Notable works: "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", "Treasure Island", "Weir of Hermiston", "The Beach of Falesa", "The Master of Ballantrae", "Kidnapped", "A Child's Garden of Verses", "Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes", "Virginibus Puerisque", "Catriona"
Robert Louis Stevenson Facts
Robert Louis Stevenson, in full Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson, (born November 13, 1850, Edinburgh, Scotland--died December 3, 1894, Vailima, Samoa), Scottish essayist, poet, and author of fiction and travel books, best known for his novels Treasure Island (1881), Kidnapped (1886), Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), and The Master of Ballantrae (1889).
Stevenson was the only son of Thomas Stevenson, a prosperous civil engineer, and his wife, Margaret Isabella Balfour. His poor health made regular schooling difficult, but he attended Edinburgh Academy and other schools before, at age 17, entering Edinburgh University, where he was expected to prepare himself for the family profession of lighthouse engineering. But Stevenson had no desire to be an engineer, and he eventually agreed with his father, as a compromise, to prepare instead for the Scottish bar.
He had shown a desire to write early in life, and once in his teens he had deliberately set out to learn the writer's craft by imitating a great variety of models in prose and verse. His youthful enthusiasm for the Covenanters (i.e., those Scotsmen who had banded together to defend their version of Presbyterianism in the 17th century) led to his writing The Pentland Rising, his first printed work. During his years at the university he rebelled against his parents' religion and set himself up as a liberal bohemian who abhorred the alleged cruelties and hypocrisies of bourgeois respectability.
In 1873, in the midst of painful differences with his father, he visited a married cousin in Suffolk, England, where he met Sidney Colvin, the English scholar, who became a lifelong friend, and Fanny Sitwell (who later married Colvin). Sitwell, an older woman of charm and talent, drew the young man out and won his confidence. Soon Stevenson was deeply in love, and on his return to Edinburgh he wrote her a series of letters in which he played the part first of lover, then of worshipper, then of son. One of the several names by which Stevenson addressed her in these letters was "Claire," a fact that many years after his death was to give rise to the erroneous notion that Stevenson had had an affair with a humbly born Edinburgh girl of that name. Eventually the passion turned into a lasting friendship.
Later in 1873 Stevenson suffered severe respiratory illness and was sent to the French Riviera, where Colvin later joined him. He returned home the following spring. In July 1875 he was called to the Scottish bar, but he never practiced. Stevenson was frequently abroad, most often in France. Two of his journeys produced An Inland Voyage (1878) and Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879). His career as a writer developed slowly. His essay "Roads" appeared in the Portfolio in 1873, and in 1874 "Ordered South" appeared in Macmillan's Magazine, a review of Lord Lytton's Fables in Song appeared in the Fortnightly, and his first contribution (on Victor Hugo) appeared in The Cornhill Magazine, then edited by Leslie Stephen, a critic and biographer. It was these early essays, carefully wrought, quizzically meditative in tone, and unusual in sensibility, that first drew attention to Stevenson as a writer.
Stephen brought Stevenson into contact with Edmund Gosse, the poet and critic, who became a good friend. Later, when in Edinburgh, Stephen introduced Stevenson to the writer W.E. Henley. The two became warm friends and were to remain so until 1888, when a letter from Henley to Stevenson containing a deliberately implied accusation of dishonesty against the latter's wife precipitated a quarrel that Henley, jealous and embittered, perpetuated after his friend's death in a venomous review of a biography of Stevenson.
In 1876 Stevenson met Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, an American lady separated from her husband, and the two fell in love. Stevenson's parents' horror at their son's involvement with a married woman subsided somewhat when she returned to California in 1878, but it revived with greater force when Stevenson decided to join her in August 1879. Stevenson reached California ill and penniless (the record of his arduous journey appeared later in The Amateur Emigrant, 1895, and Across the Plains, 1892). His adventures, which included coming very near death and eking out a precarious living in Monterey and San Francisco, culminated in marriage to Fanny Osbourne (who was by then divorced from her first husband) early in 1880. About the same time a telegram from his relenting father offered much-needed financial support, and, after a honeymoon by an abandoned silver mine (recorded in The Silverado Squatters, 1883), the couple sailed for Scotland to achieve reconciliation with the Thomas Stevensons.
Soon after his return, Stevenson, accompanied by his wife and his stepson, Lloyd Osbourne, went, on medical advice (he had tuberculosis), to Davos, Switzerland. The family left there in April 1881 and spent the summer in Pitlochry and then in Braemar, Scotland. There, in spite of bouts of illness, Stevenson embarked on Treasure Island (begun as a game with Lloyd), which started as a serial in Young Folks, under the title The Sea-Cook, in October 1881. Stevenson finished the story in Davos, to which he had returned in the autumn, and then started on Prince Otto (1885), a more complex but less successful work. Treasure Island is an adventure presented with consummate skill, with atmosphere, character, and action superbly geared to one another. The book is at once a gripping adventure tale and a wry comment on the ambiguity of human motives.
