Jose Maria de Eca de Queiros, shared pseudonym Carlos Fradique Mendes, (born November 25, 1845, Povoa de Varzim, Portugal--died August 16, 1900, Paris, France), novelist committed to social reform who introduced naturalism and realism to Portugal. He is considered to be one of the greatest Portuguese novelists and is certainly the leading 19th-century Portuguese novelist. His works have been translated into many languages.Eca de Queiros was the illegitimate son of a prominent magistrate. He received a degree in law in 1866 from the University of Coimbra and then settled in Lisbon. There..
Camilo Castelo Branco, (born March 16, 1825, Lisbon, Portugal--died June 1, 1890, Seide), Portuguese novelist whose 58 novels range from Romantic melodramas to works of realism. He is sometimes known as the Portuguese Balzac.Born illegitimately into a family believed to have had a hereditary tendency to insanity, Camilo was orphaned in childhood and brought up by relatives in the austere and primitive Tras-os-Montes region of northern Portugal. Allowed to grow up undisciplined and proud, he studied irregularly at Porto, first medicine and later for the priesthood, but eventually abandoned..