens
Notable works: "Oedipus Rex", "Trackers", "Philoctetes", "Trachinian Women", "Electra", "Ajax", "Oedipus at Colonus", "Antigone"

Sophocles Facts

Biography

Sophocles, (born c. 496 bce, Colonus, near Athens [Greece]--died 406, Athens), with Aeschylus and Euripides, one of classical Athens' three great tragic playwrights. The best known of his 123 dramas is Oedipus the King.

Life and career

Sophocles was the younger contemporary of Aeschylus and the older contemporary of Euripides. He was born at Colonus, a village outside the walls of Athens, where his father, Sophillus, was a wealthy manufacturer of armour. Sophocles himself received a good education. Because of his beauty of physique, his athletic prowess, and his skill in music, he was chosen in 480, when he was 16, to lead the paean (choral chant to a god) celebrating the decisive Greek sea victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. The relatively meagre information about Sophocles' civic life suggests that he was a popular favourite who participated actively in his community and exercised outstanding artistic talents. In 442 he served as one of the treasurers responsible for receiving and managing tribute money from Athens' subject-allies in the Delian League. In 440 he was elected one of the 10 strategoi (high executive officials who commanded the armed forces) as a junior colleague of Pericles. Sophocles later served as strategos perhaps twice again. In 413, then aged about 83, Sophocles was a proboulos, one of 10 advisory commissioners who were granted special powers and were entrusted with organizing Athens' financial and domestic recovery after its terrible defeat at Syracuse in Sicily. Sophocles' last recorded act was to lead a chorus in public mourning for his deceased rival, Euripides, before the festival of 406. He died that same year.

These few facts are about all that is known of Sophocles' life. They imply steady and distinguished attachment to Athens, its government, religion, and social forms. Sophocles was wealthy from birth, highly educated, noted for his grace and charm, on easy terms with the leading families, a personal friend of prominent statesmen, and in many ways fortunate to have died before the final surrender of Athens to Sparta in 404. In one of his last plays, Oedipus at Colonus, he still affectionately praises both his own birthplace and the great city itself.

Sophocles won his first victory at the Dionysian dramatic festival in 468, however, defeating the great Aeschylus in the process. This began a career of unparalleled success and longevity. In total, Sophocles wrote 123 dramas for the festivals. Since each author who was chosen to enter the competition usually presented four plays, this means he must have competed about 30 times. Sophocles won perhaps as many as 24 victories, compared to 13 for Aeschylus and four for Euripides, and indeed he may have never received lower than second place in the competitions he entered.

Dramatic and literary achievements

Ancient authorities credit Sophocles with several major and minor dramatic innovations. Among the latter is his invention of some type of "scene paintings" or other pictorial prop to establish locale or atmosphere. He also may have increased the size of the chorus from 12 to 15 members. Sophocles' major innovation was his introduction of a third actor into the dramatic performance. It had previously been permissible for two actors to "double" (i.e., assume other roles during a play), but the addition of a third actor onstage enabled the dramatist both to increase the number of his characters and widen the variety of their interactions. The scope of the dramatic conflict was thereby extended, plots could be more fluid, and situations could be more complex.

The typical Sophoclean drama presents a few characters, impressive in their determination and power and possessing a few strongly drawn qualities or faults that combine with a particular set of circumstances to lead them inevitably to a tragic fate. Sophocles develops his characters' rush to tragedy with great economy, concentration, and dramatic effectiveness, creating a coherent, suspenseful situation whose sustained and inexorable onrush came to epitomize the tragic form to the classical world. Sophocles emphasizes that most people lack wisdom, and he presents truth in collision with ignorance, delusion, and folly. Many scenes dramatize flaws or failure in thinking (deceptive reports and rumours, false optimism, hasty judgment, madness). The chief character does something involving grave error; this affects others, each of whom reacts in his own way, thereby causing the chief agent to take another step toward ruin--his own and that of others as well. Equally important, those who are to suffer from the tragic error usually are present at the time or belong to the same generation. It was this more complex type of tragedy that demanded a third actor. Sophocles thus abandoned the spacious Aeschylean framework of the connected trilogy and instead comprised the entire action in a single play. From his time onward, "trilogy" usually meant no more than three separate tragedies written by the same author and presented at the same festival.