In 1881 Stevenson published Virginibus Puerisque, his first collection of essays, most of which had appeared in The Cornhill. The winter of 1881 he spent at a chalet in Davos. In April 1882 he left Davos; but a stay in the Scottish Highlands, while it resulted in two of his finest short stories, "Thrawn Janet" and "The Merry Men," produced lung hemorrhages, and in September he went to the south of France. There the Stevensons finally settled at a house in Hyeres, where, in spite of intermittent illness, Stevenson was happy and worked well. He revised Prince Otto, worked on A Child's Garden of Verses (first called Penny Whistles), and began The Black Arrow: A Tale of the Two Roses (1888), a historical adventure tale deliberately written in anachronistic language.
The threat of a cholera epidemic drove the Stevensons from Hyeres back to Britain. They lived at Bournemouth from September 1884 until July 1887, but his frequent bouts of dangerous illness proved conclusively that the British climate, even in the south of England, was not for him. The Bournemouth years were fruitful, however. There he got to know and love the American novelist Henry James. There he revised A Child's Garden (first published in 1885) and wrote "Markheim," Kidnapped, and Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The poems in A Child's Garden represent with extraordinary fidelity an adult's recapturing of the emotions and sensations of childhood; there is nothing else quite like them in English literature. In Kidnapped the fruit of his researches into 18th-century Scottish history and of his feeling for Scottish landscape, history, character, and local atmosphere mutually illuminate one another. But it was Dr.Jekyll--both moral allegory and thriller--that established his reputation with the ordinary reader.
In August 1887, still in search of health, Stevenson set out for America with his wife, mother, and stepson. On arriving in New York, he found himself famous, with editors and publishers offering lucrative contracts. He stayed for a while in the Adirondack Mountains, where he wrote essays for Scribner's and began The Master of Ballantrae. This novel, another exploration of moral ambiguities, contains some of his most impressive writing, although it is marred by its contrived conclusion.
Life in the South Seas
In June 1888 Stevenson, accompanied by his family, sailed from San Francisco in the schooner yacht Casco, which he had chartered, on what was intended to be an excursion for health and pleasure. In fact, he was to spend the rest of his life in the South Seas. They went first to the Marquesas Islands, then to Fakarava Atoll, then to Tahiti, then to Honolulu, where they stayed nearly six months, leaving in June 1889 for the Gilbert Islands, and then to Samoa, where he spent six weeks.
During his months of wandering around the South Sea islands, Stevenson made intensive efforts to understand the local scene and the inhabitants. As a result, his writings on the South Seas (In the South Seas, 1896; A Footnote to History, 1892) are admirably pungent and perceptive. He was writing first-rate journalism, deepened by the awareness of landscape and atmosphere, such as that so notably rendered in his description of the first landfall at Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas.
In October 1890 he returned to Samoa from a voyage to Sydney and established himself and his family in patriarchal status at Vailima, his house in Samoa. The climate suited him; he led an industrious and active life; and, when he died suddenly, it was of a cerebral hemorrhage, not of the long-feared tuberculosis. His work during those years was moving toward a new maturity. While Catriona (U.S. title, David Balfour, 1893) marked no advance in technique or imaginative scope on Kidnapped, to which it is a sequel, The Ebb-Tide (1894), a grim and powerful tale written in a dispassionate style (it was a complete reworking of a first draft by Lloyd Osbourne), showed that Stevenson had reached an important transition in his literary career. The next phase was demonstrated triumphantly in Weir of Hermiston (1896), the unfinished masterpiece on which he was working on the day of his death. "The Beach of Falesa" (first published 1892; included in Island Night's Entertainments, 1893), a story with a finely wrought tragic texture, as well as the first part of The Master of Ballantrae, pointed in this direction, but neither approaches Weir. Stevenson achieved in this work a remarkable richness of tragic texture in a style stripped of all superfluities. The dialogue contains some of the best Scots prose in modern literature. Fragment though it is, Weir of Hermiston stands as a great work and Stevenson's masterpiece.
Stevenson was an indefatigable letter writer, and his letters (edited by Sidney Colvin in 1899) provide a lively and enchanting picture of the man and his life. But Colvin omitted many of the most interesting letters and compressed and dovetailed others, with the result that many important facts about Stevenson's emotional life remained unknown until the true text of all the letters was available. Colvin presented Stevenson's letters to Fanny Sitwell to what is now the National Library of Scotland with the proviso that they were not to be opened until 1949; the revealing and often fascinating letters to Charles Baxter, a friend, were deposited in the Yale University Library. Stevenson's biography suffered from his being early canonized; later writers built up a counterpicture of an immoral swaggerer restrained into reluctant respectability by a jealous wife. Access to the crucial letters yielded a picture of a Stevenson who was neither the "seraph in chocolate" against whom Henley protested nor a low-living rake nor an optimistic escapist nor a happy invalid but a sensitive and intelligent writer who had no illusions about life and wryly made the best of a world to which he did not profess to have the key.
