Robert Browning (May 07, 1812 - December 12, 1889)
Born: 7th May, 1812
Died: 12th December, 1889
Nationality: English
Profession/Occupation: Poet
Region: London, England, Venice, Italy
Notable works: "The Ring and the Book", "Fra Lippo Lippi", "My Last Duchess", "The Pied Piper of Hamelin", "Sordello", "The Bishop Orders His Tomb at St. Praxed's Church", "Pippa Passes", "Rabbi Ben Ezra", "Bishop Blougram's Apology", "Christmas-Eve and Easter-Day"

Robert Browning Facts

Biography

Robert Browning, (born May 7, 1812, London--died Dec. 12, 1889, Venice), major English poet of the Victorian age, noted for his mastery of dramatic monologue and psychological portraiture. His most noted work was The Ring and the Book (1868-69), the story of a Roman murder trial in 12 books.

Life.

The son of a clerk in the Bank of England in London, Browning received only a slight formal education, although his father gave him a grounding in Greek and Latin. In 1828 he attended classes at the University of London but left after half a session. Apart from a journey to St. Petersburg in 1834 with George de Benkhausen, the Russian consul general, and two short visits to Italy in 1838 and 1844, he lived with his parents in London until 1846, first at Camberwell and after 1840 at Hatcham. During this period (1832-46) he wrote his early long poems and most of his plays.

Browning's first published work, Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession (1833, anonymous), although formally a dramatic monologue, embodied many of his own adolescent passions and anxieties. Although it received some favourable comment, it was attacked by John Stuart Mill, who condemned the poet's exposure and exploitation of his own emotions and his "intense and morbid self-consciousness." It was perhaps Mill's critique that determined Browning never to confess his own emotions again in his poetry but to write objectively. In 1835 he published Paracelsus and in 1840 Sordello, both poems dealing with men of great ability striving to reconcile the demands of their own personalities with those of the world. Paracelsus was well received, but Sordello, which made exacting demands on its reader's knowledge, was almost universally declared incomprehensible.

Encouraged by the actor Charles Macready, Browning devoted his main energies for some years to verse drama, a form that he had already adopted for Strafford (1837). Between 1841 and 1846, in a series of pamphlets under the general title of Bells and Pomegranates, he published seven more plays in verse, including Pippa Passes (1841), A Blot in the 'Scutcheon (produced in 1843), and Luria (1846). These, and all his earlier works except Strafford, were printed at his family's expense. Although Browning enjoyed writing for the stage, he was not successful in the theatre, since his strength lay in depicting, as he had himself observed of Strafford, "Action in Character, rather than Character in Action."

By 1845 the first phase of Browning's life was near its end. In that year he met Elizabeth Barrett. In her Poems (1844) Barrett had included lines praising Browning, who wrote to thank her (January 1845). In May they met and soon discovered their love for each other. Barrett had, however, been for many years an invalid, confined to her room and thought incurable. Her father, moreover, was a dominant and selfish man, jealously fond of his daughter, who in turn had come to depend on his love. When her doctors ordered her to Italy for her health and her father refused to allow her to go, the lovers, who had been corresponding and meeting regularly, were forced to act. They were married secretly in September 1846; a week later they left for Pisa.

Throughout their married life, although they spent holidays in France and England, their home was in Italy, mainly at Florence, where they had a flat in Casa Guidi. Their income was small, although after the birth of their son, Robert, in 1849 Mrs. Browning's cousin John Kenyon made them an allowance of GBP100 a year, and on his death in 1856 he left them GBP11,000.