Sophocles' language responds flexibly to the dramatic needs of the moment; it can be ponderously weighty or swift-moving, emotionally intense or easygoing, highly decorative or perfectly plain and simple. His mastery of form and diction was highly respected by his contemporaries. Sophocles has also been universally admired for the sympathy and vividness with which he delineates his characters; especially notable are his tragic women, such as Electra and Antigone. Few dramatists have been able to handle situation and plot with more power and certainty; the frequent references in the Poetics to Sophocles' Oedipus the King show that Aristotle regarded this play as a masterpiece of construction, and few later critics have dissented. Sophocles is also unsurpassed in his moments of high dramatic tension and in his revealing use of tragic irony.

The criticism has been made that Sophocles was a superb artist and nothing more; he grappled neither with religious problems as Aeschylus had nor with intellectual ones as Euripides had done. He accepted the gods of Greek religion in a spirit of unreflecting orthodoxy, and he contented himself with presenting human characters and human conflicts. But it should be stressed that to Sophocles "the gods" appear to have represented the natural forces of the universe to which human beings are unwittingly or unwillingly subject. To Sophocles, human beings live for the most part in dark ignorance because they are cut off from these permanent, unchanging forces and structures of reality. Yet it is pain, suffering, and the endurance of tragic crisis that can bring people into valid contact with the universal order of things. In the process, a person can become more genuinely human, more genuinely himself.

The plays

Only seven of Sophocles' tragedies survive in their entirety, along with 400 lines of a satyr play, numerous fragments of plays now lost, and 90 titles. All seven of the complete plays are works of Sophocles' maturity, but only two of them, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus, have fairly certain dates. Ajax is generally regarded as the earliest of the extant plays. Some evidence suggests that Antigone was first performed in 442 or 441 bc. Philoctetes was first performed in 409, when Sophocles was 90 years old, and Oedipus at Colonus was said to have been produced after Sophocles' death by his grandson.

Ajax

The entire plot of Ajax (Greek Aias mastigophoros) is constructed around Ajax, the mighty hero of the Trojan War whose pride drives him to treachery and finally to his own ruin and suicide some two-thirds of the way through the play. Ajax is deeply offended at the award of the prize of valour (the dead Achilles' armour) not to himself but to Odysseus. Ajax thereupon attempts to assassinate Odysseus and the contest's judges, the Greek commanders Agamemnon and Menelaus, but is frustrated by the intervention of the goddess Athena. He cannot bear his humiliation and throws himself on his own sword. Agamemnon and Menelaus order that Ajax' corpse be left unburied as punishment. But the wise Odysseus persuades the commanders to relent and grant Ajax an honourable burial. In the end Odysseus is the only person who seems truly aware of the changeability of human fortune.

Antigone

Antigone is the daughter of Oedipus, the former king of Thebes. She is willing to face the capital punishment that has been decreed by her uncle Creon, the new king, as the penalty for anyone burying her brother Polyneices. (Polyneices has just been killed attacking Thebes, and it is as posthumous punishment for this attack that Creon has forbidden the burial of his corpse.) Obeying all her instincts of love, loyalty, and humanity, Antigone defies Creon and dutifully buries her brother's corpse. Creon, from conviction that reasons of state outweigh family ties, refuses to commute Antigone's death sentence. By the time Creon is finally persuaded by the prophet Tiresias to relent and free Antigone, she has killed herself in her prison cell. Creon's son, Haemon, kills himself out of love and sympathy for the dead Antigone, and Creon's wife, Eurydice, then kills herself out of grief over these tragic events. At the play's end Creon is left desolate and broken in spirit. In his narrow and unduly rigid adherence to his civic duties, Creon has defied the gods through his denial of humanity's common obligations toward the dead. The play thus concerns the conflicting obligations of civic versus personal loyalties and religious mores.

Trachinian Women

This play centres on the efforts of Deianeira to win back the wandering affections of her husband, Heracles, who is away on one of his heroic missions and who has sent back his latest concubine, Iole, to live with his wife at their home in Trachis. The love charm Deianeira uses on Heracles turns out to be poisonous, and she kills herself upon learning of the agony she has caused her husband. Thus, in Trachinian Women (Greek Trachiniai) Heracles' insensitivity (in sending his mistress to share his wife's home) and Deianeira's ignorance result in domestic tragedy.

