Arjan, (born 1563, Goindwal, Punjab, India--died May 30, 1606, Lahore, Punjab, Mughal Empire [now in Pakistan]), the Sikh religion's fifth Guru and its first martyr.One of the greatest of the Sikh Gurus, Arjan took over the leadership of the Sikh community from his father, Guru Ram Das, in 1581 and successfully expanded it. He quickly completed the Harimandir, the Golden Temple, at Amritsar, where all Sikhs could worship as they pleased. He expanded that great Sikh centre commercially and became the first Guru to serve as both temporal and spiritual head of the Sikhs. The social reform and missionary..
Gobind Singh, original name Gobind Rai, (born 1666, Patna, Bihar, India--died Oct. 7, 1708, Nanded, Maharashtra), 10th and last Sikh Guru, known chiefly for his creation of the Khalsa, the military brotherhood of the Sikhs.Gobind Singh inherited his grandfather Guru Hargobind's love of the military life and was also a man of great intellectual attainments. He was also the son of the ninth Guru, Tegh Bahadur, who suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. He was a linguist familiar with Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit as well as his native Punjabi. He further codified Sikh..