Browning produced comparatively little poetry during his married life. Apart from a collected edition in 1849 he published only Christmas-Eve and Easter-Day (1850), an examination of different attitudes toward Christianity, perhaps having its immediate origin in the death of his mother in 1849; an introductory essay (1852) to some spurious letters of Shelley, Browning's only considerable work in prose and his only piece of critical writing; and Men and Women (1855). This was a collection of 51 poems--dramatic lyrics such as "Memorabilia," "Love Among the Ruins," and "A Toccata of Galuppi's"; the great monologues such as "Fra Lippo Lippi," "How It Strikes a Contemporary," and "Bishop Blougram's Apology"; and a very few poems in which implicitly ("By the Fireside") or explicitly ("One Word More") he broke his rule and spoke of himself and of his love for his wife. Men and Women, however, had no great sale, and many of the reviews were unfavourable and unhelpful. Disappointed for the first time by the reception of his work, Browning in the following years wrote little, sketching and modeling in clay by day and enjoying the society of his friends at night. At last Mrs. Browning's health, which had been remarkably restored by her life in Italy, began to fail. On June 29, 1861, she died in her husband's arms. In the autumn he returned slowly to London with his young son.

His first task on his return was to prepare his wife's Last Poems for the press. At first he avoided company, but gradually he accepted invitations more freely and began to move in society. Another collected edition of his poems was called for in 1863, but Pauline was not included. When his next book of poems, Dramatis Personae (1864)--including "Abt Vogler," "Rabbi Ben Ezra," "Caliban upon Setebos," and "Mr. Sludge, 'The Medium' "--reached two editions, it was clear that Browning had at last won a measure of popular recognition.

In 1868-69 he published his greatest work, The Ring and the Book, based on the proceedings in a murder trial in Rome in 1698. Grand alike in plan and execution, it was at once received with enthusiasm, and Browning was established as one of the most important literary figures of the day. For the rest of his life he was much in demand in London society. He spent his summers with friends in France, Scotland, or Switzerland or, after 1878, in Italy.

The most important works of his last years, when he wrote with great fluency, were the long narrative or dramatic poems, often dealing with contemporary themes, such as Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau (1871), Fifine at the Fair (1872), Red Cotton Night-Cap Country (1873), The Inn Album (1875), and the two series of Dramatic Idyls (1879 and 1880). He wrote a number of poems on classical subjects, including Balaustion's Adventure (1871) and Aristophanes' Apology (1875). In addition to many collections of shorter poems--Pacchiarotto and How He Worked in Distemper (1876), Jocoseria (1883), Ferishtah's Fancies (1884), and Asolando: Fancies and Facts (1889)--Browning published toward the end of his life two books of unusually personal origin--La Saisiaz (1878), at once an elegy for his friend Anne Egerton-Smith and a meditation on mortality, and Parleyings with Certain People of Importance in Their Day (1887), in which he discussed books and ideas that had influenced him since his youth.

While staying in Venice in 1889, Browning caught cold, became seriously ill, and died on December 12. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Legacy

Few poets have suffered more than Browning from hostile incomprehension or misplaced admiration, both arising very often from a failure to recognize the predominantly dramatic nature of his work. The bulk of his writing before 1846 was for the theatre; thereafter his major poems showed his increasing mastery of the dramatic monologue. This consists essentially of a narrative spoken by a single character and amplified by his comments on his story and the circumstances in which he is speaking. From his own knowledge of the historical or other events described, or else by inference from the poem itself, the reader is eventually enabled to assess the intelligence and honesty of the narrator and the value of the views he expresses. This type of dramatic monologue, since it depends on the unconscious provision by the speaker of the evidence by which the reader is to judge him, is eminently suitable for the ironist. Browning's fondness for this form has, however, encouraged the two most common misconceptions of the nature of his poetry--that it is deliberately obscure and that its basic "message" is a facile optimism. Neither of these criticisms is groundless; both are incomplete.

Browning is not always difficult. In many poems, especially short lyrics, he achieves effects of obvious felicity. Nevertheless, his superficial difficulties, which prevent an easy understanding of the sense of a passage, are evident enough: his attempts to convey the broken and irregular rhythms of speech make it almost impossible to read the verse quickly; his elliptical syntax sometimes disconcerts and confuses the reader but can be mastered with little effort; certain poems, such as Sordello or "Old Pictures in Florence," require a considerable acquaintance with their subjects in order to be understood; and his fondness for putting his monologues into the mouths of charlatans and sophists, such as Mr. Sludge or Napoleon III, obliges the reader to follow a chain of subtle or paradoxical arguments. All these characteristics stand in the way of easy reading.

