Julio Dinis, pseudonym of Joaquim Guilherme Gomes Coelho, (born Nov. 14, 1839, Porto, Port.--died Sept. 12, 1871, Porto), poet, playwright, and novelist, the first great novelist of modern Portuguese middle-class society. His novels, extremely popular in his lifetime and still widely read in Portugal today, are written in a simple and direct style accessible to a large public.His first attacks of tuberculosis forced him to resign as deputy professor at the medical school of Porto. He had already published several tales of country life in the Jornal do Porto. Retiring to the coastal town of..
Jose Augusto Neves Cardoso Pires, Portuguese writer whose moralistic allegorical works reflected the alienation of both the well-off and those on the margins of society; his large number of national literary awards included the most prestigious, the Fernando Pessoa (b. Oct. 2, 1925, Sao Joao do Peso, near Vila de Rei, Port.--d. Oct. 26, 1998, Lisbon, Port.).
Manuel da Fonseca, (born Oct. 15, 1911, Santiago-do-Cacem, Port.--died March 11, 1993, Lisbon), Portuguese novelist and poet who wrote realistic works about his homeland, the agricultural province of Alentejo.A collegiate boxing champion, da Fonseca came of age during the turmoil of the Spanish Civil War. His literary career began with the publication of the poem "Rosa dos ventos" ("Rose of the Winds") in 1940. His best-known novel is Cerromaior (1943; "Biggest Hill"), which was translated into several languages and filmed by director Luis Rocha in the 1970s. Among his other books are O..
Mario de Sa-Carneiro, (born May 19, 1890, Lisbon, Port.--died April 26, 1916, Paris, France), poet and novelist, one of the most original and complex figures of the Portuguese Modernist movement.Sa-Carneiro studied in Paris at the Sorbonne. His first poems, Dispersao ("Dispersion"), were written in Paris and published in 1914. In the same year he published a novel, A Confissao de Lucio (Lucio's Confession), and back in Portugal he launched the revue Orpheu in 1915 in collaboration with Fernando Pessoa, the greatest literary figure of the generation and a long-time friend and mentor to Sa-Carneiro...
Manuel Ferreira, (born 1917, Gandara dos Olivais, Leiria, Port.--died March 17, 1992, Linda-a-Velha), Portuguese-born scholar and fiction writer whose work centred on African themes.After Ferreira's graduation from the Technical University of Lisbon, military service took him to Cape Verde from 1941 to 1947 and later to Angola, where he spent two years. Ferreira's African experiences resulted in an appreciation of African cultures and traditions.Ferreira's major contribution to African studies lay in his critical books and essays. His study of Cape Verdean culture and literature,..
Jose Maria Ferreira de Castro, (born May 24, 1898, Salgueiros, Port.--died June 29, 1974, Porto), journalist and novelist, considered to be one of the fathers of contemporary Portuguese social-realist (or Neorealist) fiction.Ferreira de Castro drew widely on his nine years' residence in the Amazon jungles of Brazil (1911-19) to vividly depict the Portuguese emigrant experience and the relationships among rubber workers of various regions and social classes in the frontier setting of the Brazilian rain forest. Two novels--Emigrantes (1928; "Emigrants") and A selva (1930; "The Jungle,"..
Vergilio Ferreira, Vergilio also spelled Virgilio, (born Jan. 28, 1916, Melo, Port.--died March 1, 1996, Sintra), Portuguese teacher and novelist who turned from an early social realism to more experimental and inward-looking forms of the novel.Ferreira's literary career began during World War II, and his novels of the 1940s were written in the prevailing social realist (or Neorealist) style that had dominated Portuguese fiction since 1930. Works published during this phase of his career are Onde tudo foi morrendo (1944; "Where All Was Dying") and Vagao J (1946; "Car J"). Beginning with..
Aquilino Ribeiro, in full Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro, (born Sept. 13, 1885, Beira Alta, Port.--died May 27, 1963, Lisbon), novelist, the mainstay of Portuguese fiction writing until the surge of neorealist regionalism that began in 1930.Ribeiro's revolutionary activism forced him to flee Portugal several times between 1908 and 1932. Much of his time in exile was spent in Paris. Although one of his country's most prolific writers, he is less widely read than many others because of his use of regional terminology deriving from the rural northeastern section of the country. Much of Ribeiro's prose..
Francisco Manuel de Melo, (born Nov. 23, 1608, Lisbon, Port.--died Oct. 13, 1666, Alcantara, near Lisbon), Portuguese soldier, diplomat, and courtier who won fame as a poet, moralist, historian, and literary critic in both the Spanish and Portuguese languages.Born of aristocratic parents, he studied classics and mathematics at the Jesuit College of Santa Antao and chose a military career. Since Portugal was then under Spanish rule, he spent some time at the brilliant court of Madrid, where he formed a friendship with the satirist Quevedo y Villegas, the foremost Hispanic literary figure..
Francisco de Sa de Miranda, (born Aug. 28, 1481?, Coimbra, Port.--died May? 1558, Tapada), Portuguese poet who introduced Renaissance poetic forms to Portugal.The illegitimate son of a canon of Coimbra, Goncalo Mendes de Sa, and Dona Ines de Melo, he was made legitimate in 1490. He studied at the university, which was then in Lisbon, and seems to have lived mainly in the capital until 1521, frequenting the royal court and taking part in the poetical improvisations there and, possibly, teaching at the university. The years from 1521 to 1526 he spent in Italy, visiting Milan, Venice, Florence,..