Stevenson's literary reputation has also fluctuated. The reaction against him set in soon after his death: he was considered a mannered and imitative essayist or only a writer of children's books. But eventually the pendulum began to swing the other way, and by the 1950s his reputation was established among the more discerning as a writer of originality and power whose essays at their best are cogent and perceptive renderings of aspects of the human condition; whose novels are either brilliant adventure stories with subtle moral overtones or original and impressive presentations of human action in terms of history and topography as well as psychology; whose short stories produce some new and effective permutations in the relation between romance and irony or manage to combine horror and suspense with moral diagnosis; whose poems, though not showing the highest poetic genius, are often skillful, occasionally (in his use of Scots, for example) interesting and original, and sometimes (in A Child's Garden) valuable for their exhibition of a special kind of sensibility.
It is not so much for its beauty that the forest makes a claim upon men's hearts, as for that subtle something, that quality of air that emanation from old trees, that so wonderfully changes and renews a weary spirit.
When it comes to my own turn to lay my weapons down, I shall do so with thankfulness and fatigue, and whatever be my destiny afterward, I shall be glad to lie down with my fathers in honor. It is human at least, if not divine.
The main theme of the novela, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, is about man's dual being and between good and evil. The publication represents a double life of a person who is fed up with his normal life. Dr. Jekyll, a doctor and a well-liked member of a society of successful bachelors, that values his perfect reputation, created Mr. Hyde. His other persona. Dr. Jekyll considered this as an experiment to satisfy his dreams. He also felt repressed by the Victorian population. This is what my essay is going to be about. I would explain Dr. Jekyll's apperance as somewhat a relaxed, middle-aged, large,..
As a student, you are often asked by professors to write interesting and catchy book reports. When it comes to crafting Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde essays, they are about the interesting story told by Robert Louis Stevenson, which is a great addition to any college or high school literature class. This brief novel offers quite an interesting and unique plot, elegant writing styles, vivid characters, and provocative themes that are still relevant nowadays. When it comes to your writing an informative essay, you may need some help for different reasons, such as not having enough time to complete this assignment..
Keywords: sold a slave to my original evil
The first stage of Dr. Henry Jekyll's addiction is Robert Louis Stevenson's nineteenth century novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, addiction is a very important undertone. Stevenson writes "It had been on this area that my new vitality lured me until I fell in slavery. I had fashioned but to drink the glass, to doff simultaneously your body of the known professor, and to assume, like a thick cloak, that of Edward Hyde" (Stevenson 109). In other words, Dr. Henry Jekyll concocts an extremely strong potion in his lab and beverages it. Due to his ingesting the potion,..
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"The Strange Circumstance of Doctor Jekyll and Mr Hyde" is a story occur 19th century London and revolves around the partnership of the reputable, righteous Dr Jekyll and the violent, detestable Mr Hyde. The book was compiled by Robert Louis Stevenson who was simply raised in an extremely strict spiritual family which acquired a idea that man was either good or bad and could not be in between. The strict upbringing is obvious in the reserve as Stevenson includes a amount of questions on whether Dr Jekyll's work (carrying out experiments to separate his personality) is morally right. Stevenson..
Penny Fielding highlights his point of view in Robert Louis Stevenson's Unusual case of Dr . Jekyll and Mr. Hyde the fact that novel paints ‘a damning portrait of society defined by repression and its inevitable twin, hypocrisy'. Fielding also insists afterwards that the relationship between repression and hypocrisy is one particular theme of this novel that may not be overlooked. This kind of opinion may be approved of any truth after reading the novel. Clampdown, dominance and hypocrisy run through the entire story which usually reflect on descriptions of every persona. In this..
Value Island: A great AnalysisValue Island, simply by Robert Louis Stevenson, can be described as tale of adventure filled with interesting characters and set in unique locales. This kind of paper will present background information in both the new and its writer and examine and go over the major personas, themes and motifs. Stevenson was born the sole child of the prosperous middle-class family in Edinburgh, Ireland, in Nov 1850. His father, Jones, was a detrimental engineer who also specialized in the style and development of lighthouses. His mom, Margaret, was the daughter of any well-known..
Hyde in Dr . Jekyll and Mister. Hyde by simply Robert Louis StevensonStevenson presents Hyde in many various ways by explaining the mainfigure of Hyde, in an powerful and detailed style, and providing avariety of language, images and ambiance, which will also help togenerate the image which Hyde stands for. Stevenson explores what goodand evil symbolised at that time in the Victorian world, and howthis leads up to the representation of Hyde.Respectability and reputation were very important factors to considerinside the Victorian society. The Victorian society was very stronglydivided..
Science and medicine in the eighteenth-century started to make amazing progress (Gingras and Demasiado 157). For example , diseases began to prolong the regular lifespan (Olsen 275) and many industrial groups developed more reliable technologies (Olsen 301). While at the beginning of the eighteenth-century, when science and technology began to improve, a large number of believed in the event they led a desired life, then their loss of life would lead to living in Nirvana for everlasting (Olsen 288). In the later part of the eighteenth-century the quick advancements in science and technology..