But even when individual problems of style and technique have been resolved, the poems' interest is seldom exhausted. First, Browning often chooses an unexpected point of view, especially in his monologues, thus forcing the reader to accept an unfamiliar perspective. Second, he is capable of startling changes of focus within a poem. For example, he chooses subjects in themselves insignificant, as in "Fra Lippo Lippi" and "Master Hugues of Saxe-Gotha," and treats through them the eternal themes of poetry. This transition from particular observation to transcendental truth presents much the same challenge to the reader as do the metaphysical poets of the 17th century and much the same excitement. Third, because Browning seldom presents a speaker without irony, there is a constant demand on the reader to appreciate exactly the direction of satiric force in the poem. Even in a melodious poem such as "A Toccata of Galuppi's," the valid position must be distinguished from the false at every turn of the argument, while in the major casuistic monologues, such as "Bishop Blougram's Apology," the shifts of sympathy are subtler still.

It has also been objected that Browning uses his poetry as a vehicle for his philosophy, which is not of itself profound or interesting, being limited to an easy optimism. But Browning's dramatic monologues must, as he himself insisted, be recognized as the utterances of fictitious persons drawing their strength from their appropriateness in characterizing the speaker, and not as expressions of Browning's own sentiments. Thus his great gallery of imagined characters is to be regarded as an exhaustive catalog of human motives, not as a series of self-portraits. Nevertheless, certain fundamental assumptions are made so regularly that they may be taken to represent Browning's personal beliefs, such as his Christian faith. In matters of human conduct his sympathies are with those who show loving hearts, honest natures, and warmth of feeling; certainly these qualities are never satirized. He is in general on the side of those who commit themselves wholeheartedly to an ideal, even if they fail. By itself this might suggest rather a naive system of values, yet he also, sometimes even in the same poem, shows his understanding of those who have been forced to lower their standards and accept a compromise. Thus, although Browning is far from taking a cynical or pessimistic view of man's nature or destiny, his hopes for the world are not simple and unreasoning.

In The Ring and the Book Browning displays all his distinctive qualities. He allows a dramatic monologue to each character he portrays--to the man on trial for murder, to his young wife, whom he has mortally wounded, to her protector, to various Roman citizens, to the opposing lawyers, and to the pope, who ultimately decides the accused's fate. Each monologue deals with substantially the same occurrences, but each, of course, describes and interprets them differently. By permitting the true facts to emerge gradually by inference from these conflicting accounts, Browning reveals with increasing subtlety the true natures of his characters. As each great monologue illuminates the moral being of the speaker, it becomes clear that nothing less than the whole ethical basis of human actions is in question. For over 20,000 lines Browning explores his theme, employing an unfaltering blank verse, rising often to passages of moving poetry, realizing in extraordinary detail the life of 17th-century Rome, and creating a series of characters as diverse and fully realized as those in any novel.

During Browning's lifetime, critical recognition came rapidly after 1864; and, although his books never sold as well as his wife's or Tennyson's, he thereafter acquired a considerable and enthusiastic public. In the 20th century his reputation, along with those of the other great Victorians, declined, and his work did not enjoy a wide reading public, perhaps in part because of increasing skepticism of the values implied in his poetry. He has, however, influenced many modern poets, such as Robert Frost and Ezra Pound, partly through his development of the dramatic monologue, with its emphasis on the psychology of the individual and his stream of consciousness, but even more through his success in writing about the variety of modern life in language that owed nothing to convention. As long as technical accomplishment, richness of texture, sustained imaginative power, and a warm interest in humanity are counted virtues, Browning will be numbered among the great English poets.