Oedipus the King

The plot of Oedipus the King (Greek Oidipous Tyrannos; Latin Oedipus Rex) is a structural marvel that marks the summit of classical Greek drama's formal achievements. The play's main character, Oedipus, is the wise, happy, and beloved ruler of Thebes. Though hot-tempered, impatient, and arrogant at times of crisis, he otherwise seems to enjoy every good fortune. But Oedipus mistakenly believes that he is the son of King Polybus of Corinth and his queen. He became the ruler of Thebes because he rescued the city from the Sphinx by answering its riddle correctly, and so was awarded the city's widowed queen, Jocasta. Before overcoming the Sphinx, Oedipus left Corinth forever because the Delphic oracle had prophesied to him that he would kill his father and marry his mother. While journeying to Thebes from Corinth, Oedipus encountered at a crossroads an old man accompanied by five servants. Oedipus got into an argument with him and in a fit of arrogance and bad temper killed the old man and four of his servants.

The play opens with the city of Thebes stricken by a plague and its citizens begging Oedipus to find a remedy. He consults the Delphic oracle, which declares that the plague will cease only when the murderer of Jocasta's first husband, King Laius, has been found and punished for his deed. Oedipus resolves to find Laius' killer, and much of the rest of the play centres upon the investigation he conducts in this regard. In a series of tense, gripping, and ominous scenes Oedipus' investigation turns into an obsessive reconstruction of his own hidden past as he begins to suspect that the old man he killed at the crossroads was none other than Laius. Finally, Oedipus learns that he himself was abandoned to die as a baby by Laius and Jocasta because they feared a prophecy that their infant son would kill his father; that he survived and was adopted by the ruler of Corinth (see video), but in his maturity he has unwittingly fulfilled the Delphic oracle's prophecy of him; that he has indeed killed his true father, married his own mother, and begot children who are also his own siblings.

Jocasta hangs herself when she sees this shameful web of incest, parricide, and attempted child murder, and the guilt-stricken Oedipus then sticks needles into his eyes, blinding himself. Sightless and alone, he is now blind to the world around him but finally cognizant of the terrible truth of his own life (see video).

Electra

As in Aeschylus' Libation Bearers, the action in Electra (Greek Elektra) follows the return of Orestes to kill his mother, Clytemnestra, and her lover Aegisthus in retribution for their murder of Orestes' father, Agamemnon. In this play, however, the main focus is on Orestes' sister Electra and her anguished participation in her brother's plans. To gain admittance to the palace and thus be able to execute his revenge, Orestes spreads false news of his own death. Believing this report, the despairing Electra unsuccessfully tries to enlist her sister Chrysothemis in an attempt to murder their mother. In a dramatic scene, Orestes then enters in disguise and hands Electra the urn that is supposed to contain his own ashes. Moved by his sister's display of grief, Orestes reveals his true identity to her and then strikes down his mother and her lover. Electra's triumph is thus complete. In the play Electra is seen passing through the whole range of human emotions--from passionate love to cruel hatred, from numb despair to wild joy. There is debate over whether the play depicts virtue triumphant or, rather, portrays a young woman incurably twisted by years of hatred and resentment.

Philoctetes

In Philoctetes (Greek Philoktetes) the Greeks on their way to Troy have cast away the play's main character, Philoctetes, on the desert island of Lemnos because he has a loathsome and incurable ulcer on his foot. But the Greeks have discovered that they cannot win victory over Troy without Philoctetes and his wonderful bow, which formerly belonged to Heracles. The crafty Odysseus is given the task of fetching Philoctetes by any means possible. Odysseus knows that the resentful Philoctetes will kill him if he can, so he uses the young and impressionable soldier Neoptolemus, son of the dead Achilles, as his agent. Neoptolemus is thus caught between the devious manipulations of Odysseus and the unsuspecting integrity of Philoctetes, who is ready to do anything rather than help the Greeks who abandoned him. For much of the play Neoptolemus sticks to Odysseus' policy of deceit, despite his better nature, but eventually he renounces duplicity to join in friendship with Philoctetes. A supernatural appearance by Heracles then convinces Philoctetes to go to Troy to both win victory and be healed of his disease.

Oedipus at Colonus

In Oedipus at Colonus (Greek Oidipous epi Kolono) the old, blind Oedipus has spent many years wandering in exile after being rejected by his sons and the city of Thebes. Oedipus has been cared for only by his daughters Antigone and Ismene. He arrives at a sacred grove at Colonus, a village close by Athens (and the home of Sophocles himself). There Oedipus is guaranteed protection by Theseus, the noble king of Athens. Theseus does indeed protect Oedipus from the importunate pleadings of his brother-in-law, Creon, for Oedipus to protect Thebes. Oedipus himself rejects the entreaties of his son Polyneices, who is bent on attacking Thebes and whom Oedipus solemnly curses. Finally Oedipus departs to a mysterious death; he is apparently swallowed into the earth of Colonus, where he will become a benevolent power and a mysterious source of defense to the land that has given him final refuge. The play is remarkable for the melancholy, beauty, and power of its lyric odes and for the spiritual and moral authority with which it invests the figure of Oedipus.