Top 55 Robert Browning quotes

A minute's success pays the failure of years.
Failure
Minute
Pays
Success
Years
God is the perfect poet.
God
Perfect
Poet
What of soul was left, I wonder, when the kissing had to stop?
Had
I wonder
Kissing
Left
Soul
Stop
Wonder
Take away love and our earth is a tomb.
Away
Earth
Love
Our
Take
Tomb
Who hears music feels his solitude peopled at once.
Feels
Hears
His
Music
Once
Solitude
Who
Ah, but a man's reach should exceed his grasp, Or what's a heaven for?
Ah
Exceed
Grasp
Heaven
His
Man
Reach
Should
One who never turned his back but marched breast forward, never doubted clouds would break, Never dreamed, though right were worsted, wrong would triumph, Held we fall to rise, are baffled to fight better, sleep to wake.
Back
Baffled
Better
Break
Clouds
Doubted
Dreamed
Fall
Fight
Forward
Held
His
Never
Right
Love is energy of life.
Energy
Life
Love
Love is
How good is man's life, the mere living! How fit to employ all the heart and the soul and the senses forever in joy!
Employ
Fit
Forever
Good
Heart
How
Joy
Life
Living
Man
Mere
Senses
Soul
What I aspired to be and was not, comforts me.
Aspired
Comforts
Me
Like dogs in a wheel, birds in a cage, or squirrels in a chain, ambitious men still climb and climb, with great labor, and incessant anxiety, but never reach the top.
Ambitious
Anxiety
Birds
Cage
Chain
Climb
Dogs
Great
Incessant
Labor
Like
Men
Never
Reach
Perhaps one has to be very old before one learns to be amused rather than shocked.
Amused
Before
Learns
Old
Perhaps
Rather
Shocked
Than
Very
Fail I alone, in words and deeds? Why, all men strive and who succeeds?
Alone
Deeds
Fail
Men
Strive
Succeeds
Who
Why
Words
Faultless to a fault.
Fault
Motherhood: All love begins and ends there.
Begins
Ends
Love
Motherhood
What's a man's age? He must hurry more, that's all; Cram in a day, what his youth took a year to hold.
Age
Cram
Day
He
His
Hold
Hurry
Man
More
Must
Took
Year
Youth
Ambition is not what man does... but what man would do.
Ambition
Does
Man
Would
Autumn wins you best by this its mute appeal to sympathy for its decay.
Appeal
Autumn
Best
Decay
Mute
Sympathy
Wins
You
I count life just a stuff to try the soul's strength on.
Count
Just
Life
Soul
Strength
Stuff
Try
Never the time and the place and the loved one all together!
Loved
Loved one
Never
Place
Time
Together
My sun sets to rise again.
Again
Rise
Sets
Sun
What Youth deemed crystal, Age finds out was dew.
Age
Crystal
Deemed
Dew
Finds
Out
Youth
You should not take a fellow eight years old and make him swear to never kiss the girls.
Eight
Fellow
Girl
Him
Kiss
Make
Never
Old
Should
Swear
Take
Years
You
The moment eternal - just that and no more - When ecstasy's utmost we clutch at the core While cheeks burn, arms open, eyes shut, and lips meet!
Arms
Burn
Cheeks
Clutch
Core
Ecstasy
Eternal
Eyes
Just
Lips
Meet
Moment
More
Open
If you get simple beauty and naught else, you get about the best thing God invents.
About
Beauty
Best
Else
Get
God
Naught
Simple
Thing
You
That's the wise thrush; he sings each song twice over, lest you should think he never could recapture the first fine careless rapture!
Careless
Could
Each
Fine
First
He
Lest
Never
Over
Rapture
Should
Sings
Song
Think
White shall not neutralize the black, nor good compensate bad in man, absolve him so: life's business being just the terrible choice.
Bad
Being
Black
Business
Choice
Compensate
Good
Him
Just
Life
Man
Nor
Shall
Terrible
Oh, to be in England now that April's there.
April
England
Now
Oh
It is the glory and good of Art, That Art remains the one way possible Of speaking truth, to mouths like mine at least.
Art
Glory
Good
Least
Like
Mine
Mouths
One-way
Possible
Remains
Speaking
Truth
Way
Earth changes, but thy soul and God stand sure.
Changes
Earth
God
Soul
Stand
Sure
Thy
No, when the fight begins within himself, A man's worth something.
Begins
Fight
Himself
Man
Something
Within
Worth
Tis not what man Does which exalts him, but what man Would do!
Does
Him
Man
Tis
Which
Would
A face to lose youth for, to occupy age With the dream of, meet death with.
Age
Death
Dream
Face
Lose
Meet
Occupy
Youth
Love, hope, fear, faith - these make humanity; These are its sign and note and character.
Character
Faith
Fear
Hope
Humanity
Love
Make
Note
Sign
Ignorance is not innocence but sin.
Ignorance
Innocence
Sin
God's justice, tardy though it prove perchance, Rests never on the track until it reach Delinquency.
God
Justice
Never
Prove
Reach
Rests
Though
Track
Until
Measure your mind's height by the shade it casts.
Casts
Height
Measure
Mind
Shade
Your
The sea heaves up, hangs loaded o'er the land, Breaks there, and buries its tumultuous strength.
Breaks
Land
Loaded
Sea
Strength
Tumultuous
Up
Only I discern Infinite passion, and the pain Of finite hearts that yearn.
Discern
Finite
Hearts
Infinite
Only
Pain
Passion
Yearn
But how carve way i' the life that lies before, If bent on groaning ever for the past?
Before
Bent
Carve
Ever
How
Lies
Life
Past
Way
Oh, the little more, and how much it is! And the little less, and what worlds away.
Away
How
How much
Less
Little
More
Much
Oh
Worlds
Finds progress, man's distinctive mark alone, Not God's, and not the beast's; God is, they are, Man partly is, and wholly hopes to be.
Alone
Beast
Distinctive
Finds
God
Hopes
Man
Mark
Partly
Progress
Wholly
So, fall asleep love, loved by me... for I know love, I am loved by thee.
Am
Asleep
Fall
I am
Know
Love
Loved
Me
Thee
Every one soon or late comes round by Rome.
Every
Late
Rome
Round
Soon
All June I bound the rose in sheaves, Now, rose by rose, I strip the leaves.
Bound
June
Leaves
Now
Rose
Strip
Thou art my single day, God lends to leaven What were all earth else, with a feel of heaven.
Art
Day
Earth
Else
Feel
God
Heaven
Lends
Single
Single day
Thou
Thou art
Were
Better have failed in the high aim, as I, Than vulgarly in the low aim succeed As, God be thanked! I do not.
Aim
Better
Failed
God
High
Low
Succeed
Than
Why comes temptation but for man to meet And master and make crouch beneath his foot, And so be pedestaled in triumph?
Beneath
Foot
His
Make
Man
Master
Meet
Temptation
Triumph
Why
The aim, if reached or not, makes great the life: Try to be Shakespeare, leave the rest to fate!
Aim
Fate
Great
Leave
Life
Makes
Reached
Rest
Shakespeare
Try
I give the fight up: let there be an end, a privacy, an obscure nook for me. I want to be forgotten even by God.
End
Even
Fight
Forgotten
Give
God
Me
Obscure
Privacy
Up
Want