Trackers

Four hundred lines of this satyr play survive. The plot of Trackers (Greek Ichneutai) is based on two stories about the miraculous early deeds of the god Hermes: that the infant, growing to maturity in a few days, stole cattle from Apollo, baffling discovery by reversing the animals' hoof marks, and that he invented the lyre by fitting strings to a tortoise shell. In this play the trackers are the chorus of satyrs, who are looking for the cattle; they are amusingly dumbfounded at the sound of the new instrument Hermes has invented. Enough of the play survives to give an impression of its style; it is a genial, uncomplicated travesty of the tragic manner, and the antics of the chorus were apparently the chief source of amusement.

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Top 140 Sophocles quotes

Look and you will find it - what is unsought will go undetected.
Find
Go
Look
Will
You
Rather fail with honor than succeed by fraud.
Fail
Fraud
Honor
Rather
Succeed
Than
Our happiness depends on wisdom all the way.
Depends
Happiness
Our
Way
Wisdom
When a man has lost all happiness, he's not alive. Call him a breathing corpse.
Alive
Breathing
Call
Corpse
Happiness
He
Him
Lost
Man
Wisdom outweighs any wealth.
Any
Wealth
Wisdom
How dreadful knowledge of the truth can be when there's no help in the truth.
Dreadful
Help
How
Knowledge
Truth
A short saying often contains much wisdom.
Contains
Much
Often
Saying
Short
Wisdom
Quick decisions are unsafe decisions.
Decisions
Quick
Unsafe
A lie never lives to be old.
Lie
Lives
Never
Old
There is a point at which even justice does injury.
Does
Even
Injury
Justice
Point
Which
If we are to keep our democracy, there must be one commandment: 'Thou shalt not ration justice.'
Commandment
Democracy
Justice
Keep
Must
Our
Ration
Shalt
Thou
Without labor nothing prospers.
Labor
Nothing
Prospers
Without
Success is dependent on effort.
Dependent
Effort
Success
Success is
No enemy is worse than bad advice.
Advice
Bad
Enemy
Than
Worse
Reason is God's crowning gift to man.
Crowning
Gift
God
Man
Reason
To him who is in fear everything rustles.
Everything
Fear
Him
Who
One word frees us of all the weight and pain in life. That word is love.
Life
Love
One word
Pain
Us
Weight
Word
For the dead there are no more toils.
Dead
More
Ignorant men don't know what good they hold in their hands until they've flung it away.
Away
Good
Hands
Hold
Ignorant
Know
Men
Until
There is no witness so terrible and no accuser so powerful as conscience which dwells within us.
Accuser
Conscience
Dwells
Powerful
Terrible
Us
Which
Within
Witness
To be doing good deeds is man's most glorious task.
Deeds
Doing
Doing good
Glorious
Good
Good deeds
Man
Most
Task
I would prefer even to fail with honor than win by cheating.
Cheating
Even
Fail
Honor
Prefer
Than
Win
Would
There is no sense in crying over spilt milk. Why bewail what is done and cannot be recalled?
Cannot
Crying
Done
Milk
No sense
Over
Recalled
Sense
Spilt
Why
The dice of Zeus always fall luckily.
Always
Dice
Fall
Luckily
Zeus
In a just cause the weak will beat the strong.
Beat
Cause
Just
Strong
Weak
Will
The gods plant reason in mankind, of all good gifts the highest.
Gifts
Gods
Good
Highest
Mankind
Plant
Reason
It is terrible to speak well and be wrong.
Speak
Terrible
Well
Wrong
There is no success without hardship.
Hardship
Success
Without
Much wisdom often goes with fewest words.
Fewest
Goes
Much
Often
Wisdom
Words
The keenest sorrow is to recognize ourselves as the sole cause of all our adversities.
Cause
Our
Ourselves
Recognize
Sole
Sorrow
Enemies' gifts are no gifts and do no good.
Enemies
Gifts
Good
Best to live lightly, unthinkingly.
Best
Lightly
Live
Wisdom is the supreme part of happiness.
Happiness
Part
Supreme
Wisdom
Not to be born is, past all prizing, best.
Best
Born
Past
It is the merit of a general to impart good news, and to conceal the truth.
Conceal
General
Good
Good news
Impart
Merit
News
Truth
Kindness is ever the begetter of kindness.
Ever
Kindness
Who seeks shall find.
Find
Seeks
Shall
Who
Trust dies but mistrust blossoms.
Blossoms
Dies
Mistrust
Trust
One who knows how to show and to accept kindness will be a friend better than any possession.
Accept
Any
Better
Friend
How
Kindness
Knows
Possession
Show
Than
Who
Will
Men of ill judgment ignore the good that lies within their hands, till they have lost it.
Good
Hands
Ignore
Ill
Judgment
Lies
Lost
Men
Till
Within
There are some who praise a man free from disease; to me no man who is poor seems free from disease but to be constantly sick.
Constantly
Disease
Free
Man
Me
Poor
Praise
Seems
Sick
Some
Who
He who throws away a friend is as bad as he who throws away his life.
Away
Bad
Friend
He
His
Life
Throws
Who
There is no greater evil than anarchy.
Anarchy
Evil
Greater
Greater evil
Than
All a man's affairs become diseased when he wishes to cure evils by evils.
Affairs
Become
Cure
Diseased
Evils
He
Man
Wishes
Alas, how quickly the gratitude owed to the dead flows off, how quick to be proved a deceiver.
Alas
Dead
Deceiver
Flows
Gratitude
How
Off
Owed
Proved
Quick
Quickly
A man growing old becomes a child again.
Again
Becomes
Child
Growing
Growing old
Man
Old
There is some pleasure even in words, when they bring forgetfulness of present miseries.
Bring
Even
Forgetfulness
Miseries
Pleasure
Present
Some
Words
There is an ancient saying among men that you cannot thoroughly understand the life of mortals before the man has died, then only can you call it good or bad.
Among
Ancient
Bad
Before
Call
Cannot
Died
Good
Life
Man
Men
Mortals
Only
Saying
There is no greater evil for men than the constraint of fortune.
Constraint
Evil
Fortune
Greater
Greater evil
Men
Than
I would rather miss the mark acting well than win the day acting basely.
Acting
Day
Mark
Miss
Rather
Than
Well
Win
Would