Robert Browning essays

Read more informative topics on our blog
Analysis ON THE Dead
In the day of the Epiphany in 1904 one of the most popular celebrations of Dublin is about to start, the Misses Morkan's party. The Morkan are three women owned by the Irish bourgeoisie who receive in their home some family members and friends to welcome the Christmas' day. The warm of the home welcome the guests who arrive iced from the road. Everything seems to be enjoyment inside: the piano's music is combined with the boogie, the champagne floods the party and the friends enjoy the impressive evening. After dance as soon as of slice the goose comes and amid laughter the guests discuss opera, theater,..
My Last Duchess Poetry Explication British Literature Essay
Robert Brownings poem, My Last Duchess, dramatizes the inner issue of the loudspeaker, the Duke of Ferrara, an Italian aristocrat. The beginning of the poem expresses "Ferrara, " which suggests the presenter is modeled after Alfonso II d'Este, the fifth Duke of Ferrara, and his last Duchess, Lucrezia de' Medici ("Poetry Analysis"). He is conflicted with the faults of his previous partner, and the desire to have change in the approaching marriage to his new fiancee. Inevitably, the struggle handles vitality and jealousy. The Duke speaks to an emissary of his new fiancee about his earlier wife,..
Sonnets From The Portuguese And Great Gatsby English Literature Essay
As for the matter of time, almost a hundred years separates F. Scott Fitzgerald ("the Roaring Twenties" of the XX century in the USA) and Elizabeth Browning (middle of the XIX century, Britain). But that will not really matter, because in both Fitzgerald's novel and Browning's sonnets the primary theme is the theme of love. In the changing times of Fitzgerald the USA's society was such as a boiling cauldron. The First World Battle had just finished and even though America did not suffer from it as much, as Russia, there made an appearance a new special generation of people. These were the veterans..
Violence And Love In The Poem My Last Duchess English Literature Essay
The poem "My Previous Duchess" was initially shared in 1842 and has since become one of the very most popular poems by Robert Browning. It really is written by means of a remarkable monologue, and the character of the presenter is, almost certainly, predicated on Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara, who resided in Italy in the sixteenth century (Marchino). In the poem, the Duke is planning his second matrimony and shows a portrait of his previous Duchess to a silent interlocutor who's there on behalf of the Duke's prospective bride. The Duke's monologue reveals more than the loudspeaker intends and shows..
Women and Population in 'Porphyria's Enthusiast' and 'A Doll's House
The composers, Henrik Ibsen and Robert Browning both task the values of the society by examining the relationship between the ladies in their literature and their particular societies. In the poem 'Porphyria's Fan' by Browning and Ibsen's play A Doll's House, the women challenge the 19th century notions of how women were expected to remain as passive and subservient statistics. The Duchess in 'My Previous Duchess' by Browning and Nora in a very Doll's House withstand mainstream behaviour and perspectives that familiar men to value their honour and reputation above all, which victimised women..
Analysis of Robert Browning's Poetry
Research of Robert Browning's PoetryMany poems must be learning much more than once to be completely understood. Thisisfrequently that one may possibly notice something that wasn't noticed the first timearound. It is also feasible for a composition to be browse once, and still havereceivedthe full meaning. Occasionally poems leave one considering because the poemdoesn't give enough information pertaining to an affirmative conclusion. "MyLastDuchess" provides types of leaving readers unclear of the fullmeaningand unclear of affirmative conclusions...
Essay on Associations Between Women and Men in Browning's Poems
Relationships Between People in Browning's PoemsRobert Browning is described as ‘a love poet person who was acutely aware ofhow people can be separated by jealousy or the transferring oftime'. In studying his beautifully constructed wording, what would you notice regarding thehuman relationships he explores? What is uncovered about the time in whichBrowning was writing?The ‘Love Poet' Robert Lightly browning was born working in london in 1812. In 1846Browning wedded the poet person Elizabeth Barrett and eloped with her toItaly. After Elizabeth's death this individual..
lightly browning
Barrett Browning was one of the most excellent poets of the Victorian Era. She was born in 1809 in London, England and grew up with a great classical university education. In her early teens your woman showed wonderful signs of a genius. Many of her poems were drafted before your woman was simply fifteen years of age. By looking for Elisabeth Barrett Browning your woman was sensitive, but inside this sensitive woman there was a superior psychic and mental being. Browning's first newsletter of poems written was "Essay On Mind, And Other Poems". In 1846 at the age of thirty-seven she..
Contrasting Porphyrias Fan and Not To Blame
Comparing Porphyrias Lover but not To BlameThe two of these poems are very similar in content as they both look at a dominantmen Character who also think they have the right to abuse women. Thoughthey are comparable they do incorporate some differences which were causedwhen in which they are written "Porphyrias Lover" was writtenin 1836 while "Not To Blame" was written much later in the1970's.This impacts the way the poems are produced and the approach we as womenreact to the poetry."Porphyrias Lover" was can be written by Robert Browning in 1836."Porphyrias..
Browning's Presentation of the notion of Love in The Laboratory and My Previous Duchess
Browning's Demonstration of the idea of Love inside the Laboratory and My Last DuchessRobert Browning was born into a wealthy family in 1812 inside the suburbsof London. His education was obviously a mixture of private instruction andinformal training. Browning's daddy had a library of a large number ofbooks, this kind of helped Browning develop a great immense literary knowledge. Whilea boy he was intelligent and he cultivated a style for catalogs anddiscovered many different languages. Browning a new cultured and intellectualoutlook on life, that is shown in the dramatic..
Subscribe to our updates
79 345 subscribers already with us

Related authors

Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, (born December 23, 1804, Boulogne, France--died October 13, 1869,..
Maxim Gorky
Maxim Gorky
Maxim Gorky, also spelled Maksim Gorky, pseudonym of Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov, (born March..
John Dryden
John Dryden
John Dryden, (born August 9 [August 19, New Style], 1631, Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, England--died..
Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg, original name (until 1719) Emanuel Swedberg, or Svedberg, (born January 29,..
Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson, byname of Benjamin Jonson, (born June 11?, 1572, London, England--died August 6, 1637,..
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne, (born July 4, 1804, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.--died May 19, 1864, Plymouth,..
Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno, original name Filippo Bruno, byname Il Nolano, (born 1548, Nola, near Naples [Italy]--died..
Robert Frost
Robert Frost
Robert Frost, in full Robert Lee Frost, (born March 26, 1874, San Francisco, California, U.S.--died..
Thomas Hardy
Thomas Hardy
Thomas Hardy, (born June 2, 1840, Higher Bockhampton, Dorset, England--died January 11, 1928,..
Tillie Olsen
Tillie Olsen
Tillie Olsen, in full Tillie Lerner Goldfarb Olsen, nee Tillie Lerner, (born January 14, 1912, Omaha,..
Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann, (born June 6, 1875, Lubeck, Germany--died August 12, 1955, near Zurich, Switzerland),..
Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe, (born 1660, London, Eng.--died April 24, 1731, London), English novelist, pamphleteer,..
Luis de Camoes
Luis de Camoes
Luis de Camoes, in full Luis Vaz de Camoes, English Luis Vaz de Camoens or Camoens, (born c. 1524/25,..
Nikolay Gogol
Nikolay Gogol
Nikolay Gogol, in full Nikolay Vasilyevich Gogol, (born March 19 [March 31, New Style], 1809, Sorochintsy,..
Catullus
Catullus
Catullus, in full Gaius Valerius Catullus, (born c. 84 bce, Verona, Cisalpine Gaul--died c. 54 bce,..
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll, pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, (born January 27, 1832, Daresbury, Cheshire,..
Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust, (born July 10, 1871, Auteuil, near Paris, France--died November 18, 1922, Paris),..
Johann Gottfried von Herder
Johann Gottfried von Herder
Johann Gottfried von Herder, (born August 25, 1744, Mohrungen, East Prussia [now Morag, Poland]--died..
Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant, in full Henry-Rene-Albert-Guy de Maupassant, (born August 5, 1850, Chateau..
Anna Seward
Anna Seward
Anna Seward, (born December 12, 1742, Eyam, Derbyshire, England--died March 25, 1809, Lichfield,..