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Pedro Calderon de la Barca, (born January 17, 1600, Madrid, Spain--died May 25, 1681, Madrid), dramatist..
Hector Berlioz
Hector Berlioz
Hector Berlioz, in full Louis-Hector Berlioz, (born December 11, 1803, La Cote-Saint-Andre, France--died..
Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope, (born May 21, 1688, London, England--died May 30, 1744, Twickenham, near London),..
Pindar
Pindar
Pindar, Greek Pindaros, Latin Pindarus, (born probably 518 bc, Cynoscephalae, Boeotia, Greece--died..
Petrarch
Petrarch
Petrarch, Italian in full Francesco Petrarca, (born July 20, 1304, Arezzo, Tuscany [Italy]--died..
Lord Byron
Lord Byron
Lord Byron, in full George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (born January 22, 1788, London, England--died..
Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan, original name Robert Allen Zimmerman, (born May 24, 1941, Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.),..
Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega, in full Lope Felix de Vega Carpio, byname the Phoenix of Spain or Spanish El Fenix de Espana,..
T.S. Eliot
T.S. Eliot
T.S. Eliot, in full Thomas Stearns Eliot, (born September 26, 1888, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.--died..
Herman Melville
Herman Melville
Herman Melville, (born August 1, 1819, New York City--died September 28, 1891, New York City), American..
Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal, (born June 19, 1623, Clermont-Ferrand, France--died August 19, 1662, Paris), French..
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen, in full Henrik Johan Ibsen, (born March 20, 1828, Skien, Norway--died May 23, 1906,..
David Garrick
David Garrick
David Garrick, (born February 19, 1717, Hereford, Herefordshire, England--died January 20, 1779,..
William Faulkner
William Faulkner
William Faulkner, in full William Cuthbert Faulkner, original surname Falkner, (born September..
Stendhal
Stendhal
Stendhal, pseudonym of Marie-Henri Beyle, (born January 23, 1783, Grenoble, France--died March..
Martin Buber
Martin Buber
Martin Buber, (born February 8, 1878, Vienna--died June 13, 1965, Jerusalem), German-Jewish religious..
Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad, original name Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, (born December 3, 1857, Berdichev,..
Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon, (born May 8 [April 27, Old Style], 1737, Putney, Surrey, England--died January 16,..
Pius XII
Pius XII
Pius XII, original name Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, (born March 2, 1876, Rome, Italy--died..
John Keats
John Keats
John Keats, (born October 31, 1795, London, England--died February 23, 1821, Rome, Papal States..